Quantification of Circulating Proteins

Quantification of Circulating Proteins

Less than 50 years ago it was discovered that steady-state protein concentrations in plasma are the net result of continuous elimination and synthesis of protein molecules.

Author: Wim Th. Hermens

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400976603

Category: Medical

Page: 264

View: 312

Less than 50 years ago it was discovered that steady-state protein concentrations in plasma are the net result of continuous elimination and synthesis of protein molecules. The first quanti tative studies on the turnover and distribution of plasma pro teins were made around 1950, after the introduction of radio labeled protein preparations. Around 1970, another development in quantitative interpre tation of circulating proteins was initiated in clinical enzy mology. Estimation of cumulative release into plasma of cellular enzymes can be helpful in a variety of diseases to assess the extent of tissue damage and to evaluate therapy. Enzymes can be considered as biological tracers, i.e. minute quantities of protein can be accurately determined by their spe cific catalytic activities. However, radioactive tracers permit direct estimates of turnover and distr ibution by measurement of excreted radioactivity, possibilities that are not available for enzymes. Consequently, only a few techniques used in tracer studies with radiolabeled proteins can be applied to circulating tissue enzymes and this may explain the lack of communication between the fields of plasma protein metabolism and quantitative clinical enzymology. In the present study a summary is given of the basic methods used in both fields, with emphasis on the equivalence of various models and formalisms used by different authors. It is shown that major limitations in the study of circulating tissue enzymes can be overcome if two different, but simultaneously released, en zymes can be measured. The resulting method will also be applied to plasma protein metabolism.
Categories: Medical

Quantification of Circulating Proteins

Quantification of Circulating Proteins

Less than 50 years ago it was discovered that steady-state protein concentrations in plasma are the net result of continuous elimination and synthesis of protein molecules.

Author: Wim Th. Hermens

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9024727553

Category: Medical

Page: 264

View: 799

Less than 50 years ago it was discovered that steady-state protein concentrations in plasma are the net result of continuous elimination and synthesis of protein molecules. The first quanti tative studies on the turnover and distribution of plasma pro teins were made around 1950, after the introduction of radio labeled protein preparations. Around 1970, another development in quantitative interpre tation of circulating proteins was initiated in clinical enzy mology. Estimation of cumulative release into plasma of cellular enzymes can be helpful in a variety of diseases to assess the extent of tissue damage and to evaluate therapy. Enzymes can be considered as biological tracers, i.e. minute quantities of protein can be accurately determined by their spe cific catalytic activities. However, radioactive tracers permit direct estimates of turnover and distr ibution by measurement of excreted radioactivity, possibilities that are not available for enzymes. Consequently, only a few techniques used in tracer studies with radiolabeled proteins can be applied to circulating tissue enzymes and this may explain the lack of communication between the fields of plasma protein metabolism and quantitative clinical enzymology. In the present study a summary is given of the basic methods used in both fields, with emphasis on the equivalence of various models and formalisms used by different authors. It is shown that major limitations in the study of circulating tissue enzymes can be overcome if two different, but simultaneously released, en zymes can be measured. The resulting method will also be applied to plasma protein metabolism.
Categories: Medical

ADME and Translational Pharmacokinetics Pharmacodynamics of Therapeutic Proteins

ADME and Translational Pharmacokinetics   Pharmacodynamics of Therapeutic Proteins

(a) (c) FIGURE 21.2 Illustrations of various calibration approaches for targeted protein quantification and the ... of target proteins and/or SPs in plasma, achieving ultrasensitive quantification of circulating biomarkers in plasma ...

Author: Honghui Zhou

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781118898741

Category: Medical

Page: 472

View: 483

With an emphasis on the fundamental and practical aspects of ADME for therapeutic proteins, this book helps readers strategize, plan and implement translational research for biologic drugs. • Details cutting-edge ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion) and PKPD (pharmacokinetic / pharmacodynamics) modeling for biologic drugs • Combines theoretical with practical aspects of ADME in biologic drug discovery and development and compares innovator biologics with biosimilar biologics and small molecules with biologics, giving a lessons-learned perspective • Includes case studies about leveraging ADME to improve biologics drug development for monoclonal antibodies, fusion proteins, pegylated proteins, ADCs, bispecifics, and vaccines • Presents regulatory expectations and industry perspectives for developing biologic drugs in USA, EU, and Japan • Provides mechanistic insight into biodistribution and target-driven pharmacokinetics in important sites of action such as tumors and the brain
Categories: Medical

Biomarkers in Cardiovascular Disease

Biomarkers in Cardiovascular Disease

Ganz et al. derived and validated a nine-protein score to predict 4-year probability risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, HF, and all-cause death among patients with CHD, using large-scale analysis of circulating proteins.8 Assessment ...

Author: Vijay Nambi

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 9780323548366

Category: Medical

Page: 400

View: 786

Get a quick, expert overview of the ways in which biomarkers can be used to assess and guide the management of cardiovascular disease in the clinical setting. This concise, clinically-focused resource by Dr. Vijay Nambi consolidates today’s available information on this rapidly changing topic into one convenient resource, making it an ideal, easy-to-digest reference for cardiology practitioners, fellows, and residents. Covers lab standards and statistical interpretation of biomarkers with a clinical focus. Discusses relevant conditions such as hypertension and diabetes as key markers of injury and prognosis. Includes current information on biomarkers to assess and guide the management of heart failure, acute coronary syndrome, chest pain, shortness of breath, and more. Concludes the book with a timely chapter on how biomarkers may guide cardiologists in the future.
Categories: Medical

Targeted Biomarker Quantitation by LC MS

Targeted Biomarker Quantitation by LC MS

Niwa M, Watanabe M, Watanabe N. Chemical derivatization in LC–MS bioanalysis: current & future challenges. ... A novel, high‐sensitivity and drug‐tolerant sandwich immunoassay for the quantitative measurement of circulating proteins.

Author: Naidong Weng

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781119413066

Category: Medical

Page: 464

View: 981

The first book to offer a blueprint for overcoming the challenges to successfully quantifying biomarkers in living organisms The demand among scientists and clinicians for targeted quantitation experiments has experienced explosive growth in recent years. While there are a few books dedicated to bioanalysis and biomarkers in general, until now there were none devoted exclusively to addressing critical issues surrounding this area of intense research. Target Biomarker Quantitation by LC-MS provides a detailed blueprint for quantifying biomarkers in biological systems. It uses numerous real-world cases to exemplify key concepts, all of which were carefully selected and presented so as to allow the concepts they embody to be easily expanded to future applications, including new biomarker development. Target Biomarker Quantitation by LC-MS primarily focuses on the assay establishment for biomarker quantitation—a critical issue rarely treated in depth. It offers comprehensive coverage of three core areas of biomarker assay establishment: the relationship between the measured biomarkers and their intended usage; contemporary regulatory requirements for biomarker assays (a thorough understanding of which is essential to producing a successful and defendable submission); and the technical challenges of analyzing biomarkers produced inside a living organism or cell. Covers the theory of and applications for state-of-the-art mass spectrometry and chromatography and their applications in biomarker analysis Features real-life examples illustrating the challenges involved in target biomarker quantitation and the innovative approaches which have been used to overcome those challenges Addresses potential obstacles to obtain effective biomarker level and data interpretation, such as specificity establishment and sample collection Outlines a tiered approach and fit-for-purpose assay protocol for target biomarker quantitation Highlights the current state of the biomarker regulatory environment and protocol standards Target Biomarker Quantitation by LC-MS is a valuable resource for bioanalytical scientists, drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics scientists, clinical scientists, analytical chemists, and others for whom biomarker quantitation is an important tool of the trade. It also functions as an excellent text for graduate courses in pharmaceutical, biochemistry and chemistry.
Categories: Medical

Handbook of Biomaterial Properties

Handbook of Biomaterial Properties

Hermens, W.T., Willems, G.M. and Visser, M.P. (1982) Quantification of Circulating Proteins: Theory and Applications Based on Analysis of Plasma Protein Levels, Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague. 16. Colman, R.W., Hirsh, J., Marder, V.J., ...

Author: William Murphy

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9781493933051

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 676

View: 214

This book provides tabular and text data relating to normal and diseased tissue materials and materials used in medical devices. Comprehensive and practical for students, researchers, engineers, and practicing physicians who use implants, this book considers the materials aspects of both implantable materials and natural tissues and fluids. Examples of materials and topics covered include titanium, elastomers, degradable biomaterials, composites, scaffold materials for tissue engineering, dental implants, sterilization effects on material properties, metallic alloys, and much more. Each chapter author considers the intrinsic and interactive properties of biomaterials, as well as their appropriate applications and historical contexts. Now in an updated second edition, this book also contains two new chapters on the cornea and on vocal folds, as well as updated insights, data, and citations for several chapters.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Principles and Clinical Diagnostic Applications of Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

Principles and Clinical Diagnostic Applications of Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

... into SERS-based ctNAs analysis with clinical samples 6.6 Tumor-associated proteins 6.6.1 Clinical significance and current analysis techniques of circulating proteins 6.6.2 SERS-based strategy for protein analysis 6.6.3 Insights on ...

Author: Yuling Wang

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780128231982

Category: Science

Page: 464

View: 258

Principles and Clinical Diagnostic Applications of Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy summarizes the principles of surface-enhanced Raman scattering/spectroscopy (SERS) and plasmonic nanomaterials for SERS, with a focus on SERS applications in clinical diagnostics. This book covers the key concepts from the fundamentals, materials, experimental aspects, and applications of SERS in clinical diagnostics with discussions on label-free/direct SERS assay, design and synthesis of SERS nanotags, SERS nanotags for point-of-care diagnostics, microfluidic SERS assay, and in vitro and in vivo sensing and imaging. Written by experts from around the world, this comprehensive volume showcases the recent progress of SERS applications in clinical diagnostics and helps readers understand when and how to use SERS in a clinical setting. Introduces the basics of SERS and suitable nanomaterials for SERS application Gives an overview of the cutting-edge research on SERS applications for clinical diagnosis, including the latest advances in our understanding of underlying principles to enable material design and clinical applications Gradually builds from the fundamental concepts to the applications of SERS for clinical diagnostics
Categories: Science

Biomaterials for Delivery and Targeting of Proteins and Nucleic Acids

Biomaterials for Delivery and Targeting of Proteins and Nucleic Acids

For example, protein-specific immunoassays (RIA, ELISA, and EIA) have been adapted or developed to quantify circulating levels of several PEG-protein conjugates, including PEGylated versions of insulin84, EGF,85 GH,76 MGDF,225 ...

Author: Ram I. Mahato

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780203492321

Category: Medical

Page: 712

View: 619

Newcomers to the field of biopharmaceuticals require an understanding of the basic principles and underlying methodology involved in developing protein- and nucleic acid-based therapies for genetic and acquired diseases. Biomaterials for Delivery and Targeting of Proteins and Nucleic Acids introduces the principles of polymer science and che
Categories: Medical

Proteomic Analysis of Ischemic Stroke Blood Biomarkers

Proteomic Analysis of Ischemic Stroke Blood Biomarkers

Stroke is a global burden that claims 6 million lives and permanently disables another 5 million each year.

Author: April Arnold Daubenspeck

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:1102318144

Category: Biochemical markers

Page: 114

View: 761

Stroke is a global burden that claims 6 million lives and permanently disables another 5 million each year. The risk of morbidity and mortality following stroke decreases when early diagnosis and treatment are achieved. However there is no blood test to diagnose ischemic stroke because biomarkers to date have not shown adequate sensitivity and specificity to be adopted into hospital protocols. The overall objective of this dissertation was to identify novel blood protein biomarkers of ischemic stroke. We achieved this by using a number of proteomic and statistical techniques to investigate the differential abundance of proteins in the blood of stroke and non-stroke groups. We identified four high-abundance serum proteins differentially expressed between the ischemic brain of stroke patients undergoing mechanical thrombectomy and the same patient's circulating arterial blood. Three proteins were significantly higher in the circulating blood, and a fourth protein had a large fold change in abundance in the ischemic blood of a few patients. We then identified an additional fourteen serum proteins with significant differences between the venous blood of stroke patients and that of healthy individuals. To expand these findings in a more clinically relevant patient group, protein concentrations for these eighteen individual proteins were evaluated in stroke patients and patients with stroke-mimicking symptoms. Separate analysis of each protein revealed a low diagnostic accuracy. A new analysis was therefore initiated to compare the concentrations of 1310 serum proteins in stroke patients and stroke-mimicking patients. We identified 27 additional proteins that were significantly different between stroke and stroke-mimicking patient groups, and used machine learning to determine combinations of these proteins that could constitute a stroke biomarker panel. Random Forest Analysis identified three protein panels which differentiated stroke from non-stroke groups. Thus, consistent with previous research, we did not find an individual blood protein that was likely to be clinically useful as a diagnostic biomarker. However, three protein biomarker panels successfully differentiated stroke patients from stroke-mimicking patients which may lead to the development of a validated point-of-care diagnostic test.
Categories: Biochemical markers