Set Theory and Metric Spaces

Author: Irving Kaplansky

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821826948

Category: Mathematics

Page: 140

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This is a book that could profitably be read by many graduate students or by seniors in strong major programs ... has a number of good features. There are many informal comments scattered between the formal development of theorems and these are done in a light and pleasant style. ... There is a complete proof of the equivalence of the axiom of choice, Zorn's Lemma, and well-ordering, as well as a discussion of the use of these concepts. There is also an interesting discussion of the continuum problem ... The presentation of metric spaces before topological spaces ... should be welcomed by most students, since metric spaces are much closer to the ideas of Euclidean spaces with which they are already familiar. --Canadian Mathematical Bulletin Kaplansky has a well-deserved reputation for his expository talents. The selection of topics is excellent. -- Lance Small, UC San Diego This book is based on notes from a course on set theory and metric spaces taught by Edwin Spanier, and also incorporates with his permission numerous exercises from those notes. The volume includes an Appendix that helps bridge the gap between metric and topological spaces, a Selected Bibliography, and an Index.
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Metric Spaces of Fuzzy Sets: Theory and Applications

Author: Phil Diamond,Peter Kloeden

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814518115

Category: Computers

Page: 188

View: 5304

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The primary aim of the book is to provide a systematic development of the theory of metric spaces of normal, upper semicontinuous fuzzy convex fuzzy sets with compact support sets, mainly on the base space ℜn. An additional aim is to sketch selected applications in which these metric space results and methods are essential for a thorough mathematical analysis. This book is distinctly mathematical in its orientation and style, in contrast with many of the other books now available on fuzzy sets, which, although all making use of mathematical formalism to some extent, are essentially motivated by and oriented towards more immediate applications and related practical issues. The reader is assumed to have some previous undergraduate level acquaintance with metric spaces and elementary functional analysis. Contents:Fuzzy SetsSpaces of Subsets of ℜnCompact Convex Subsets of ℜnSet Valued MappingsCrisp GeneralizationsThe Space εnMetrics on εnCompactness CriteriaGeneralizationsFuzzy Set Valued Mappings of Real VariablesFuzzy Random VariablesComputational MethodsFuzzy Differential EquationsOptimization Under UncertaintyFuzzy Iterations and Image Processing Readership: Mathematicians and computer scientists. keywords:Metric Spaces;Multifunctions;Fuzzy Sets;Fuzzy Data Fitting;Fuzzy Dynamical Systems;Iterated Fuzzy Systems “… is a valuable addition to the literature about fuzzy analysis, leading the reader to the edge of current research.” Mathematical Reviews “… the book seems to be the only, and thus valuable, source of mathematical concepts and results on fuzzy sets and functions, which are presented in a clear, and quite rigorous, format.” Journal of Classification
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Metric Spaces

Including Fixed Point Theory and Set-valued Maps

Author: Qamrul Hasan Ansari

Publisher: Alpha Science International Limited

ISBN: 9781842656556

Category: Science

Page: 196

View: 5056

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METRIC SPACES is intended for undergraduate students offering a course of metric spaces and post graduate students offering a course of nonlinear analysis or fixed point theory. The first six chapters cover basic concepts of metric spaces, separable spaces, compact spaces, connected spaces and continuity of functions defined on a metric space. Chapter seven is devoted to the metric fixed point theory. Banach contraction theorem and several of its generalizations along with their applications and Caristi's fixed point theorem are also given in this chapter. The introductory set-valued analysis with special emphysis on continuity and fixed point theory of set-valued maps is given in chapter eight. One of the most useful and important results from nonlinear analysis is Ekeland's variational principle. This principle along with several of its equivalent forms, Takahashi's minimization theorem, introduction of theory of equilibrium problems and the equilibrium version of Ekeland's variational principle and several of its equivalent forms are presented in the last chapter. This book will also be useful for researchers working in nonlinear analysis, optimization and theory of equilibrium problems.
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Metric Spaces

Author: Mícheál O'Searcoid

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781846286278

Category: Mathematics

Page: 304

View: 4784

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The abstract concepts of metric spaces are often perceived as difficult. This book offers a unique approach to the subject which gives readers the advantage of a new perspective on ideas familiar from the analysis of a real line. Rather than passing quickly from the definition of a metric to the more abstract concepts of convergence and continuity, the author takes the concrete notion of distance as far as possible, illustrating the text with examples and naturally arising questions. Attention to detail at this stage is designed to prepare the reader to understand the more abstract ideas with relative ease.
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Metric Spaces

Iteration and Application

Author: Victor Bryant

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521318976

Category: Mathematics

Page: 104

View: 3999

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An introduction to metric spaces for those interested in the applications as well as theory.
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Introduction to Set Theory and Topology

Author: Kazimierz Kuratowski

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483151638

Category: Mathematics

Page: 352

View: 5197

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Introduction to Set Theory and Topology describes the fundamental concepts of set theory and topology as well as its applicability to analysis, geometry, and other branches of mathematics, including algebra and probability theory. Concepts such as inverse limit, lattice, ideal, filter, commutative diagram, quotient-spaces, completely regular spaces, quasicomponents, and cartesian products of topological spaces are considered. This volume consists of 21 chapters organized into two sections and begins with an introduction to set theory, with emphasis on the propositional calculus and its application to propositions each having one of two logical values, 0 and 1. Operations on sets which are analogous to arithmetic operations are also discussed. The chapters that follow focus on the mapping concept, the power of a set, operations on cardinal numbers, order relations, and well ordering. The section on topology explores metric and topological spaces, continuous mappings, cartesian products, and other spaces such as spaces with a countable base, complete spaces, compact spaces, and connected spaces. The concept of dimension, simplexes and their properties, and cuttings of the plane are also analyzed. This book is intended for students and teachers of mathematics.
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Set Theory

Author: Felix Hausdorff

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 9780821838358

Category: Mathematics

Page: 352

View: 8333

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In the early twentieth century, Hausdorff developed an axiomatic approach to topology, which continues to be the foundation of modern topology. The present book, the English translation of the third edition of Hausdorff's Mengenlehre, is a thorough introduction to his theory of point-set topology. The treatment begins with topics in the foundations of mathematics, including the basics of abstract set theory, sums and products of sets, cardinal and ordinal numbers, and Hausdorff's well-ordering theorem. The exposition then specializes to point sets, where major topics such as Borel systems, first and second category, and connectedness are considered in detail. Next, mappings between spaces are introduced. This leads naturally to a discussion of topological spaces and continuous mappings between them. Finally, the theory is applied to the study of real functions and their properties. The book does not presuppose any mathematical knowledge beyond calculus, but it does require a certain maturity in abstract reasoning; qualified college seniors and first-year graduate students should have no difficulty in making the material their own.
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Metric Spaces

Author: Satish Shirali,Harkrishan Lal Vasudeva

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781852339227

Category: Mathematics

Page: 222

View: 8456

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Since the last century, the postulational method and an abstract point of view have played a vital role in the development of modern mathematics. The experience gained from the earlier concrete studies of analysis point to the importance of passage to the limit. The basis of this operation is the notion of distance between any two points of the line or the complex plane. The algebraic properties of underlying sets often play no role in the development of analysis; this situation naturally leads to the study of metric spaces. The abstraction not only simplifies and elucidates mathematical ideas that recur in different guises, but also helps eco- mize the intellectual effort involved in learning them. However, such an abstract approach is likely to overlook the special features of particular mathematical developments, especially those not taken into account while forming the larger picture. Hence, the study of particular mathematical developments is hard to overemphasize. The language in which a large body of ideas and results of functional analysis are expressed is that of metric spaces. The books on functional analysis seem to go over the preliminaries of this topic far too quickly. The present authors attempt to provide a leisurely approach to the theory of metric spaces. In order to ensure that the ideas take root gradually but firmly, a large number of examples and counterexamples follow each definition. Also included are several worked examples and exercises. Applications of the theory are spread out over the entire book.
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