Solution Chemistry

Minerals and Reagents

Author: P. Somasundaran,Dianzuo Wang

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080465074

Category: Science

Page: 228

View: 8154

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Surfactants have been used for many industrial processes such as flotation, enhanced oil recovery, soil remediation and cleansing. Flotation technology itself has been used in industry since the end of the 19th century, and even today it is an important method for mineral processing and its application range is expanding to other areas. This technology has been used in the treatment of wastewater, industrial waste materials, separation and recycling of municipal waste, and some unit processes of chemical engineering. The efficiency of all these operations depends primarily on the interactions among surfactants, solids and media. In this book, the fundamentals of solution chemistry of mineral/surfactant systems are discussed, as well as the important calculations involved. The influence of relevant physico-chemical conditions are also presented in detail. * Introduces the fundamentals of solution chemistry of mineral/surfactant systems and important calculations involved * Discusses the influence of relevant physico-chemical conditions * Presents the relationship between the molecular structure of the flotation regents of solution chemistry and its characteristics
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Atlas and Data of Solid-Solution Equilibria of Marine Evaporites

Author: Eberhard Usdowski,Martin F. Bach

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642602843

Category: Science

Page: 316

View: 1542

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Solid-solution equilibria of marine evaporites are important in a wide range of science and technology. However, the data had not yet been summarized in a form that is at the same time comprehensive and permits to understand how the quinary seawater system builds up from its bounding systems. Thus the goal of the present volume is at the same time scientific and educational. The understanding of solid-solution equilibria of the various systems with respect to dissolution, precipitation and transformation of solids, their application to the evolution of brines, and a fast access to data is a necessary requirement for any modelling, especially in Geoscience. Another goal is to show the avail ability of data. Unfortunately, though solubility data are numereous there are substantial gaps, especially with respect to high temperatures. But also up to about 100 0 C data are missing for some of the systems so that they cannot be described entirely. Based on the present volume further work on the solubili ties of the minerals of marine evaporites may be promoted. The data have been viewed and collected over several years by the first author. The second author entered the preparation of the volume when it was realized that besides graphics and tables a fast access to data was required. Although both authors are responsible for the whole volume, responsibility is weighted somewhat differently for the various parts.
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Carbon Dioxide Equilibria and Their Applications

Author: James N. Butler

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780873716246

Category: Science

Page: 272

View: 3704

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Carbon dioxide, bicarbonate ion, and carbonate ion comprise the most important acid-base system in natural waters, and the equilibria between them regulate the pH of seawater, as well as most rainwater, stream water, river water, and groundwater. Carbon Dioxide Equilibria and Their Applications provides a clear, compact presentation of this topic, which is central to geochemistry and environmental engineering. It emphasizes a rigorous mathematical and thermodynamic basis for calculations and their application to realistic problems. The book's first four chapters present the basic equations, mathematical techniques for visualizing and manipulating them, and data on equilibrium constants and activity coefficients. These are presented in the general context of acid-base titration and solubility of CaCO3. The remaining chapters show how these concepts and techniques are applied to geochemistry and oceanography, in addition to their applications to water conditioning. Specific topics discussed include acid rain, freshwater, seawater, carbonate sediments in the deep oceans, the effects of increased atmospheric CO2 on the oceans, estuarine waters, brines, hydrothermal solutions, pH adjustment, prediction of calcium carbonate saturation, corrosion inhibition, and water softening.
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Surface and Ground Water, Weathering, and Soils

Treatise on Geochemistry, Second Edition

Author: J.I. Drever

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080547596

Category: Science

Page: 644

View: 2718

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Volume 5 has several objectives. The first is to present an overview of the composition of surface and ground waters on the continents and the mechanisms that control the compositions. The second is to present summaries of the tools and methodologies used in modern studies of the geochemistry of surface and ground waters. The third is to present information on the role of weathering and soil formation in geochemical cycles: weathering affects the chemistry of the atmosphere through uptake of carbon dioxide and oxygen, and paleosols (preserved soils in the rock record) provide information on the composition of the atmosphere in the geological past. Reprinted individual volume from the acclaimed Treatise on Geochemistry (10 Volume Set, ISBN 0-08-043751-6, published in 2003). Present an overview of the composition of surface and ground waters on the continents and the mechanisms that control the compositions Provides summaries of the tools and methodologies used in modern studies of the geochemistry of surface and ground waters Features information on the role of weathering and soil formation in geochemical cycles Contains information on the composition of the atmosphere in the geological past Reprinted individual volume from the acclaimed Treatise on Geochemistry, 10 volume set
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Origin and Mineralogy of Clays

Clays and the Environment

Author: Bruce Velde

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3662126486

Category: Science

Page: 335

View: 4361

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Origin and Mineralogy of Clays, the first of two volumes, lays the groundwork for a thorough study of clays in the environment. The second volume will deal with environmental interaction. Going from soils to sediments to diagenesis and hydrothermal alteration, the book covers the whole spectrum of clays. The chapters on surface environments are of great relevance in regard to environmental problems in soils, rivers and lake-ocean situations, showing the greatest interaction between living species and the chemicals in their habitat. The book is of interest to scientists and students working on environmental issues.
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Sediments, Diagenesis, and Sedimentary Rocks

Treatise on Geochemistry, Second Edition

Author: F.T. Mackenzie

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080525228

Category: Science

Page: 446

View: 7983

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This volume covers the formation and biogeochemistry of a variety of important sediment types from their initial formation through their conversion (diagenesis) to sedimentary rocks. The volume deals with the chemical, mineralogical, and isotopic properties of sediments and sedimentary rocks and their use in interpreting the environment of formation and subsequent events in the history of sediments, and the nature of the ocean-atmosphere system through geological time. Reprinted individual volume from the acclaimed Treatise on Geochemistry, (10 Volume Set, ISBN 0-08-043751-6, published in 2003). Comprehensive and authoritative scope and focus Reviews from renowned scientists across a range of subjects, providing both overviews and new data, supplemented by extensive bibliographies Extensive illustrations and examples from the field
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Biogeochemistry of Ancient and Modern Environments

Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Environmental Biogeochemistry (ISEB) and, Conference on Biogeochemistry in Relation to the Mining Industry and Environmental Pollution (Leaching Conference), held in Canberra, Australia, 26 August – 4 September 1979

Author: P. A. Trudinger,M. R. Walter,B. J. Ralph

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3662265826

Category: Science

Page: 726

View: 6247

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This volume contains a selection of papers presented to the Fourth Internation~l Symposium on Environmental Biogeochemistry (ISEB), and a conference on Biogeochemistry in Relation to Mining Industry and Environmental Pollution (Leaching Conference), held in Canberra, Aust ralia on August 26-31 and September 3-4, 1979, respectively. The ISEB were established to provide "a forum for uninhibited exchange of information and ideas among the biological, chemical, atmospheric and geolorical scientists working in the common area of biogeochemistry, encompassing soil and other earth sciences as well as the hydrosphere and atmosphere", By linking the fourth ISEB with the Leachin~ Conference the scope of discussions was extended to encompass the application of biogeochemical processes to the mining industry. This wide-ranging philosophy is reflected in the breadth and diversity of the subjects covered in this book. The published papers are expanded versions of those presented at the meetings. They have all been scrutinized by at least one referee in addition to the editors. About 20% of the contributions to the meetings are not included, either because authors did not wish to publish or because the papers were not accepted by the editors.
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