International law, the story goes, was 'indifferent' to the use of force. 'Reality' as it stems from historical sources, however, appears much more complex.
Author: Agatha Verdebout
Category: Intervention (International law)
"It is commonly taught that the prohibition of the use of force is an achievement of the twentieth century and that beforehand States were free to resort to the arms as they pleased. International law, the story goes, was 'indifferent' to the use of force. 'Reality' as it stems from historical sources, however, appears much more complex. Using tools of history, sociology, anthropology and social psychology, this monograph offers new insights into the history of the prohibition of the use of force in international law. Conducting in-depth analysis of nineteenth century doctrine and State practice, it paves the way for an alternative narrative on the prohibition of force, and seeks to understand the origins of international law's traditional account. In so doing, it also provides a more general reflection on how the discipline writes, rewrites and chooses to remember its own history"--
Using force to uphold conjugality where consummation had not yet occurred became the focal point of embarrassment for the British Indian administration, ...
Author: Uma Chakravarti
Category: Biography & Autobiography
In this classic study of Pandita Ramabai's life, Uma Chakravarti brings to light one of the foremost thinkers of nineteenth-century India and one of its earliest feminists. A scholar and an eloquent speaker, Ramabai was no stranger to controversy. Her critique of Brahminical patriarchy was in sharp contrast to Annie Besant, who championed the cause of Hindu society. And in an act seen by contemporary Hindu society as a betrayal not only of her religion but of her nation, Ramabai – herself a high-caste Hindu widow – chose to convert to Christianity. Chakravarti's book stands out as one of the most important critiques of gender and power relations in colonial India, with particular emphasis on issues of class and caste. Published by Zubaan.
... where the case for the sites assault by Roman forces, as opposed to use of ... combined with experimental exercises using those missiles to test their ...
Author: Dennis Harding
Publisher: Oxford University Press
In Rewriting History, Dennis Harding addresses contemporary concerns about information and its interpretation. His focus is on the archaeology of prehistoric and early historic Britain, and the transformation over two centuries and more in the interpretation of the archaeological heritage by changes in the prevailing political, social, and intellectual climate. Far from being topics of concern only to academics, the way in which seemingly innocuous issues such as cultural diffusion or social reconstruction in the remote past are studied and presented reflects important shifts in contemporary thinking that challenge long-accepted conventions of free speech and debate. Some issues are highly controversial, such as the proposals for the Stonehenge World Heritage sites. Others challenge long-held popular myths like the deconstruction of the Celts, and by extension the Picts. Some traditional tenets of scholarship have yet remained unchallenged, such as the classical definition of civilization itself. Why should it matter? Are the shifting attitudes of successive generations not symptomatic of healthy and vibrant debate? Are there grounds for believing that current changes are of a more disquieting character, denying the basic assumptions of rational argument and freedom of enquiry that have been the foundation of western scholarship since the Enlightenment? Re-writing History offers Harding's personal evaluation of these issues, which will resonate not only with practitioners and academics of archaeology, but across a wide range of disciplines facing similar concerns.
ordered an attack across the river against superior forces, and incurred ... Grant's intention to use it as a blocking force was risky but not unsound; ...
Author: Frank P. Varney
Publisher: Savas Beatie
In 1885, a former president of the United States published one of the most influential books ever written about the Civil War. An entire generation of Americans had eagerly awaited his memoirs and it has remained so popular that it has never gone out of print. Historiansthen and now have made extensive use of Grants recollections, which have shaped how we understand and evaluate not only the Union armys triumphs and failures, but many of the wars key participants. TheMemoirsof Ulysses Simpson Grant may be a superbly written book, Frank P. Varney persuasively argues in General Grant and the Rewriting of History, but is so riddled with flaws as to be unreliable.Juxtaposing primary source documents (some of them published here for the first time) against Grants own pen and other sources, Professor Varney sheds new light on what really happened on some of the Civil Wars most important battlefields. He does so by focusing much of his work on Grants treatment of Maj. Gen. William S. Rosecrans, a capable army commander whose reputation Grant (and others working with him) conspired to destroy. Grants memoirs contain not only misstatements but outright inventions to manipulate the historical record. But Grants injustices go much deeper. He submitted decidedly biased reports, falsified official documents, and even perjured himself before an army court of inquiry. There is also strong evidence that his often-discussed drinking problem affected the outcome of at least one battle.General Grant was an outstanding soldier and, so we have long believed, a good man. Historys wholesale acceptance of his version of events has distorted our assessment of Rosecrans and other officers, and even of the Civil War itself. Grant intentionally tried to control how future generations would remember the Civil War, and in large measure he succeeded. The first of two volumes on this subject, General Grant and the Rewriting of History aptly demonstrates, however, that blindly accepting historical truths without vigorous challenge is a perilous path to understanding real history.
... the spider is not a creative force; he is a destructive force whose power ... I use these two late nineteenth poems to highlight Tademy's less positive ...
Author: Verena Theile
Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
Category: Literary Criticism
Reclaiming Home, Remembering Motherhood, Rewriting History: African American and Afro-Caribbean Women’s Literature in the Twentieth Century offers a critical valuation of literature composed by black female writers and examines their projects of reclamation, rememory, and revision. As a collection, it engages black women writers’ efforts to create more inclusive conceptualizations of community, gender, and history, conceptualizations that take into account alternate lived and written experiences as well as imagined futures. Contributors to this collection probe the realms of gender studies, postcolonialism, and post-structural theory and suggest important ways in which to explore connections between home, motherhood, and history across the multifarious narratives of African American and Afro-Caribbean experiences. Together they argue that it is through their female characters that black women writers demonstrate the tumultuous processes of deciphering home and homeland, of articulating the complexities of mothering relationships, and of locating their own personal history within local and national narratives. Essays gathered in this collection consider the works of African American women writers (Pauline Hopkins, Toni Morrison, Jessie Redmon Fauset, Audre Lorde, Lalita Tademy, Lorene Cary, Octavia Butler, Zora Neale Hurston, and Sherley Anne Williams) alongside the works of black women writers from the Caribbean (Jamaica Kincaid and Gisèle Pineau), Guyana (Grace Nichols), and Cuba (María de los Reyes Castillo Bueno).
Throughout the semester, each cadet is required to keep a research journal to track notes, data and sources. Normally this is done with pen and paper on note cards or notebooks.
This study examined the use of technology to enhance the educational experience. The study, which involved 28 Cadets from the United States Air Force Academy, was designed to examine the benefits of using a digital pen for note taking in the classroom. The Department of History offers a Historiography and Methods class (History 330), where cadets research historical data. The cadets plan, research and write a 5000-7000 word term paper. Throughout the semester, each cadet is required to keep a research journal to track notes, data and sources. Normally this is done with pen and paper on note cards or notebooks. For this study, one class was randomly assigned to complete their research using traditional methods (pen and paper) while the other class was given a digital pen to complete their project. Each week, cadets completed a survey rating the ability of the note taking method that was being used. When the final draft was turned in, an endof- course survey was completed by the class using digital pens. Participation was voluntary and surveys were anonymous. Digital pen participants were enthusiastic initially but attitudes changed with increased use of the pen. The pen itself proved to be cumbersome because it was much larger than a normal pen. Combined with the fact that research notes were taken in a small field journal, note taking was more difficult. The software interface for the pen was a Microsoft product providing a familiar desktop environment. The most significant advantage identified by digital pen users involved the following elements of efficiency: 1) automatic transfer of notes to the computer, 2) writing faster than typing, 3) portability, 4) simplicity. Cadets rated the pen above average for performance and concluded that with a few modifications, the pen could enhance the note taking process. The paper closes with recommendations on these modifications and possible future studies.
Attempts to rewrite history are continuous and one area is in Japanese ... and the threat or use of force as means of settling international disputes.
Author: Kwa Chong Guan
Publisher: World Scientific
A General History of the Chinese in Singapore documents over 700 years of Chinese history in Singapore, from Chinese presence in the region through the millennium-old Hokkien trading world to the waves of mass migration that came after the establishment of a British settlement, and through to the development and birth of the nation. Across 38 chapters and parts, readers are taken through the complex historical mosaic of Overseas Chinese social, economic and political activity in Singapore and the region, such as the development of maritime junk trade, plantation industries, and coolie labour, the role of different bangs, clan associations and secret societies as well as Chinese leaders, the diverging political allegiances including Sun Yat-sen's revolutionary activities and the National Salvation Movement leading up to the Second World War, the transplanting of traditional Chinese religions, the changing identity of the Overseas Chinese, and the developments in language and education policies, publishing, arts, and more.With 'Pride in our Past, Legacy for our Future' as its key objective, this volume aims to preserve the Singapore Chinese story, history and heritage for future generations, as well as keep our cultures and traditions alive. Therefore, the book aims to serve as a comprehensive guide for Singaporeans, new immigrants and foreigners to have an epitome of the Singapore society. This publication is supported by the National Heritage Board's Heritage Project Grant.
Secretary of State Madeleine Albright used this very language in 1998 vis-à-vis Iraq: “[I]f we have to use force, it is because we are America, ...
Author: Kevin Groenhagen
In What Really Happened, Kevin Groenhagen presents the facts concerning Bill Clinton's actual record on Iraq and terrorism. It's a record that is far different from what Clinton Inc, and their allies in the media have been telling the American people during the past eight years. The facts Clinton Inc. has attempted to rewrite include, but are not limited to, the following: * The Clinton administration in 1998 claimed that al Qaeda reached an understanding with the government of Iraq that al Qaeda would not work against that government and that on particular projects, specifically including weapons development, al Qaeda would work cooperatively with the Government of Iraq. * Secretary of Defense William Cohen in July 2000 said protecting the American people from the threat posed by axis of evil (Iran, Iraq, and North Korea) was the most important issue to address. * Bill Clinton's policies vis-a-vis Iraq ultimately led to 9/11 and other messages with no words.
I studiously avoid that there has always seemed a cer cans to stand behind South
Vietnam's using “ Ms ” in any circumstances ... But WE BUY JUNK AND SELL
ANTIQUES between Middle East capitals , trying some sources would rewrite history to stitch some sort of ... covered the shuttember on the acting chief of the
Matle , remarked that Bunker's only conSINGAPORE serviceman laysian air force
Their league was “a Holy Alliance to use force, and to cut throats if need be.”126 As Wilson's and British support for a postwar league became stronger and ...
Author: Paolo Amorosa
Publisher: Oxford University Press
In the interwar years, international lawyer James Brown Scott wrote a series of works on the history of his discipline. He made the case that the foundation of modern international law rested not, as most assumed, with the seventeenth-century Dutch thinker Hugo Grotius, but with sixteenth-century Spanish theologian Francisco de Vitoria. Far from being an antiquarian assertion, the Spanish origin narrative placed the inception of international law in the context of the discovery of America, rather than in the European wars of religion. The recognition of equal rights to the American natives by Vitoria was the pedigree on which Scott built a progressive international law, responsive to the rise of the United States as the leading global power and developments in international organization such as the creation of the League of Nations. This book describes the Spanish origin project in context, relying on Scott's biography, changes in the self-understanding of the international legal profession, as well as on larger social and political trends in US and global history. Keeping in mind Vitoria's persisting role as a key figure in the canon of international legal history, the book sheds light on the contingency of shared assumptions about the discipline and their unspoken implications. The legacy of the international law Scott developed for the American century is still with the profession today, in the shape of the normalization and de-politicization of rights language and of key concepts like equality and rule of law.
This is what Saddam said in one of his speeches on rewriting history. ... If they were unable to succeed in this process, they would use force.
Author: Ibrahim Sadiq
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
Category: Political Science
The origins of the Kurdish Genocide in Iraq based on unilateral nation building and the ethno-Arab-centrism in the frame of pan Arab ideology of Baathism. Additionally, the stages of genocide have been considered.
... Molotov's 'blatant attempt to artificially force the pace of collectivization'. ... to use the archives to set the record straight on collectivization.
Author: R. Markwick
This book explores the political significance of the development of historical revisionism in the USSR under Khrushchev in the wake of the Twentieth Congress of the CPSU and its demise with the onset of the 'period of stagnation' under Brezhnev. On the basis of intensive interviews and original manuscript material, the book demonstrates that the vigorous rejuvenation of historiography undertaken by Soviet historians in the 1960s conceptually cleared the way for and fomented the dramatic upheaval in Soviet historical writing occasioned by the advent of perestroika.
Discussion You can also use git push --force instead of specifying the remote branch ... so if you unintentionally rewrite history on the remote branch, ...
Author: Mike McQuaid
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
Summary Git in Practice is a collection of 66 tested techniques that will optimize the way you and your team manage your development projects. The book begins with a brief reminder of the core version control concepts you need when using Git and moves on to the high-value features you may not have explored yet. Then, you'll dig into cookbook-style techniques like history visualization, advanced branching and rewriting history each presented in a problem-solution-discussion format. Finally you'll work out how to use Git to its full potential through configuration, team workflows, submodules and using GitHub pull requests effectively. Purchase of the print book includes a free eBook in PDF, Kindle, and ePub formats from Manning Publications. About the Technology Git is a source control system, but it's a lot more than just that. For teams working in today's agile, continuous delivery environments, Git is a strategic advantage. Built with a decentralized structure that's perfect for a distributed team, Git manages branching, committing, complex merges, and task switching with minimal ceremony so you can concentrate on your code. About the Book Git in Practice is a collection of battle-tested techniques designed to optimize the way you and your team manage development projects. After a brief overview of Git's core features, this practical guide moves quickly to high-value topics like history visualization, advanced branching and rewriting, optimized configuration, team workflows, submodules, and how to use GitHub pull requests. Written in an easy-to-follow Problem/Solution/Discussion format with numerous diagrams and examples, it skips the theory and gets right to the nitty-gritty tasks that will transform the way you work. Written for developers familiar with version control and ready for the good stuff in Git. What's Inside Team interaction strategies and techniques Replacing bad habits with good practices Juggling complex configurations Rewriting history and disaster recovery About the Author Mike McQuaid is a software engineer at GitHub. He's contributed to Qt and the Linux kernel, and he maintains the Git-based Homebrew project. Table of Contents PART 1 INTRODUCTION TO GIT Local Git Remote Git PART 2 GIT ESSENTIALS Filesystem interactions History visualization Advanced branching Rewriting history and disaster recovery PART 3 ADVANCED GIT Personalizing Git Vendoring dependencies as submodules Working with Subversion GitHub pull requests Hosting a repository PART 4 GIT BEST PRACTICES Creating a clean history Merging vs. rebasing Recommended team workflows
... record of the years 1872–1917 seemed plainly to contradict Lenin's dogma , it
was necessary to rewrite history . ... from private to public ownership of the means
of production , the use of force is , in a deeply Marxian sense , un - Marxian .
Author: William Ebenstein
Publisher: Prentice Hall
The conflict between totalitarianism and democracy pro- vides the framework for a discussion of recent political and economic changes throughout the world.
... a naked attempt to rewrite history differently than it actually happened. ... for use of force against another nation as a matter of international law, ...
Author: Charles Tiefer
Category: Political Science
In The Semi-Sovereign Presidency, Capitol Hill insider Charles Tiefer shows how George Bush used the executive office to circumvent Congress, thwart official Washington, and confound the public will. Even Bush partisans may be surprised to discover the president's unprecedented use of executive signing statements to modify or, in effect, abrogate acts of Congress—even popular, bipartisan efforts like the 1991 Civil Rights Act; his commissioning of the "Quayle Council" to derail regulatory legislation such as the Clean Air Act of 1990; and his catapulting of the National Security Council into foreign policy prominence outstripping that of the Departments of Defense and State. As Tiefer details for the first time here, "Iraqgate," the hidden courtship of Saddam Hussein prior to the Gulf War, is perhaps the most dramatic example of Bush's executive fiat—a relationship conducted by way of Bush National Security Directives and similarly obscured from the public eye. Bush chose an essentially negative approach to governing partly because he was unwilling to engage Congress on matters of principle head to head and was equally unwilling to make his principles public—addressing himself to the nation as his predecessor had so effectively done. But, as Tiefer persuasively argues, it was Bush's belief in the sovereignty of executive power—an almost monarchical conception of the presidency—that was his primary modus operandi and ultimately his downfall. Bush and his approach to power are interesting not just to students and scholars of the presidency but to all citizens concerned about the country and its leadership.
... D - Wis . , do not want to authorize a new version of a war they never REWRITING HISTORY supported to begin with . ... is rewriting or repealing the ly
at the Democrats ' revision of the 2002 2002 authorization ( PL 107 - 243 ) to use force ...