This book is an invaluable resource for scholars, researchers and policy makers of community and economic development, as well as rural sociologists and planners looking to understand the opaque process of social capital formation in ...
Author: John M. Halstead
In Social Capital at the Community Level, John Halstead and Steven Deller examine social capital formation beyond the individual level through a variety of disciplines: planning, economics, regional development, sociology, as well as non-traditional approaches like engineering and built environmental features. The notion of social capital in community and economic development has become a focus of intense interest for policy makers, practitioners, and academics. The notion is that communities with higher levels of social capital (networks, trust, and norms) will prosper both economically and socially. In a practical sense, how do communities use the notion of social capital to build policies and strategies to move their community forward? Are all forms of social capital the same and do all have a positive influence on the community? To help gain insights into these fundamental questions Social Capital at the Community Level takes a holistic, interdisciplinary or systems approach to thinking about the community. While those who study social capital will acknowledge the need for an interdisciplinary approach, most stay within their disciplinary silos. One could say there is strong bonding social capital within disciplines but little bridging social capital across disciplines. The contributors to Social Capital at the Community Level have made an attempt to build that bridging social capital. While disciplinary biases and research approaches are evident there is significant overlap about how people with different disciplinary perspectives think about social capital and how it can be applied at the community level. This can be from neighborhoods addressing a localized issue to a global response to a natural disaster. This book is an invaluable resource for scholars, researchers and policy makers of community and economic development, as well as rural sociologists and planners looking to understand the opaque process of social capital formation in communities.
As a community-level attribute, social capital has been increasingly linked to community well-being and local development.
Author: Nicole Renay Grewe
Recent social capital literature has extended the concept from an individual attribute to a characteristic of communities. As a community-level attribute, social capital has been increasingly linked to community well-being and local development. In light of this, this study examines whether and how community-based social capital is associated with community and economic development. Adopting Portes and Landolt's theoretical framework, community-based social capital is conceptualized and measured according to three forms - enforceable trust, value introjection, and bounded solidarity (2000). Community development is defined by process; measurement is limited to two integral community development principles - citizen participation and knowledge generation. Economic development is also defined by process and is measured according to a community's level of economic development activity. Quantitative analysis is based on data collected from 98 Iowa communities in 1994 and 1997. Findings indicate community-based social capital forms contribute to community and economic development. In particular, community-based social capital in the form of value introjection is consistently associated with local development. Findings are discussed within the context of implications for theory, future research, and local development practice.
The book is organized in three parts: Part 1. Emerging directions in social capital research. This section highlights novel directions in social capital research.
Author: Ichiro Kawachi
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This book is a follow up to Social Capital and Health (2008), edited by Kawachi, Subramanian & Kim. Global Perspectives on Social Capital and Health provides a timely update on emerging topics in a fast-growing field, and features contributions from an outstanding international team of scholars, selected from a diverse range of disciplinary backgrounds including: social epidemiology, medical geography, social psychology, social welfare and gerontology, pediatrics, political science, economics, and medical sociology. The book is organized in three parts: Part 1. Emerging directions in social capital research. This section highlights novel directions in social capital research. These include: a) novel settings for conducting research on social capital (workplaces, schools), b) new approaches for causal inference in social capital (instrumental variable analysis, twin fixed effects designs); c) cutting-edge directions for social capital research, including studies of the origins of community social capital, the use of social network analysis to investigate social capital, and novel methods for investigating the link between social capital and crime. Part 2. Social capital and health policy. The three chapters in this section highlight implications of social capital for interventions and health policy. Part 3. Social capital and health in global perspective The four chapters in this section look at research on social capital and health from a global perspective. The authors summarize the empirical studies on social capital and health conducted in each country/region, or each population group; discuss how the concept of social capital “translates” across different cultures; and identify challenges and future directions for research.
This book defines the field of social capital and health.
Author: Sherman Folland
Publisher: World Scientific
This book defines the field of social capital and health. Over the last two decades, there has been a recognition of the importance of social capital (usually defined as ties in the community, attachment to the community, and participation in community activities) and its impact on the health of those in that community. The purpose of this book is to show the growth in the field of social capital and health and to expose readers to a variety of approaches in order to think about and model the question of how health can be improved by investments in community social capital as well as by individual social capital. An outstanding set of papers will be presented by authors from the United States, as well as from Europe and Asia. These papers are cutting-edge and explore the mechanisms through which social capital affects health. The papers also present the most recent empirical work and discuss the policy implications of their findings. Without a doubt, this will be a landmark book which will make the study of social capital and its impact on health a major area of research in the coming decade. Contents:Introduction to the Economics of Social Capital and Health (Sherman Folland and Lorenzo Rocco)What is Social Capital and How Does It Work to Improve Health? (Sherman Folland)How Do We Invest in Social Capital? And Exploration of an Economic Model of Social Capital and Health (Sherman Folland, Oddvar Kaarbøe and Kamrul Islam)Social Capital: An Economics Perspective (Audrey Laporte)How Does Social Capital Arise in Populations? (Sherman Folland and Tor Iversen)Measures of Social Capital (Richard M Scheffler and Yumna Bahgat)The Empirics of Social Capital and Health (Lorenzo Rocco and Elena Fumagalli)Social Capital and Health in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (José Anchorena, Lucas Ronconi and Sachiko Ozawa)Social Capital and Smoking (Lorenzo Rocco and Beatrice d'Hombres)Policy Implications (Eline Aas) Readership: Students and professionals interested in health economics. Key Features:Consists of contributions from internationally renowned authorsProvides first-rate empirical analysisAccessible to non-economistsKeywords:Social Capital;Health and Social CapitalReviews: “Many health economists (and others) believe that ‘social capital’ matters but are not sure how to operationalize the concept in theory or empirical research. This wide-ranging volume tackles social capital with the precision of economics, proposing explicit workable definitions and rigorous empirical tests. I particularly appreciate the careful linking of the recent work on social capital to long-standing ideas in economics about institutions, trust, and family.” Thomas G McGuire Professor, Department of Health Care Policy Harvard Medical School “This is an excellent book. The authors exemplify the value of approaching complex issues from different disciplinary perspectives, applying economic perspectives to provide new insights into the relationship between social capital and health and its importance for individuals and society.” Martin McKee Professor, Department of Health Services Research and Policy London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine “This book is an important step forward on the path to conceptualising social capital and its multiple influences on people's health. The dimensions explored are relevant to scholarly work as well as policy making. Perhaps for the first time, this book provides a comprehensive account of the health gains that may derive from investment in social capital by individuals or governments.” Franco Sassi Senior Health Economist OECD, Paris “This book sheds new light on relationships that the typical health, labor, and family economists tend to overlook. For instance, would you have thought that marriage can be interpreted as demand for Social Capital? Or did you know that the birth of a handicapped child acts like a negative shock to Social Capital, causing fathers to engage in crime with increased probability? Or that ‘Trust’ declines from North to South not only between countries but within the United States as well? Of particular value are the several survey tables providing readers with a key to the recent literature. In short: Maximum learning per unit time.” Peter Zweifel Professor, Department of Economics University of Zurich
They established a women's service organization and began to challenge the status quo, building social capital at the community level. Their vision of what is possible had been expanded by education and experience outside their rural ...
Author: Susan Saegert
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Category: Social Science
Neighborhood support groups have always played a key role in helping the poor survive, but combating poverty requires more than simply meeting the needs of day-to-day subsistence. Social Capital and Poor Communities shows the significant achievements that can be made through collective strategies, which empower the poor to become active partners in revitalizing their neighborhoods. Trust and cooperation among residents and local organizations such as churches, small businesses, and unions form the basis of social capital, which provides access to resources that would otherwise be out of reach to poor families. Social Capital and Poor Communities examines civic initiatives that have built affordable housing, fostered small businesses, promoted neighborhood safety, and increased political participation. At the core of each initiative lie local institutions—church congregations, parent-teacher groups, tenant associations, and community improvement alliances. The contributors explore how such groups build networks of leaders and followers and how the social power they cultivate can be successfully transferred from smaller goals to broader political advocacy. For example, community-based groups often become platforms for leaders hoping to run for local office. Church-based groups and interfaith organizations can lobby for affordable housing, job training programs, and school improvement. Social Capital and Poor Communities convincingly demonstrates why building social capital is so important in enabling the poor to seek greater access to financial resources and public services. As the contributors make clear, this task is neither automatic nor easy. The book's frank discussions of both successes and failures illustrate the pitfalls—conflicts of interest, resistance from power elites, and racial exclusion—that can threaten even the most promising initiatives. The impressive evidence in this volume offers valuable insights into how goal formation, leadership, and cooperation can be effectively cultivated, resulting in a remarkable force for change and a rich public life even for those communities mired in seemingly hopeless poverty. A Volume in the Ford Foundation Series on Asset Building
The aim of the research reported here was to examine the causal impact of social capital on health in 14 European countries.
Author: Lorenzo Rocco
The aim of the research reported here was to examine the causal impact of social capital on health in 14 European countries. Using data from the European Social Survey for 14 European countries, supplemented by regional-level data, the authors studied whether individual and/or community-level social capital positively affects health. The authors controlled for other relevant factors that are also expected to affect health, and addressed--via an instrumental variable approach--the challenge of assessing causality in the relationship between social capital and health. The large variance of the error term due to measurement errors calls for strong instruments to obtain reliable estimates in a finite sample. The dataset is rich enough in information to allow the finding of a seemingly strong causal relationship between social capital and individual health. Community social capital (defined at regional level) appears not to affect health once individual-level social capital is controlled for. Taken at face value, the findings suggest that policy interventions should be targeted at improving primarily individual social capital. In doing so they would achieve a double effect: on the one hand they would directly improve individual health; on the other they would contribute to community social capital, which reinforces the beneficial role of individual social capital.
This book will be of interest to professional planners working in the area of environmental management, students, lecturers and policy makers
Author: Samuel Wahab
Publisher: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing
Urban solid waste management (USWM) problems facing cities in the developed and developing workd are well documented; however, progress in tackling them is very slow in the latter. There are still many communities, neighbourhoods, and local markets where garbage is not collected for a considerable length of time. Many of the affected houses are situated in poor neighbourhoos on the edges and core areas of cities. This book seeks to place the concept of social capital in the practice of urban solid waste management, especially at the community level as well as on a wider philosophical and policy levels. The intention here is to advance the understanding of social capital both in relation to its nature as a quality of community life and in terms of its significance as an instrument in the hands of the agents of change. The book examined the degree to which social capital and community-based organizations are important in the overall functioning of urban solid waste management at the community level in Ibadan, Nigeria. This book will be of interest to professional planners working in the area of environmental management, students, lecturers and policy makers
This book will appeal to both specialists in the fields of social capital and sustainable development, and to wider audiences, such as business administration students, development experts, and public policy decision-makers.
Author: Ann Dale
Publisher: University of British Columbia Press
Category: Political Science
A Dynamic Balance aims to illustrate the links between two normally disparate literatures -- social capital and sustainable development -- within the overall context of local community development. Since the social dimension of sustainable development is the least understood of what are often viewed as its three imperatives (the other two being the ecological and economic), the book illuminates the importance of understanding this dimension and how it can be mobilized at the community level. This is shown by applied research in a number of small, predominantly rural Australian and Canadian communities. Given the number of small communities in both countries struggling to diversify from single-resource economies in a context of increasing globalization, this topic touches on several critical public policy issues. The contributors argue that the key strategies for communities to respond to the issues they are facing must be embedded in the dialectics of sustainable development. Unless this critical imperative is met, single-resource economy communities will continue to face ecological, social, and economic collapse. This book will appeal to both specialists in the fields of social capital and sustainable development, and to wider audiences, such as business administration students, development experts, and public policy decision-makers.
Paxton has also distinguished between the effects of social capital at individual level and its effects at community level. She is certainly not the only author to make this distinction, but she goes on to argue that the concept can be ...
Author: John Field
Publisher: Psychology Press
Category: Social Science
This is an indispensable introduction to the topic which explains the theoretical underpinning of the subject, the empirical work that has been done to explore its operation and the effect that it has had on policy making."--Jacket.