Schools of Thought

The Development of Linguistics from Bopp to Saussure

Author: O. Amsterdamska

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400937598

Category: Social Science

Page: 322

View: 8664

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This book is based on the assumption that the development of science has to be understood both as a social and as an intellectual process. The division between internal and external history, between history of ideas and sociology of science, has been harmful not only to our understanding of scientific rationality but also to our understanding of the social processes of scientific development. Just as philosophy of science must be informed by its history, so also must sociology of science be both historically and philosophically informed. Proceeding on this assumption, I examine in detail the contents of linguistic ideas and the changes they underwent, as well as the institutional processes of disciplinary development and school formation. The development of linguistics in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries has provided me with a convenient locus for a study of the processes of cognitive change and continuity in the context of modern academically institutionalized science. This book examines first the idea system and the institutionalization of historical and comparative linguistics in the first half of the nineteenth century, and then focusses on the for mation and development of three schools of thought: the Neogrammarians, the Neo-Idealists, and the Geneva School of Ferdinand de Saussure.
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East European Academies in Transition

Author: R. Mayntz,U. Schimank,P. Weingart

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401591210

Category: Political Science

Page: 165

View: 726

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When the socialist regime in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) was overthrown around the end of the eighties, beginning of the nineties, an overall transforma tion of whole societies started. Not only the political and the economic systems of these countries, but all societal sectors underwent deep changes. These changes presented opportunities, but they also spelled trouble. On one hand, getting rid of stifling political control and excessive bureaucratic regulation was something which most members of these societies desired. On the other, it be came apparent very soon that the necessary and long hoped-for rebuilding of the economy, education, health care, the mass media, and science, too, was strongly restricted by the scarcity of financial resources. After a short period, during which opportunities were energetically taken up in a spirit of hope, came a long and still lasting time of growing troubles and despondency. Only in a few of the CEE countries have some glimpses of hope become visible recently; and it re mains to be seen whether these signals are reliable. Until now, therefore, the transformation dynamics of all societal sectors in all of the CEE countries have primarily been troublesome. This is surely true for the post-socialist research systems. I The demise of the communist party's abso lute rule over society has allowed researchers the public expression and the pur suit of goals whose common denominator has been a greater self-regulation of scientific research according to its own criteria and logic.
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Bibliografía Nebrisense

Las obras completas del humanista Antonio de Nebrija desde 1481 hasta nuestros días

Author: Miguel Ángel Esparza Torres,Hans-Josef Niederehe

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9027284342

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 374

View: 9772

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The Spanish humanist Antonio de Nebrija (1444-1522) is the author of an impressive body of scientific work which comprises a broad spectrum of humanistic knowledge. While the languages dealt with by Nebrija include not only Latin and Spanish, but the most prominent Romance languages, his grammatical work focuses on Latin, Castillian, Greek and even Hebrew. Moreover, his (bilingual) lexicographical studies combine Spanish, Latin, French, Catalan and Italian. In addition, there are medical dictionaries, dictionnaries of law, works on the Holy Bible, geographical research, treatises on rhethoric and history as well as on many other areas of contemporary knowledge. Most of these works have been published for allmost five centuries, thus inspiring European and missionary linguistics as well as Western philological traditions. They have served as models and sources for a great number and range of studies conducted and published not only in Spain, but nearly all over the world. Apart from the original version of Nebrija‘s works, numerous copies, also continuously produced during the past centuries, are accessible in international libraries. Many of these copies possess a great bibliographical value. The Bibliografía Nebrisense is a catalogue, listing the different editions of Nebrija‘s highly diversified œuvre. It provides information on the technical caracteristics of the individual editions and their respective locations. A complete bio-bibliographical study is added together with an exhaustive listing of secondary sources.El humanista español Antonio de Nebrija (1444-1522) fue autor de una ingente obra que abarcó los más variados campos de los saberes humanísticos y en la que, además, estaban implicadas no sólo latín y español, sino las principales lenguas románicas. Sus obras de tema gramatical, donde se encuentran latín, castellano, griego o hebreo; sus repertorios lexicográficos bilingües, donde se combinan español, latín, francés, catalán e italiano; sus diccionarios especializados de medicina, derecho, Sagrada Escritura o geografía, junto con sus trabajos sobre retórica, historia o tantos otros aspectos particulares que llamaron la atención del humanista han sobrevivido hasta nuestros días y durante más de cinco siglos han ejercido una influencia enorme en toda la lingüística y la tradición filológica occidental: sirvieron de modelo o de fuente para multitud de trabajos posteriores, no sólo en España. Las obras de Nebrija, en fin, fueron ininterrumpidamente editadas y ejemplares de todas ellas, a veces de valor incalculable desde el punto de vista bibliográfico, andan repartidos por bibliotecas de todo el mundo. La Bibliografía Nebrisense es un catálogo que reúne y describe estas ediciones, informando de sus características y paradero. Se añade, además, un completo estudio bio-bibliográfico y una relación exhaustiva de fuentes secundarias.
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