Sovereignty or Security?

Government Policy in the Canadian North, 1936-1950

Author: Shelagh Grant

Publisher: UBC Press

ISBN: 077484311X

Category: Political Science

Page: 400

View: 7346

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Sovereignty or Security? explores the numerous and diverse influences responsible for the dramatic change in northern policies during the 1940s and their subsequent impact on the Yukon and Northwest Territories. Apart from concern for the social, economic, and political development of the North, two major issues emerged which became central to the policy initiatives in the war and postwar years -- the question of maintaining optimum sovereign control and of providing adequate defence against possible enemy attack. As a result, Ottawa abandoned its former laissez-faire approach to northern affairs and adopted an active interventionist role, accompanied by unprecedented financial support.
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Sovereignty and Command in Canada–US Continental Air Defence, 1940–57

Author: Richard Goette

Publisher: UBC Press

ISBN: 0774836903

Category: History

Page: 312

View: 9038

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The 1940 Ogdensburg Agreement entrenched a formal defence relationship between Canada and the United States – but was Canadian sovereignty upheld? Sovereignty and Command combines historical narrative with conceptual analysis of sovereignty, command and control systems, military professionalism, and civil-military relations to document the sometimes fractious Canada–US continental air defence relationship. Richard Goette argues that a functional military transition from an air defence system based on cooperation to one based on integrated and centralized command and control under NORAD allowed Canada to retain command of its forces and thus protect Canadian sovereignty.
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Sovereignty and the Sea

How Indonesia Became an Archipelagic State

Author: John G. Butcher,R.E. Elson

Publisher: NUS Press

ISBN: 9814722219

Category: History

Page: 560

View: 4530

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Until the mid-1950s nearly all the waters lying between the far-flung islands of the Indonesian archipelago were as open to the ships of all nations as the waters of the great oceans. In order to enhance its failing sovereign grasp over the nation, as well as to deter perceived external threats to Indonesia’s national integrity, in 1957 the Indonesian government declared that it had “absolute sovereignty” over all the waters lying within straight baselines drawn between the outermost islands of Indonesia. At a single step, Indonesia had asserted its dominion over a vast swathe of what had hitherto been seas open to all, and made its lands and the seas it now claimed a single unified entity for the first time. International outrage and alarm ensued, expressed especially by the great maritime nations. Nevertheless, despite its low international profile, its relative poverty, and its often frail state capacity, Indonesia eventually succeeded in gaining international recognition for its claim when, in 1982, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea formally recognized the existence of a new category of states known as “archipelagic states” and declared that these states had sovereignty over their “archipelagic waters”. Sovereignty and the Sea explains how Indonesia succeeded in its extraordinary claim. At the heart of Indonesia’s archipelagic campaign was a small group of Indonesian diplomats. Largely because of their dogged persistence, negotiating skills, and willingness to make difficult compromises Indonesia became the greatest archipelagic state in the world.
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Arctic Security in an Age of Climate Change

Author: James Kraska

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139499335

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 7129

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This book examines Arctic defense policy and military security from the perspective of all eight Arctic states. In light of climate change and melting ice in the Arctic Ocean, Canada, Russia, Denmark (Greenland), Norway and the United States, as well as Iceland, Sweden and Finland, are grappling with an emerging Arctic security paradigm. This volume brings together the world's most seasoned Arctic political-military experts from Europe and North America to analyze how Arctic nations are adapting their security postures to accommodate increased shipping, expanding naval presence, and energy and mineral development in the polar region. The book analyzes the ascent of Russia as the first 'Arctic superpower', the growing importance of polar security for NATO and the Nordic states, and the increasing role of Canada and the United States in the region.
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Evolution and Devolution

The Dynamics of Sovereignty and Security in Post-Cold War Europe

Author: Tom Lansford

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351768727

Category: Political Science

Page: 242

View: 7666

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This title was first published in 2000: This study bridges the gap in the otherwise rich literature on European security through its analysis of past and present efforts at military integration. Previous works have concentrated on the transatlantic relationship or the intra-European dimension of the effort to create autonomous defense capabilities or even on the ramifications of the changed defense market. Evolution and Devolution combines these themes and subjects. The work integrates these topics against the backdrop of the current scholarly debate over international relations by examining the changing nature of sovereignty and the evolution of the nation state. In the end, the course toward more integration and yet continued participation of the U.S., is shown to be the optimum course for EU member states in light of the security threats and constraints facing national governments.
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Polar Imperative

A History of Arctic Sovereignty in North America

Author: Shelagh D. Grant

Publisher: D & M Publishers

ISBN: 9781553656180

Category: History

Page: 560

View: 3103

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Based on Shelagh Grant’s groundbreaking archival research and drawing on her reputation as a leading historian in the field, Polar Imperative is a compelling overview of the historical claims of sovereignty over this continent’s polar regions. This engaging, timely history examines: the unfolding implications of major climate changes the impact of resource exploitation on the indigenous peoples the current high-stakes game for control over the adjacent waters of Alaska, Arctic Canada and Greenland the events, issues and strategies that have influenced claims to authority over the lands and waters of the North American Arctic, from the arrival of the first inhabitants around 3,000 BCE to the present sovereignty from a comparative point of view within North America and parallel situations in the European and Asian Arctic This book will become a standard reference on Arctic history and will redefine North Americans’ understanding of the sovereign rights and responsibilities of Canada’s northernmost region.
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National Security and International Environmental Cooperation in the Arctic — the Case of the Northern Sea Route

Author: Willy Østreng

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401147604

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 369

View: 5383

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The basic objective of this report is to place the debate about the future of the Northern Sea Route into the larger picture of Arctic politics and the emerging agenda of the Arctic as a developing region in international society. National security and international environmental cooperation, are the objects of study employed, both separately and in various conceptual combinations, to realize this purpose. To help me in this, I was privileged to draw on the profound expertise of my highly esteemed co-authors, Professor Franklyn Griffiths at the University of Toronto and Senior Researchers at IMEMO in Moscow: Raphael Vartanov, Alexei Roginko and Alexander Kolossov. To their cooperative spirit, friendship and solid contributions to this report, ( am deeply indebted. The report is the result of multiple contributions, both in terms of substance and funding, extending far beyond the inputs of the team of authors. The professional input and thorough work 'behind the scene' done by Liv Astrid Sverdrup, Researcher at FNI at an early stage of the project, has been invaluable. Senior Consultant Kjell Moe at the Norwegian Polar Institute also provided valuable comments and improvements to the biological parts of the Introductory chapter, whilst Senior Consultant Ann Skarstad at FNI, worked wonders with the language for those of us not having English as our mother tongue. Claes Lykke Ragner, Deputy head of the (NSROP secretariat, and Dr.
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The Quest for Security

Protection Without Protectionism and the Challenge of Global Governance

Author: Joseph E. Stiglitz,Mary Kaldor

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231527659

Category: Political Science

Page: 432

View: 5317

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The essays in this collection boldly confront the quest for security arising from the social, economic, environmental, and political crises and transformations of our century. Joseph E. Stiglitz and Mary Kaldor begin with an expansive, balanced analysis of the global landscape and the factors contributing to the growth of insecurity. Whereas earlier studies have touched on how globalization has increased economic insecurity and how geopolitical changes may have contributed to military insecurity, this volume looks for some common threads: in a globalized world without a global government, with a system of global governance not up to the task, how do we achieve security without looking inward and stepping back from globalization? In each of their areas of expertise, contributors seek answers to questions about how we achieve protection of those people who are most insecure without resorting to economic, military, or mafia protectionism. Some have suggested that the turmoil in the Eurozone "proves" the deficiencies in the welfare state. This book argues that the superior performance of Scandinavian countries arises from their superior systems of social protection, which allow their citizens to undertake greater risk and more actively participate in globalization. Some suggest that we can address terrorism or transnational crimes through the strengthening of borders or long-distance wars. This book develops the proposition that such approaches have the opposite effect and that only through spreading the human security experienced in well-ordered societies can these dangers be managed. This book also examines how these global changes play out, not only in the relations among countries and the management of globalization, but at every level of our society, especially in our cities. It explores the potential for cities to ensure personal security, promote political participation, and protect the environment in the face of increasing urbanization.
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