Sourcebook in the Mathematics of Medieval Europe and North Africa

Author: Victor J. Katz,Menso Folkerts,Barnabas Hughes,Roi Wagner,J. Lennart Berggren

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 0691156859

Category: Mathematics

Page: 592

View: 857

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Medieval Europe was a meeting place for the Christian, Jewish, and Islamic civilizations, and the fertile intellectual exchange of these cultures can be seen in the mathematical developments of the time. This sourcebook presents original Latin, Hebrew, and Arabic sources of medieval mathematics, and shows their cross-cultural influences. Most of the Hebrew and Arabic sources appear here in translation for the first time. Readers will discover key mathematical revelations, foundational texts, and sophisticated writings by Latin, Hebrew, and Arabic-speaking mathematicians, including Abner of Burgos's elegant arguments proving results on the conchoid—a curve previously unknown in medieval Europe; Levi ben Gershon’s use of mathematical induction in combinatorial proofs; Al-Mu’taman Ibn Hūd’s extensive survey of mathematics, which included proofs of Heron’s Theorem and Ceva’s Theorem; and Muhyī al-Dīn al-Maghribī’s interesting proof of Euclid’s parallel postulate. The book includes a general introduction, section introductions, footnotes, and references. The Sourcebook in the Mathematics of Medieval Europe and North Africa will be indispensable to anyone seeking out the important historical sources of premodern mathematics.
Release

Episodes in the Mathematics of Medieval Islam

Author: J.L. Berggren

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1493937804

Category: Mathematics

Page: 256

View: 1201

DOWNLOAD NOW »

This book presents an account of selected topics from key mathematical works of medieval Islam, based on the Arabic texts themselves. Many of these works had a great influence on mathematics in Western Europe. Topics covered in the first edition include arithmetic, algebra, geometry, trigonometry, and numerical approximation; this second edition adds number theory and combinatorics. Additionally, the author has included selections from the western regions of medieval Islam—both North Africa and Spain. The author puts the works into their historical context and includes numerous examples of how mathematics interacted with Islamic society.
Release

The Symbolism of Medieval Churches

An Introduction

Author: Mark Spurrell

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 042967807X

Category: History

Page: 196

View: 2466

DOWNLOAD NOW »

The Symbolism of Medieval Churches: An Introduction explores the ways in which the medieval church building and key features of it were used as symbols, particularly to represent different relationships within the Church and the virtues of the Christian life. This book introduces the reader to the definition, form, and use of medieval symbols, and the significance that they held and still hold for some people, exploring the context in which church symbolism developed, and examining the major influences that shaped it. Among the topics discussed are allegory, typology, moral interpretation, and anagogy. Further chapters also consider the work of key figures, including Hugh and Richard of St Victor and Abbot Suger at St-Denis. Finally, the book contrasts the Eastern world with the Western world, taking a look at the late Middle Ages and what happened to church symbolism once Aristotle had ousted Plato from the schools. Entering into the medieval mind and placing church symbolism in its context, The Symbolism of Medieval Churches will be of great interest to upper-level undergraduates, postgraduates, and scholars working on Architectural History, Medieval Art, Church History, and Medieval History more widely.
Release

Plato’s forms, mathematics and astronomy

Author: Theokritos Kouremenos

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 3110601486

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 158

View: 6079

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Plato’s view that mathematics paves the way for his philosophy of forms is well known. This book attempts to flesh out the relationship between mathematics and philosophy as Plato conceived them by proposing that in his view, although it is philosophy that came up with the concept of beings, which he calls forms, and highlighted their importance, first to natural philosophy and then to ethics, the things that do qualify as beings are inchoately revealed by mathematics as the raw materials that must be further processed by philosophy (mathematicians, to use Plato’s simile in the Euthedemus, do not invent the theorems they prove but discover beings and, like hunters who must hand over what they catch to chefs if it is going to turn into something useful, they must hand over their discoveries to philosophers). Even those forms that do not bear names of mathematical objects, such as the famous forms of beauty and goodness, are in fact forms of mathematical objects. The first chapter is an attempt to defend this thesis. The second argues that for Plato philosophy’s crucial task of investigating the exfoliation of the forms into the sensible world, including the sphere of human private and public life, is already foreshadowed in one of its branches, astronomy.
Release

Making and Breaking Mathematical Sense

Histories and Philosophies of Mathematical Practice

Author: Roi Wagner

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400883784

Category: Mathematics

Page: 256

View: 9950

DOWNLOAD NOW »

In line with the emerging field of philosophy of mathematical practice, this book pushes the philosophy of mathematics away from questions about the reality and truth of mathematical entities and statements and toward a focus on what mathematicians actually do—and how that evolves and changes over time. How do new mathematical entities come to be? What internal, natural, cognitive, and social constraints shape mathematical cultures? How do mathematical signs form and reform their meanings? How can we model the cognitive processes at play in mathematical evolution? And how does mathematics tie together ideas, reality, and applications? Roi Wagner uniquely combines philosophical, historical, and cognitive studies to paint a fully rounded image of mathematics not as an absolute ideal but as a human endeavor that takes shape in specific social and institutional contexts. The book builds on ancient, medieval, and modern case studies to confront philosophical reconstructions and cutting-edge cognitive theories. It focuses on the contingent semiotic and interpretive dimensions of mathematical practice, rather than on mathematics' claim to universal or fundamental truths, in order to explore not only what mathematics is, but also what it could be. Along the way, Wagner challenges conventional views that mathematical signs represent fixed, ideal entities; that mathematical cognition is a rigid transfer of inferences between formal domains; and that mathematics’ exceptional consensus is due to the subject’s underlying reality. The result is a revisionist account of mathematical philosophy that will interest mathematicians, philosophers, and historians of science alike.
Release

This Saint's for You!

300 Heavenly Allies for Architects, Athletes, Brides, Bachelors, Babies, Librarians, Murderers, Whales, Widows, and You

Author: Thomas J. Craughwell

Publisher: Quirk Books

ISBN: 9781594741845

Category: Religion

Page: 480

View: 1715

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Calling all grave-diggers, astronauts and coin collectors, poets, vegetarians and pregnant women. There are more than 450 patron saints for every type of person, place or situation imaginable. Reverant but fun, This Saint's for You! recounts the lives of the saints, explaining why each has become associated with certain people, places and activities. The book also features 350 gorgeous full-colour holy cards that depict these heavenly allies in all their glory.
Release

The Holocaust in Historical Context

Author: Steven T. Katz

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: N.A

Category: Antisemitism

Page: 720

View: 701

DOWNLOAD NOW »

With this volume, Steven T. Katz initiates the provocative argument that the Holocaust is a singular event in human history. Unlike any previous work on the subject, The Holocaust in Historical Context maintains that the Holocaust is the only example of true genocide--a systematic attempt to kill all the members of a group--in history. In a richly documented, subtly argued, and amazingly wide-ranging comparative historical and phenomenological analysis, Katz explores the philosophical and historiographical implications of the uniqueness of the Holocaust. After he establishes the nature of genocide, Katz examines other occasions of mass death to which the Holocaust is regularly compared from slavery in the ancient world to the medieval persecution of heretics, from the depopulation of the New World to the Armenian massacres during World War I, and from the Gulag to Cambodia. In the first of three volumes, Katz, after setting the groundwork for his analysis with four chapters dealing with essential methodological issues, begins his comparative case studies with slavery in the ancient Greek and Roman world, and continues with such subjects as medieval antisemitism, the European witch craze, the medieval wars of religion, the medieval persecution of homosexuals, and the French campaign against Huguenots. Throughout this investigation of pre-modern Jewish and non-Jewish history, Katz looks at the ways in which the Holocaust has precedents and parallels, and in what way it stands alone as a singular, highly distinctive historical event.
Release

Choice

A Classified Cumulation : Volumes 1-10, March 1964--February 1974

Author: Richard K. Gardner,Phyllis Grumm

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Best books

Page: N.A

View: 8918

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Release