Qualifying Times

Points of Change in U.S. Women's Sport

Author: Jaime Schultz

Publisher: University of Illinois Press

ISBN: 0252095960

Category: Social Science

Page: 304

View: 7684

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This perceptive, lively study explores U.S. women's sport through historical "points of change": particular products or trends that dramatically influenced both women's participation in sport and cultural responses to women athletes. Beginning with the seemingly innocent ponytail, the subject of the Introduction, scholar Jaime Schultz challenges the reader to look at the historical and sociological significance of now-common items such as sports bras and tampons and ideas such as sex testing and competitive cheerleading. Tennis wear, tampons, and sports bras all facilitated women’s participation in physical culture, while physical educators, the aesthetic fitness movement, and Title IX encouraged women to challenge (or confront) policy, financial, and cultural obstacles. While some of these points of change increased women's physical freedom and sporting participation, they also posed challenges. Tampons encouraged menstrual shame, sex testing (a tool never used with male athletes) perpetuated narrowly-defined cultural norms of femininity, and the late-twentieth-century aesthetic fitness movement fed into an unrealistic beauty ideal. Ultimately, Schultz finds that U.S. women's sport has progressed significantly but ambivalently. Although participation in sports is no longer uncommon for girls and women, Schultz argues that these "points of change" have contributed to a complex matrix of gender differentiation that marks the female athletic body as different than--as less than--the male body, despite the advantages it may confer.
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Artifacts from Modern America

Author: Helen Sheumaker

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 1440846839

Category: History

Page: 347

View: 9275

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This intriguing book examines how material objects of the 20th century—ranging from articles of clothing to tools and weapons, communication devices, and toys and games—reflect dominant ideas and testify to the ways social change happens. • Supplies numerous examples of the ways in which American innovation depended on immigrants who invented new technologies and contributed immeasurably towards a uniquely powerful American economy • Demonstrates how American material life was created through globalization, from products imported into this country, such as Atari's video game console, to American products dependent upon imported materials, such as American cigarettes that used imported tobacco, and the coffee percolator on the kitchen table, serving up imported brewed coffee beans • Highlights how the ongoing struggle to achieve true equality and democracy is evidenced through objects such as a voting machine from 1900, the bus that Rosa Parks boarded, the buttons worn by gay rights activists, and the robe Muhammad Ali, a converted Muslim American, fought in—material items that played a role in the ongoing project of American political life
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Routledge Handbook of Sport and Exercise Systems Genetics

Author: J. Timothy Lightfoot,Monica J. Hubal,Stephen M. Roth

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 135138015X

Category: Medical

Page: 514

View: 2431

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Technological advances over the last two decades have placed genetic research at the forefront of sport and exercise science. It provides potential answers to some of contemporary sport and exercise’s defining issues and throws up some of the area’s most challenging ethical questions, but to date, it has rested on a fragmented and disparate literature base. The Routledge Handbook of Sport and Exercise Systems Genetics constitutes the most authoritative and comprehensive reference in this critical area of study, consolidating knowledge and providing a framework for interpreting future research findings. Taking an approach which covers single gene variations, through genomics, epigenetics, and proteomics, to environmental and dietary influences on genetic mechanisms, the book is divided into seven sections. It examines state-of-the-art genetic methods, applies its approach to physical activity, exercise endurance, muscle strength, and sports performance, and discusses the ethical considerations associated with genetic research in sport and exercise. Made up of contributions from some of the world’s leading sport and exercise scientists and including chapters on important topical issues such as gene doping, gender testing, predicting sport performance and injury risk, and using genetic information to inform physical activity and health debates, the handbook is a vital addition to the sport and exercise literature. It is an important reference for any upper-level student, researcher, or practitioner working in the genetics of sport and exercise or exercise physiology, and crucial reading for any social scientist interested in the ethics of sport.
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Defending the American Way of Life

Sport, Culture, and the Cold War

Author: Kevin B. Witherspoon

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 1682260763

Category:

Page: 280

View: 1647

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The Cold War was fought in every corner of society, including in the sport and entertainment industries. Recognizing the importance of culture in the battle for hearts and minds, the United States, like the Soviet Union, attempted to win the favor of citizens in nonaligned states through the soft power of sport. Athletes became de facto ambassadors of US interests, their wins and losses serving as emblems of broader efforts to shield American culture--both at home and abroad--against communism. In Defending the American Way of Life, leading sport historians present new perspectives on high-profile issues in this era of sport history alongside research drawn from previously untapped archival sources to highlight the ways that sports influenced and were influenced by Cold War politics. Surveying the significance of sports in Cold War America through lenses of race, gender, diplomacy, cultural infiltration, anti-communist hysteria, doping, state intervention, and more, this collection illustrates how this conflict remains relevant to US sporting institutions, organizations, and ideologies today.
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The Sacred Project of American Sociology

Author: Christian Smith

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199377154

Category: Social Science

Page: 176

View: 7503

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Counter to popular perceptions, contemporary American sociology is and promotes a profoundly sacred project at heart. Sociology today is in fact animated by sacred impulses, driven by sacred commitments, and serves a sacred project. Sociology appears on the surface to be a secular, scientific enterprise--its founding fathers were mostly atheists. Its basic operating premises are secular and naturalistic. Sociologists today are disproportionately not religious, compared to all Americans, and often irreligious. The Sacred Project of American Sociology shows, counter-intuitively, that the secular enterprise that everyday sociology appears to be pursuing is actually not what is really going on at sociology's deepest level. Christian Smith conducts a self-reflexive, tables-turning, cultural and institutional sociology of the profession of American sociology itself, showing that this allegedly secular discipline ironically expresses Emile Durkheim's inescapable sacred, exemplifies its own versions of Marxist false consciousness, and generates a spirited reaction against Max Weber's melancholically observed disenchantment of the world. American sociology does not escape the analytical net that it casts over the rest of the ordinary world. Sociology itself is a part of that very human, very social, often very sacred and spiritual world. And sociology's ironic mis-recognition of its own sacred project leads to a variety of arguably self-destructive and distorting tendencies. This book re-asserts a vision for what sociology is most important for, in contrast with its current commitments, and calls sociologists back to a more honest, fair, and healthy vision of its purpose.
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Key Concepts in Urban Studies

Author: Mark Gottdiener,Leslie Budd

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 184860050X

Category: Social Science

Page: 200

View: 3047

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The SAGE Key Concepts series provides students with accessible and authoritative knowledge of the essential topics in a variety of disciplines. Cross-referenced throughout, the format encourages critical evaluation through understanding. Written by experienced and respected academics, the books are indispensable study aids and guides to comprehension. Key Concepts in Urban Studies: • Clearly and concisely explains the basic ideas in the interdisciplinary field of urban studies • Offers concise discussions of concepts ranging from community, neighbourhood, and the city to globalization, the New Urbanism, feminine space, and urban problems • Constitutes a re-examination of the key ideas in the field • Is illustrated throughout with international examples • Provides an essential reference guide for all students and teachers across the urban disciplines within sociology, political science, planning and geography.
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Women's Almanac 2000

Author: Doris Weatherford

Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group

ISBN: N.A

Category: Reference

Page: 370

View: 7117

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"Women's Almanac 2000" is a first-stop reference that combines news, issues, statistics, and a resource directory together with historical information and analysis from both an international and U.S. perspective. No other reference offers this unique combination of information, complete with an annotated list of Web sites, dozens of photos, charts, statistics, and graphs. With acclaimed women's studies author Doris Weatherford as editor-in-chief and major contributor, this is the authoritative source for cutting-edge information about women in the United States and throughout the world.
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