World Soil Resources and Food Security

World Soil Resources and Food Security

soils (Figure 5.26). These differences are dependent on the balance between
mineralization, nitrification, and NH, and NO, uptake by vegetation and
microorganisms (Figure 5.26). NPGB, is the dominant proton-generating process
in the ...

Author: Rattan Lal

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439844519

Category: Nature

Page: 574

View: 191

Soil-The Basis of All Terrestrial LifeAncient civilizations and cultures-Mayan, Aztec, Mesopotamian, Indus, and Yangtze-were built on good soils, surviving only as long as soils had the capacity to support them. In the twenty-first century, productive soil is still the engine of economic development and essential to human well-being. The quality of
Categories: Nature

World Reference Base for Soil Resources 2006

World Reference Base for Soil Resources  2006

The first official text of the WRB was presented at the 16th World Congress of Soil
Science in Montpellier in 1998 in three volumes : 1. World Reference Base for
Soil Resources . An introduction . 2. World Reference Base for Soil Resources .

Author:

Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org.

ISBN: 9251055114

Category: Nature

Page: 128

View: 368

This publication is a revised and updated version of World Soil Resources Reports No. 84, a technical manual for soil scientists and correlators, designed to facilitate the exchange of information and experience related to soil resources, their use and management. The document provides a framework for international soil classification and an agreed common scientific language to enhance communication across disciplines using soil information. It contains definitions and diagnostic criteria to recognize soil horizons, properties and materials and gives rules and guidelines for classifying and subdividing soil reference groups. Published also in Spanish and Arabic.
Categories: Nature

World Reference Base for Soil Resources

World Reference Base for Soil Resources

It has since been introduced in the revisions of the U.S. soil classification up to
1959, in the Revised Legend of the Soil Map of the World (FAO-UnescoISRIC,
1988) and the Référentiel pédologique (AFES, 1995). They correspond more or
less ...

Author: Jozef A. Deckers

Publisher: ACCO

ISBN: 9033441241

Category: Soils

Page: 165

View: 846

Categories: Soils

Soil as World Heritage

Soil as World Heritage

Our focus was the conservation and improvement of soil as a world heritage and
the need to monitor the effects of management on its quality, productivity and the
provision of environmental services. We reviewed the results of long-term field ...

Author: David Dent

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400761872

Category: Science

Page: 502

View: 764

Soil as World Heritage celebrates a half century of field experiments on the Balti Steppe, in Moldova - where Dokuchaev first described the Typical Chernozem in 1877, protected from the elements by a unique system of shelter belts designed by the great man, and now provisionally listed as the first World Heritage Site for soil. The book presents contributions to the 2012 international symposium attended by researchers, practitioners and policy makers from the European Commission and countries as diverse as Belarus, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy , the Netherlands, Romania, Russia, Ukraine, United Kingdom, USA and, of course, Moldova itself. The experimental data demonstrate the damage caused by human activity to the productivity and integrity of the black earth and, also, ways to restore its fertility. Results from even longer-established trials worldwide also demonstrate that agricultural practices are driving global warming, leaching of nutrients, pollution of water resources, diversion of rainfall away from replenishment of soil and groundwater to destructive runoff, and destroying soil organic matter and biodiversity. These are pressing issues for our generation and will press harder on future generations. Long-term field experiments, and the scientific skills and experience that they nurture, will be more and more valuable as a foundation and focus for interdisciplinary teams studying the effects of farming practices on the soil and soil life so as to devise a sustainable alternative. Europe-wide and worldwide contributions also discuss economic incentives - carbon and green water credits - which themselves require robust supporting data, and legislative aspects of promoting more sustainable farming systems. The outcomes of the conference include recommendations for institutional support for sustainable farming and a draft of the law on land and soil management for the Parliament of Moldova.
Categories: Science

Major Soil Groups of the World

Major Soil Groups of the World

These soils are affected by movements that we shall examine below. They are
black, clayey and spectacular in many ways. They represent 2.5 per cent of the
soils of the world or 335 million ha, according to FAO. Present in nearly all
latitudes, ...

Author: Jean-Paul Legros

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781466502437

Category: Science

Page: 478

View: 691

This profusely illustrated book gives an exhaustive account of the principal types of soils of our planet. The "progressive descent of weathering fronts" model, recognized and used by eminent international scientists is the guiding principle of choice to link the observations and to give the reader a synthetic and coherent view of the differentiati
Categories: Science

World Reference Base for Soil Resources

World Reference Base for Soil Resources

At this stage 20 major soil groupings were identified on the basis of their
representativeness of the world's soil cover , viz . organic , anthric , vertic , andic ,
gleyic , stagnic , ferralic , podzic , luvic , nitic , lixic , fluvic , gypsic , calcic , salic ,
sodic ...

Author:

Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org.

ISBN: 9251041415

Category: Soil horizons

Page: 88

View: 609

Key to the reference soil groups; Diagnostic horizonts, properties and materials; Diagnostic horizons, Albic horizon; Andic horizon; Anthraquic horizon; Anthropedogenic horizons, Argic horizon; Calcic horizon; Cambic horizon; Cryic horizon; Duric horizon; Ferralic horizon; Ferric horizon; Folic horizon; Fragic horizon; Fulvic horizon; Gypsic horizon; Histic horizon; Hydragric horizon; Hortic horizon; Irragric horizon; Melanic horizon; Mollic horizon; Natric horizon; Nitic horizon; Ochric horizon; Petrocalcic horizon;petroduric horizon; Petrogypsic horizon; Petroplinthic horizon; Plaggic horizon; Plinthic horizon; Salic horizon; Spodic horizon; Sulfuric horizon; Takyric horizon; Terric horizon; Umbric horizon; Vertic horizon; Vitric horizon; Yermic horizon; Diagnostic properties; Abrupt textural change; Albeluvic tonguing, Alic properties; Aridic properties; Continuous hard rock; Ferralic properties; Geric properties; Gleyic properties; Permafrost; Secondary carbonates; Stagnic properties; Strongly humic properties; Diagnostic materials; Anthropogeomorphic soil material; Calcaric soil material; Fluvic soil material; Gypsiric soil material; Organic soil material; Sulfidic soil material; Tephric soil material; Classifying subdivisions of the reference soil groups.
Categories: Soil horizons

World Soil Resources

World Soil Resources

Chapter 1 Soil : a basic resource Almost all food for the people in the world must
be produced from the soil . Some 2 % of calories and 7 % of protein comes from
waterbodies , but inland and coastal waters can be strongly affected by how soils
 ...

Author: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org.

ISBN: 9251033943

Category: Soil geography

Page: 64

View: 598

Categories: Soil geography

Soils and the Environment

Soils and the Environment

The world is a glorious bounty. There is more food than can be eaten if we would
limit our numbers to those who can be cherished, there are more beautiful girls
than can be dreamed of, more children than we can love, more laughter than can
 ...

Author: Gerald Olson

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401169387

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 178

View: 850

As we enter the last decades of the twentieth century, many persistent and perplexing problems continue to afflict humankind. Thus it is appropriate to address, in a new group of books, two of the monumental issues that haunt people throughout the world. Soils and the Environment by Professor Gerald W. Olson is the first book in this new publish ing program on Environment, Energy, and Society. The purpose of all these books will be to explore the many interrelated facets of these topics and to provide guidance for deal ing with problems and offering ideas for their solutions. Environment and energy are twin problems that occupy what many believe to be opposite sides of a two-headed coin. They are often viewed as being antithetical and incompatible. The various books in this program will try to place in perspective the options that are available to those who design policy and plan and manage societal matters. Typical of books being developed currently are ones on coal resources, environmental geoscience, environmental pollution, land-use planning, nuclear energy, mineral resources, and water resources. However, because soils are at the very heart of civilization and provide the building block for human sustenance, it is fitting to inaugurate this series with Dr. Olson's timely analysis of soils. Unfortu nately, these most vital resources seen. to have low priority in many farming enterprises, urbanization projects, deforestation schemes, and mining and developmental terrain changes.
Categories: Juvenile Nonfiction

Soils Stones and Symbols Cultural Perceptions of the Mineral World

Soils Stones and Symbols Cultural Perceptions of the Mineral World

WORLD. Nicole. Boivin. –. 1. –. At present writing, the power of the mineral world
is difficult to ignore. Current global politics are dominated by conflicts that,
regardless of stated claims, often have much to do with mineral resources, and in
 ...

Author: Nicole Boivin

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781134057429

Category: Law

Page: 250

View: 705

Ethnographic and archaeological records feature a rich body of data suggesting that understandings of the mineral world are in fact both culturally variable and highly diverse. Soils, Stones and Symbols highlights studies from the fields of anthropology, archaeology and philosophy that demonstrate that not all individuals and societies view minerals as commodities to be exploited for economic gain, or as passive objects of disembodied scientific enquiry. In visiting such diverse contexts as contemporary India, colonial-period Australia and prehistoric Europe and the Americas, the papers in this volume demonstrate that in pre-industrial societies, minerals are often symbolically meaningful, ritually powerful, and deeply interwoven into not just economic and material, but also social, cosmological, mythical, spiritual and philosophical aspects of life. In addressing the theme of the mineral world, this book is not only unique within the social and geo-sciences, but also at the forefront of recent attempts to demonstrate the importance of materiality to processes of human cognition and sociality. It draws upon theoretical developments relating to meaning, experience, the body, and material culture to demonstrate that studies of rock art, landscapes, architecture, technology and resource use are all linked through the minerals that constantly surround us and are the focus of our never-ending attempts to understand and transform them.
Categories: Law

Red Lateritic Soils

Red   Lateritic Soils

RED AND LATERITIC SOILS : AN OVERVIEW J. Sehgal National Bureau of Soil
Survey and Land - Use Planning , Nagpur 440 010 , India INTRODUCTION
World's present population of over five billion is expected to double by the middle
of ...

Author: J. L. Sehgal

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 9054107715

Category: Acid soils

Page: 453

View: 99

Categories: Acid soils

Soils of Volcanic Regions in Europe

Soils of Volcanic Regions in Europe

Third level modifiers for the major soil groups of Andosols, Phaeozems and
Podzols. Working Paper. FAO/AGLS. Rome Driessen P, Deckers J, Spaargaren
O, Nachtergaele F (eds) (2001). Lecture notes on the major soils of the world.

Author: Ólafur Arnalds

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540487111

Category: Science

Page: 644

View: 212

This book compiles information gained by an EU research network over six years of research on European volcanic soils. It gives comprehensive coverage of soils in volcanic regions within Europe, dealing with most aspects of modern day soil science. New methodology is introduced and the synthesis of the research casts a new light on soils with andic soil properties.
Categories: Science

The Earth

The Earth

The Science Stuff The top few centimeters ( an inch or so ) of the earth are one of
the world's most valuable resources . An abundance of good soil is essential for
crops of food that feed the world . Soil forms slowly over a period of time as big ...

Author: Tom DeRosa

Publisher: New Leaf Publishing Group

ISBN: 0890515913

Category: Religion

Page: 88

View: 362

Learn how to identify different rocks and what they reveal about Earth's history an discover insights about earthquakes and volcanoes, and what they tell us about the structure of the planet.
Categories: Religion

Global Climate Change and Tropical Ecosystems

Global Climate Change and Tropical Ecosystems

Recent concerns about rising levels of atmospheric CO2 have directed attention
to carbon stocks in soils of the world ( Post et al . , 1982 ; Eswaran et al . , 1993 ;
Sombroek et al . , 1993 ; Batjes , 1996 ) and to their role as both a source and ...

Author: John M. Kimble

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1566704855

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 456

View: 536

Tropical ecosystems - the regions between the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn - play an important role in global processes, economic issues, and political concerns. In their natural state, tropical ecosystems support a large quantity of above- and below-ground biomass, and constitute a major part of the terrestrial carbon pool. Conversion of the natural ecosystem to agriculture and forestry ecosystems disturbs this ecological balance. Global Climate Change and Tropical Ecosystems presents data on carbon pool fluxes from case studies in 12 countries in tropical regions. The chapters cover: Characteristics of tropical ecosystems Soil and biotic carbon pools Impacts of land use and soil management Slash-and-burn practices Crop residue and fertility management This volume adds to the understanding of pedospheric processes in tropical ecosystems and how to better use soils as a sink for carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. With Global Climate Change and Tropical Ecosystems you will understand the link between soil productivity, environmental quality and the global carbon cycle, not only in these ecologically sensitive regions but worldwide.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Soils and Global Change

Soils and Global Change

CHAPTER 1 World Soils and Greenhouse Effect : An Overview R. Lal , J. Kimble ,
E. Levine , and C. Whitman I. Introduction The average temperature of the earth's
surface , currently at about 15 ° C , is controlled by the gaseous composition of ...

Author: John M. Kimble

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 156670118X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 464

View: 207

The pedosphere - the thin mantel of soil on the earth's surface - plays a potentially crucial role in climate and climate change . The carbon storage of soils is the second largest in the biosphere, making the dynamics of soil organic carbon an important issue that must be understood if we are to fully comprehend global change. This new book examines the importance of soils and their relationship to global change, specifically to the greenhouse effect. Soils and Global Change presents a state-of-the-art compendium of our present knowledge of soils. This up-to-date information source enables readers to delve into the literature about soils and climate change and examine soils in both natural and managed environments.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Forest Soils

Forest Soils

Rocks, minerals, and soils are components of the lithosphere (upper part of the
earth's crust). Rocks and minerals provide raw materials (parent materials) for
development of most of the soils of the world. The processes of disintegration ...

Author: Khan Towhid Osman

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783319025414

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 217

View: 793

Forest soil characteristics are not only unique but their interpretation also differs from cropland soils. Just as there are diverse forest types, there are many soil variants that need different management. Today, forest plantations are being intensively managed for profitable timber, pulpwood and energy production. Site selection, species selection, site productivity evaluation, silvicultural treatments, and soil amendments need crucial soil information. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the physical, chemical and biological properties of forest soils and their implications on forest vegetation. Topics discussed include: major forest types of the world and their associated soils; forest biomass and nutrient dynamics; organic matter turnover and nutrient recycling; forest soil disturbance; forest soil and climate change; and forest soil management and silvicultural treatments.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Soils on a Warmer Earth

Soils on a Warmer Earth

Chapter 12 CHANGES IN SOIL RESOURCES IN RESPONSE TO A
GRADUALLY RISING SEA-LEVEL H. Brammer* and R. Brinkman** * Formerly
FAO Agricultural Development Adviser in Bangladesh. Present address: 37
Kingsway Court, ...

Author: H.W. Scharpenseel

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080869882

Category: Science

Page: 273

View: 582

The theme of this book is a far reaching one and should attract great interest, both in industrialized as well as in less developed countries. Although the question of climate change and its effects on soil productivity is overshadowed by so many current events, it is almost certain that this subject will remain on the international agenda for the years to come; not only as science and research are concerned but also in relation to development policies, agricultural policies and others, especially since poor, rich, developed and developing countries are equally threatened by these problems.
Categories: Science

The Changing Carbon Cycle

The Changing Carbon Cycle

A Global Analysis John R. Trabalka, David E. Reichle ... References Aina, P.O.
1979. Soil changes resulting from long-term management practices in western
Nigeria. Soil Sci. ... Drainage of organic soils as a factor in the world carbon cycle
.

Author: John R. Trabalka

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781475719154

Category: Science

Page: 592

View: 874

The United States Government, cognizant of its responsibilities to future generations, has been sponsoring research for nine years into the causes, effects, and potential impacts of increased concentrations of carbon dioxide (C0 ) in the atmosphere. Agencies such as the National Science Foun 2 dation, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) cooperatively spent about $100 million from FY 1978 through FY 1984 directly on the study of CO • The DOE, as the 2 lead government agency for coordinating the government' s research ef forts, has been responsible for about 60% of these research efforts. William James succinctly defined our purpose when he stated science must be based upon " ... irreducible and stubborn facts." Scientific knowledge can and will reduce the present significant uncertainty sur rounding our understanding of the causes, effects, and potential impacts of increasing atmospheric CO2• We have come far during the past seven years in resolving some underlyinig doubts and in narrowing the ranges of disagreement. Basic concepts have become less murky. Yet, much more must be accomplished; more irreducible and stubborn facts are needed to reduce the uncertainties so that we can improve our knowledge base. Uncertainty can never be reduced to zero. However, with a much improved knowledge base, we will be able to learn, under stand, and be in a position to make decisions.
Categories: Science

Issues in Earth Sciences Geology and Geophysics 2011 Edition

Issues in Earth Sciences  Geology  and Geophysics  2011 Edition

“The present work concerns the distribution often heavy metals (Sb, As, Cd, Cr,
Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in the surrounding agricultural soils of the world
largest antimony (Sb) mine in China. The objective is to explore the degree and
spatial ...

Author:

Publisher: ScholarlyEditions

ISBN: 9781464963391

Category: Science

Page: 4304

View: 458

Issues in Earth Sciences, Geology, and Geophysics: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Earth Sciences, Geology, and Geophysics. The editors have built Issues in Earth Sciences, Geology, and Geophysics: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Earth Sciences, Geology, and Geophysics in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Earth Sciences, Geology, and Geophysics: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.
Categories: Science