Spatial Data Analysis

Models, Methods and Techniques

Author: Manfred M. Fischer,Jinfeng Wang

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642217203

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 80

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The availability of spatial databases and widespread use of geographic information systems has stimulated increasing interest in the analysis and modelling of spatial data. Spatial data analysis focuses on detecting patterns, and on exploring and modelling relationships between them in order to understand the processes responsible for their emergence. In this way, the role of space is emphasised , and our understanding of the working and representation of space, spatial patterns, and processes is enhanced. In applied research, the recognition of the spatial dimension often yields different and more meaningful results and helps to avoid erroneous conclusions. This book aims to provide an introduction into spatial data analysis to graduates interested in applied statistical research. The text has been structured from a data-driven rather than a theory-based perspective, and focuses on those models, methods and techniques which are both accessible and of practical use for graduate students. Exploratory techniques as well as more formal model-based approaches are presented, and both area data and origin-destination flow data are considered.
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Spatial Econometric Interaction Modelling

Author: Roberto Patuelli,Giuseppe Arbia

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319301969

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 468

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This contributed volume applies spatial and space-time econometric methods to spatial interaction modeling. The first part of the book addresses general cutting-edge methodological questions in spatial econometric interaction modeling, which concern aspects such as coefficient interpretation, constrained estimation, and scale effects. The second part deals with technical solutions to particular estimation issues, such as intraregional flows, Bayesian PPML and VAR estimation. The final part presents a number of empirical applications, ranging from interregional tourism competition and domestic trade to space-time migration modeling and residential relocation.
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Information Technology in Geo-Engineering

Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference (ICITG) Durham, UK

Author: D.G. Toll,H. Zhu,A. Osman

Publisher: IOS Press

ISBN: 161499417X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 312

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Information technology continues to evolve and remains central to all aspects of geo-engineering. Key issues are the effective use and re-use of data, particularly within Building Information Modelling (BIM) frameworks; the use of smart monitoring; artificial intelligence and data processing techniques. All these contribute to improvements in design processes, greater construction efficiency and more cost-effective maintenance. This book presents the proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Information Technology in Geo-Engineering (ICITG 2014), held in Durham, United Kingdom, in July 2014. Topics of the conference cover the full range of information technology applications in geotechnical and geo-environmental engineering, as well as engineering geology. The focus of the papers in this book is on geotechnical data, specifically dealing with issues related to data standards and data exchange. The wider issues of managing data and data sharing through global web portals are also addressed. Also included are papers on artificial intelligence applications, and the use of expert (knowledge-based) systems, artificial neural networks and data mining techniques, particularly as applied to the identification of properties of geo-materials. The use of web-based materials for education, data processing techniques, and the numerical modeling of tunnels, piles and anchors are also discussed. This book will be of interest to the geo-engineering community and is the second in a series of proceedings designed to keep practitioners and researchers abreast of the developments in information technology which relate to their work.
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Remote Sensing

Author: Siamak Khorram,Frank H. Koch,Cynthia F. van der Wiele,Stacy A.C. Nelson

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461431026

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 134

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Remote Sensing provides information on how remote sensing relates to the natural resources inventory, management, and monitoring, as well as environmental concerns. It explains the role of this new technology in current global challenges. "Remote Sensing" will discuss remotely sensed data application payloads and platforms, along with the methodologies involving image processing techniques as applied to remotely sensed data. This title provides information on image classification techniques and image registration, data integration, and data fusion techniques. How this technology applies to natural resources and environmental concerns will also be discussed.
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Urban Growth Analysis and Remote Sensing

A Case Study of Kolkata, India 1980–2010

Author: Basudeb Bhatta

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400746989

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 103

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This book documents research conducted on the analysis of urban growth and sprawl by using remote sensing data and GIS techniques. The research was conducted between 1980-2010 in the city of Kolkata, India. The aim of the research was to use metrics that were less demanding in terms of data and computation than normal metrics. However, it has been found that most of them were inferior in capturing insights of urban sprawl. For this book, some of these metrics have therefore been modified and new ones are proposed. The research focuses on problems associated with the analysis of urban growth by using remote sensing data from a technological perspective.
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Spatio-Temporal Recommendation in Social Media

Author: Hongzhi Yin,Bin Cui

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9811007489

Category: Computers

Page: 114

View: 7185

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This book covers the major fundamentals of and the latest research on next-generation spatio-temporal recommendation systems in social media. It begins by describing the emerging characteristics of social media in the era of mobile internet, and explores the limitations to be found in current recommender techniques. The book subsequently presents a series of latent-class user models to simulate users’ behaviors in decision-making processes, which effectively overcome the challenges arising from temporal dynamics of users’ behaviors, user interest drift over geographical regions, data sparsity and cold start. Based on these well designed user models, the book develops effective multi-dimensional index structures such as Metric-Tree, and proposes efficient top-k retrieval algorithms to accelerate the process of online recommendation and support real-time recommendation. In addition, it offers methodologies and techniques for evaluating both the effectiveness and efficiency of spatio-temporal recommendation systems in social media. The book will appeal to a broad readership, from researchers and developers to undergraduate and graduate students.
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Constant-Scale Natural Boundary Mapping to Reveal Global and Cosmic Processes

Author: Pamela Elizabeth Clark,Chuck Clark

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 146147762X

Category: Science

Page: 116

View: 9737

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Whereas conventional maps can be expressed as outward-expanding formulae with well-defined central features and relatively poorly defined edges, Constant Scale Natural Boundary (CSNB) maps have well-defined boundaries that result from natural processes and thus allow spatial and dynamic relationships to be observed in a new way useful to understanding these processes. CSNB mapping presents a new approach to visualization that produces maps markedly different from those produced by conventional cartographic methods. In this approach, any body can be represented by a 3D coordinate system. For a regular body, with its surface relatively smooth on the scale of its size, locations of features can be represented by definite geographic grid (latitude and longitude) and elevation, or deviation from the triaxial ellipsoid defined surface. A continuous surface on this body can be segmented, its distinctive regional terranes enclosed, and their inter-relationships defined, by using selected morphologically identifiable relief features (e.g., continental divides, plate boundaries, river or current systems). In this way, regions of distinction on a large, essentially spherical body can be mapped as two-dimensional ‘facets’ with their boundaries representing regional to global-scale asymmetries (e.g., continental crust, continental and oceanic crust on the Earth, farside original thicker crust and nearside thinner impact punctuated crust on the Moon). In an analogous manner, an irregular object such as an asteroid, with a surface that is rough on the scale of its size, would be logically segmented along edges of its impact-generated faces. Bounded faces are imagined with hinges at occasional points along boundaries, resulting in a foldable ‘shape model.’ Thus, bounded faces grow organically out of the most compelling natural features. Obvious boundaries control the map’s extremities, and peripheral regions are not dismembered or grossly distorted as in conventional map projections. 2D maps and 3D models grow out of an object’s most obvious face or terrane ‘edges,’ instead of arbitrarily by imposing a regular grid system or using regularly shaped facets to represent an irregular surface.
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Visualizing the Data City

Social Media as a Source of Knowledge for Urban Planning and Management

Author: Paolo Ciuccarelli,Giorgia Lupi,Luca Simeone

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3319021958

Category: Computers

Page: 76

View: 8441

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This book investigates novel methods and technologies for the collection, analysis and representation of real-time user-generated data at the urban scale in order to explore potential scenarios for more participatory design, planning and management processes. For this purpose, the authors present a set of experiments conducted in collaboration with urban stakeholders at various levels (including citizens, city administrators, urban planners, local industries and NGOs) in Milan and New York in 2012. It is examined whether geo-tagged and user-generated content can be of value in the creation of meaningful, real-time indicators of urban quality, as it is perceived and communicated by the citizens. The meanings that people attach to places are also explored to discover what such an urban semantic layer looks like and how it unfolds over time. As a conclusion, recommendations are proposed for the exploitation of user-generated content in order to answer hitherto unsolved urban questions. Readers will find in this book a fascinating exploration of techniques for mining the social web that can be applied to procure user-generated content as a means of investigating urban dynamics.
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Moving Object Detection Using Background Subtraction

Author: Soharab Hossain Shaikh,Khalid Saeed,Nabendu Chaki

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319073869

Category: Computers

Page: 67

View: 7071

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This Springer Brief presents a comprehensive survey of the existing methodologies of background subtraction methods. It presents a framework for quantitative performance evaluation of different approaches and summarizes the public databases available for research purposes. This well-known methodology has applications in moving object detection from video captured with a stationery camera, separating foreground and background objects and object classification and recognition. The authors identify common challenges faced by researchers including gradual or sudden illumination change, dynamic backgrounds and shadow and ghost regions. This brief concludes with predictions on the future scope of the methods. Clear and concise, this brief equips readers to determine the most effective background subtraction method for a particular project. It is a useful resource for professionals and researchers working in this field.
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