The Sciences of the Artificial

Author: Herbert A. Simon

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262537532

Category: Computers

Page: 256

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Herbert Simon's classic work on artificial intelligence in the expanded and updated third edition from 1996, with a new introduction by John E. Laird. Herbert Simon's classic and influential The Sciences of the Artificial declares definitively that there can be a science not only of natural phenomena but also of what is artificial. Exploring the commonalities of artificial systems, including economic systems, the business firm, artificial intelligence, complex engineering projects, and social plans, Simon argues that designed systems are a valid field of study, and he proposes a science of design. For this third edition, originally published in 1996, Simon added new material that takes into account advances in cognitive psychology and the science of design while confirming and extending the book's basic thesis: that a physical symbol system has the necessary and sufficient means for intelligent action. Simon won the Nobel Prize for Economics in 1978 for his research into the decision-making process within economic organizations and the Turing Award (considered by some the computer science equivalent to the Nobel) with Allen Newell in 1975 for contributions to artificial intelligence, the psychology of human cognition, and list processing. The Sciences of the Artificial distills the essence of Simon's thought accessibly and coherently. This reissue of the third edition makes a pioneering work available to a new audience.
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The Idea of Design

Author: Victor Margolin,Richard Buchanan,Professor of Design Management & Information Systems George Richard Buchanan

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262631662

Category: Design

Page: 285

View: 4170

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An anthology of essays addressing the nature and practice of contemporary product and graphic design, selected from volumes four through nine of the international journal Design Issues. Themes include reflection on the nature of design, the meaning of products, and the place of design in world culture. Includes b & w photos and illustrations. c. Book News Inc.
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New Challenges to Philosophy of Science

Author: Hanne Andersen,Dennis Dieks,Wenceslao J. Gonzalez,Thomas Uebel,Gregory Wheeler

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400758456

Category: Science

Page: 512

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This volume is a serious attempt to open up the subject of European philosophy of science to real thought, and provide the structural basis for the interdisciplinary development of its specialist fields, but also to provoke reflection on the idea of ‘European philosophy of science’. This efforts should foster a contemporaneous reflection on what might be meant by philosophy of science in Europe and European philosophy of science, and how in fact awareness of it could assist philosophers interpret and motivate their research through a stronger collective identity. The overarching aim is to set the background for a collaborative project organising, systematising, and ultimately forging an identity for, European philosophy of science by creating research structures and developing research networks across Europe to promote its development.
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Contemplating Minds

A Forum for Artificial Intelligence

Author: William J. Clancey,Stephen W. Smoliar,Mark Stefik

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262531191

Category: Computers

Page: 543

View: 8839

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One place where the scientific debate has been written for a broad audience is in the book review column of the international journal Artificial Intelligence, which has evolved from simple reviews to a multidisciplinary forum where reviewers and authors debate the latest, often competing, theories of human and artificial intelligence.
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The Discovery of the Artificial

Behavior, Mind and Machines Before and Beyond Cybernetics

Author: R. Cordeschi

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401598703

Category: Philosophy

Page: 314

View: 9122

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This series will include monographs and collections of studies devoted to the investigation and exploration of knowledge, information, and data processing systems of all kinds, no matter whether human, (other) animal, or machine. Its scope is intended to span the full range of interests from classical problems in the philosophy of mind and philosophical psychology through issues in cognitive psychology and sociobiology (concerning the mental capabilities of other species) to ideas related to artificial intelligence and to computer science. While primary emphasis will be placed upon theoretical, conceptual, and epistemological aspects of these problems and domains, empirical, experimental, and methodological studies will also appear from time to time. The present volume offers a broad and imaginative approach to the study of the mind, which emphasizes several themes, namely: the importance of functional organization apart from the specific material by means of which it may be implemented; the use of modeling to simulate these functional processes and subject them to certain kinds of tests; the use of mentalistic language to describe and predict the behavior of artifacts; and the subsumption of processes of adaptation, learning, and intelligence by means of explanatory principles. The author has produced a rich and complex, lucid and readable discussion that clarifies and illuminates many of the most difficult problems arising within this difficult domain.
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Epistemological Aspects of Computer Simulation in the Social Sciences

Second International Workshop, EPOS 2006, Brescia, Italy, October 5-6, 2006, Revised Selected and Invited Papers

Author: Flaminio Squazzoni

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 364201108X

Category: Computers

Page: 183

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This book constitutes the revised versions of the invited and selected papers from the Second Epistemological Perspectives on Simulation Workshop, EPOS 2006, which was held in Brescia, Italy, during October 5-6, 2006. The 11 papers presented together with 2 invited papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 35 submissions. The topics addressed were epistemological and methodological contents, such as the relevance of empirical foundations for agent-based simulations, the role of theory, the concepts and meaning of emergence, the trade-off between simplification and complexification of models.
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It Began with Babbage

The Genesis of Computer Science

Author: Subrata Dasgupta

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199309434

Category: Computers

Page: 304

View: 607

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As a field, computer science occupies a unique scientific space, in that its subject matter can exist in both physical and abstract realms. An artifact such as software is both tangible and not, and must be classified as something in between, or "liminal." The study and production of liminal artifacts allows for creative possibilities that are, and have been, possible only in computer science. In It Began with Babbage, computer scientist and writer Subrata Dasgupta examines the distinct history of computer science in terms of its creative innovations, reaching back to Charles Babbage in 1819. Since all artifacts of computer science are conceived with a use in mind, the computer scientist is not concerned with the natural laws that govern disciplines like physics or chemistry; instead, the field is more concerned with the concept of purpose. This requirement lends itself to a type of creative thinking that, as Dasgupta shows us, has exhibited itself throughout the history of computer science. More than any other, computer science is the science of the artificial, and has a unique history to accompany its unique focus. The book traces a path from Babbage's Difference Engine in the early 19th century to the end of the 1960s by when a new academic discipline named "computer science" had come into being. Along the way we meet characters like Babbage and Ada Lovelace, Turing and von Neumann, Shannon and Chomsky, and a host of other people from a variety of backgrounds who collectively created this new science of the artificial. And in the end, we see how and why computer science acquired a nature and history all of its own.
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The Garden in the Machine

The Emerging Science of Artificial Life

Author: Claus Emmeche

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780691033303

Category: Science

Page: 199

View: 5777

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A wide-ranging survey outlines many of the challenges and controversies involved in artificial life and describes current efforts and capabilities, examples of computer simulation, and their potential effects on current beliefs about life.
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Academic Press Dictionary of Science and Technology

Author: Christopher G. Morris,Academic Press,Christopher W. Morris

Publisher: Gulf Professional Publishing

ISBN: 9780122004001

Category: Computers

Page: 2432

View: 4156

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Over 125,000 entries cover 124 scientific and technological fields, including acoustical engineering, cartography graphic arts, microbiology, organic chemistry, radiology, and zoology
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