A Soil Technological Study on Effectuating and Maintaining Adequate Playing Conditions of Grass Sports Fields

Author: A. L. M. van Wijk

Publisher: Bernan Press(PA)

ISBN: N.A

Category: Athelic fields

Page: 124

View: 1525

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Playing conditions of grass sports fields have been studied focusing on top layer soil strength meeting the requirements of usage. In a field investigation a reproducible soil strength criterion was found from firmness appraisals and simultaneous measurements of soil strength. From relationships between soil strength and soil water pressure head for differently composed and compacted sandy top layers, pressure head and bulk density values were derived that limit playing conditions. The incompatibility between top layer compaction required for adequate playing conditions and grass viability has been examined. The oxygen status of grass sports field soils was compared with oxygen diffusion rates and concentrations mentioned in literature to limit grass growth. To interpret the field measurements, oxygen distributions at different oxygen consumption rates for various combinations of top layer and subsoil as well as for different rooting depths were calculated. From laboratory investigations detailed information was obtained about compaction susceptibility of differently composed and wetted sands and about the contribution of texture, organic matter, pressure head, bulk density and grass roots to soil strength. To find out best top layer-subsoil-drainage combinations, model research was done. Taking steady-state conditions for soil water flow, the top layer thicknesses required to prevent ponding on differently permeable subsoils were derived. To illustrate the effects of type of top layer, subsoil and drainage on soil water conditions in the top layer, pressure head profiles have been calculated. The same effects have been studied by using an electronic analog that simulates the non-steady-state flow of water in soil. From the simulated course of the pressure head in the top layer, duration and frequency of inadequate playing conditions have been established with the aid of pressure head and density limits obtained from the field and laboratory measurements. Finally, a number of conclusions and recommendations to effectuate and maintain adequate playing conditions of grass sports fields are given.
Release

Rootzones, Sands and Top Dressing Materials for Sports Turf

Author: Stephen W. Baker

Publisher: STRI

ISBN: 9781873431603

Category: Athletic fields

Page: 112

View: 2221

DOWNLOAD NOW »

The Sports Turf Research institute has had an extensive programme of research, funded primarily by the governing bodies of individual sports, to examine the most appropriate material for construction and maintenance work.
Release

The Soil Underfoot

Infinite Possibilities for a Finite Resource

Author: G. Jock Churchman,Edward R. Landa

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 146657156X

Category: Nature

Page: 472

View: 2556

DOWNLOAD NOW »

The largest part of the world’s food comes from its soils, either directly from plants, or via animals fed on pastures and crops. Thus, it is necessary to maintain, and if possible, improve the quality—and hence good health—of soils, while enabling them to support the growing world population. The Soil Underfoot: Infinite Possibilities for a Finite Resource arms readers with historical wisdom from various populations around the globe, along with current ideas and approaches for the wise management of soils. It covers the value of soils and their myriad uses viewed within human and societal contexts in the past, present, and supposed futures. In addition to addressing the technical means of maintaining soils, this book presents a culturally and geographically diverse collection of historical attitudes to soils, including philosophical and ethical frameworks, which have either sustained them or led to their degradation. Section I describes major challenges associated with climate change, feeding the increasing world population, chemical pollution and soil degradation, and technology. Section II discusses various ways in which soils are, or have been, valued—including in film and contemporary art as well as in religious and spiritual philosophies, such as Abrahamic religions, Maori traditions, and in Confucianism. Section III provides stories about soil in ancient and historic cultures including the Roman Empire, Greece, India, Japan, Korea, South America, New Zealand, the United States, and France. Section IV describes soil modification technologies, such as polymer membrane barriers, and soil uses outside commercial agriculture including the importance of soils for recreation and sports grounds. The final section addresses future strategies for more effective sustainable use of soils, emphasizing the biological nature of soils and enhancing the use of "green water" retained from rainfall.
Release

Sands for Sports Turf Construction and Maintenance

Author: Stephen W. Baker

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Athletic fields

Page: 58

View: 7905

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Sand materials are important for golf courses, bowling greens and winter games pitches. As well as providing a review of the use of sands on sports turf areas, this work gives detailed specifications of the most suitable material for the varied applications for which sand is needed. As such it includes specifications for rootzone sands, top dressing material, blinding, slit drainage and bunker sands. The booklet is aimed at users of sands, including greenkeepers, groundsmen and technical managers of turf areas, and sand suppliers.
Release

Turfgrass

Author: Donald V. Waddington,Robert N. Carrow,Robert C. Shearman

Publisher: Crop Science Society of Amer

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 805

View: 8467

DOWNLOAD NOW »

"Beginning with a look at the turfgrass industry, introductory chapters cover historical aspects of research and education, current status of the industry, and artificial turf. A turfgrass physiology section focuses on ecological aspects, energy relations and carbohydrate partitioning, and stresses. The third section emphasizes soils and amendments, fertilization, and irrigation. A management section treats efficient maintenance, IPM, and plant growth regulators. The last section addresses research techniques related to the field and controlled-environment research, diseases, insects, weeds, and breeding. "
Release