Set Theory

With an Introduction to Real Point Sets

Author: Abhijit Dasgupta

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461488540

Category: Mathematics

Page: 444

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What is a number? What is infinity? What is continuity? What is order? Answers to these fundamental questions obtained by late nineteenth-century mathematicians such as Dedekind and Cantor gave birth to set theory. This textbook presents classical set theory in an intuitive but concrete manner. To allow flexibility of topic selection in courses, the book is organized into four relatively independent parts with distinct mathematical flavors. Part I begins with the Dedekind–Peano axioms and ends with the construction of the real numbers. The core Cantor–Dedekind theory of cardinals, orders, and ordinals appears in Part II. Part III focuses on the real continuum. Finally, foundational issues and formal axioms are introduced in Part IV. Each part ends with a postscript chapter discussing topics beyond the scope of the main text, ranging from philosophical remarks to glimpses into landmark results of modern set theory such as the resolution of Lusin's problems on projective sets using determinacy of infinite games and large cardinals. Separating the metamathematical issues into an optional fourth part at the end makes this textbook suitable for students interested in any field of mathematics, not just for those planning to specialize in logic or foundations. There is enough material in the text for a year-long course at the upper-undergraduate level. For shorter one-semester or one-quarter courses, a variety of arrangements of topics are possible. The book will be a useful resource for both experts working in a relevant or adjacent area and beginners wanting to learn set theory via self-study.
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The Real Numbers

An Introduction to Set Theory and Analysis

Author: John Stillwell

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 331901577X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 244

View: 7662

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While most texts on real analysis are content to assume the real numbers, or to treat them only briefly, this text makes a serious study of the real number system and the issues it brings to light. Analysis needs the real numbers to model the line, and to support the concepts of continuity and measure. But these seemingly simple requirements lead to deep issues of set theory—uncountability, the axiom of choice, and large cardinals. In fact, virtually all the concepts of infinite set theory are needed for a proper understanding of the real numbers, and hence of analysis itself. By focusing on the set-theoretic aspects of analysis, this text makes the best of two worlds: it combines a down-to-earth introduction to set theory with an exposition of the essence of analysis—the study of infinite processes on the real numbers. It is intended for senior undergraduates, but it will also be attractive to graduate students and professional mathematicians who, until now, have been content to "assume" the real numbers. Its prerequisites are calculus and basic mathematics. Mathematical history is woven into the text, explaining how the concepts of real number and infinity developed to meet the needs of analysis from ancient times to the late twentieth century. This rich presentation of history, along with a background of proofs, examples, exercises, and explanatory remarks, will help motivate the reader. The material covered includes classic topics from both set theory and real analysis courses, such as countable and uncountable sets, countable ordinals, the continuum problem, the Cantor–Schröder–Bernstein theorem, continuous functions, uniform convergence, Zorn's lemma, Borel sets, Baire functions, Lebesgue measure, and Riemann integrable functions.
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Introduction to the Theory of Sets

Author: Joseph Breuer

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486154874

Category: Mathematics

Page: 128

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This undergraduate text develops its subject through observations of the physical world, covering finite sets, cardinal numbers, infinite cardinals, and ordinals. Includes exercises with answers. 1958 edition.
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Finsler Set Theory

Platonism and Circularity; Translations of Paul Finsler's Papers on Set Theory with Introductory Comments

Author: Paul Finsler

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783764354008

Category: Mathematics

Page: 278

View: 340

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This English translation of Paul Finsler's papers on set theory reflects the central concerns of his investigations, namely the philosophical, foundational, and combinatorial approaches. Each section contains an introduction to the field by the editors, and a technical background is not necessary.
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The Philosophy of Set Theory

An Historical Introduction to Cantor's Paradise

Author: Mary Tiles

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486138550

Category: Mathematics

Page: 256

View: 8671

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DIVBeginning with perspectives on the finite universe and classes and Aristotelian logic, the author examines permutations, combinations, and infinite cardinalities; numbering the continuum; Cantor's transfinite paradise; axiomatic set theory, and more. /div
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Set Theory

Author: Felix Hausdorff

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 9780821838358

Category: Mathematics

Page: 352

View: 1887

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In the early twentieth century, Hausdorff developed an axiomatic approach to topology, which continues to be the foundation of modern topology. The present book, the English translation of the third edition of Hausdorff's Mengenlehre, is a thorough introduction to his theory of point-set topology. The treatment begins with topics in the foundations of mathematics, including the basics of abstract set theory, sums and products of sets, cardinal and ordinal numbers, and Hausdorff's well-ordering theorem. The exposition then specializes to point sets, where major topics such as Borel systems, first and second category, and connectedness are considered in detail. Next, mappings between spaces are introduced. This leads naturally to a discussion of topological spaces and continuous mappings between them. Finally, the theory is applied to the study of real functions and their properties. The book does not presuppose any mathematical knowledge beyond calculus, but it does require a certain maturity in abstract reasoning; qualified college seniors and first-year graduate students should have no difficulty in making the material their own.
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An Introduction to Fuzzy Sets

Analysis and Design

Author: Witold Pedrycz,Fernando Gomide

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262161718

Category: Computers

Page: 465

View: 4161

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"The Pedrycz and Gomide text is superb in all respects. Its exposition of fuzzy-neural networks and fuzzy-genetic systems adds much to its value as a textbook" -- Lotfi A. Zadeh, University of California, Berkeley. The concept of fuzzy sets is one of the most fundamental and influential tools in computational intelligence. Fuzzy sets can provide solutions to a broad range of problems of control, pattern classification, reasoning, planning, and computer vision. This book bridges the gap that has developed between theory and practice. The authors explain what fuzzy sets are, why they work, when they should be used (and when they shouldn't), and how to design systems using them. The authors take an unusual top-down approach to the design of detailed algorithms. They begin with illustrative examples, explain the fundamental theory and design methodologies, and then present more advanced case studies dealing with practical tasks. While they use mathematics to introduce concepts, they ground them in examples of real-world problems that can be solved through fuzzy set technology. The only mathematics prerequisites are a basic knowledge of introductory calculus and linear algebra.
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Notes on Set Theory

Author: Yiannis N. Moschovakis

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540941804

Category: Axiomatische Mengenlehre

Page: 272

View: 881

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The axiomatic theory of sets is a vibrant part of pure mathematics, with its own basic notions, fundamental results, and deep open problems. It is also viewed as a foundation of mathematics so that "to make a notion precise" simply means "to define it in set theory." This book gives a solid introduction to "pure set theory" through transfinite recursion and the construction of the cumulative hierarchy of sets, and also attempts to explain how mathematical objects can be faithfully modeled within the universe of sets. In this new edition the author has added solutions to the exercises, and rearranged and reworked the text to improve the presentation.
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An Introduction to Random Sets

Author: Hung T. Nguyen

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420010619

Category: Mathematics

Page: 272

View: 1671

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The study of random sets is a large and rapidly growing area with connections to many areas of mathematics and applications in widely varying disciplines, from economics and decision theory to biostatistics and image analysis. The drawback to such diversity is that the research reports are scattered throughout the literature, with the result that in science and engineering, and even in the statistics community, the topic is not well known and much of the enormous potential of random sets remains untapped. An Introduction to Random Sets provides a friendly but solid initiation into the theory of random sets. It builds the foundation for studying random set data, which, viewed as imprecise or incomplete observations, are ubiquitous in today's technological society. The author, widely known for his best-selling A First Course in Fuzzy Logic text as well as his pioneering work in random sets, explores motivations, such as coarse data analysis and uncertainty analysis in intelligent systems, for studying random sets as stochastic models. Other topics include random closed sets, related uncertainty measures, the Choquet integral, the convergence of capacity functionals, and the statistical framework for set-valued observations. An abundance of examples and exercises reinforce the concepts discussed. Designed as a textbook for a course at the advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate level, this book will serve equally well for self-study and as a reference for researchers in fields such as statistics, mathematics, engineering, and computer science.
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An Interactive Introduction to Mathematical Analysis Paperback with CD-ROM

Author: Jonathan Lewin

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521017183

Category: Mathematics

Page: 492

View: 7427

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This book provides a rigorous course in the calculus of functions of a real variable. Its gentle approach, particularly in its early chapters, makes it especially suitable for students who are not headed for graduate school but, for those who are, this book also provides the opportunity to engage in a penetrating study of real analysis.The companion onscreen version of this text contains hundreds of links to alternative approaches, more complete explanations and solutions to exercises; links that make it more friendly than any printed book could be. In addition, there are links to a wealth of optional material that an instructor can select for a more advanced course, and that students can use as a reference long after their first course has ended. The on-screen version also provides exercises that can be worked interactively with the help of the computer algebra systems that are bundled with Scientific Notebook.
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