Programmed Inequality

How Britain Discarded Women Technologists and Lost Its Edge in Computing

Author: Marie Hicks

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262035545

Category: Computers

Page: 342

View: 7207

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Introduction: Britain's computer "revolution"--War machines : women's computing work and the underpinnings of the data-driven state 1930-1946 -- Peacetime data processing : institutionalizing a feminized machine underclass 1946-1954 -- Luck and labor shortage : gender, professionalization, and opportunities for computer workers -- 1958-1969 -- The rise of the technocrat : how state attempts to centralize power through computing went -- Astray 1967-1971 -- The end of white heat and the failure of British technocracy, 1970-1979 -- Conclusion: re-assembling the history of computing to show gender's formative role -- Bibliography
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The Whipple Museum of the History of Science

Author: Joshua Nall,Liba Taub,Frances Willmoth

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1108498272

Category: Art

Page: 400

View: 4956

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A window into cultures of scientific practice drawing on the collection of the Whipple Museum of the History of Science. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
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Gaming the Iron Curtain

How Teenagers and Amateurs in Communist Czechoslovakia Claimed the Medium of Computer Games

Author: Jaroslav Švelch

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262038846

Category: Games & Activities

Page: 400

View: 9465

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How amateur programmers in 1980s Czechoslovakia discovered games as a medium, using them not only for entertainment but also as a means of self-expression. Aside from the exceptional history of Tetris, very little is known about gaming culture behind the Iron Curtain. But despite the scarcity of home computers and the absence of hardware and software markets, Czechoslovakia hosted a remarkably active DIY microcomputer scene in the 1980s, producing more than two hundred games that were by turns creative, inventive, and politically subversive. In Gaming the Iron Curtain, Jaroslav Švelch offers the first social history of gaming and game design in 1980s Czechoslovakia, and the first book-length treatment of computer gaming in any country of the Soviet bloc. Švelch describes how amateur programmers in 1980s Czechoslovakia discovered games as a medium, using them not only for entertainment but also as a means of self-expression. Sheltered in state-supported computer clubs, local programmers fashioned games into a medium of expression that, unlike television or the press, was neither regulated nor censored. In the final years of Communist rule, Czechoslovak programmers were among the first in the world to make activist games about current political events, anticipating trends observed decades later in independent or experimental titles. Drawing from extensive interviews as well as political, economic, and social history, Gaming the Iron Curtain tells a compelling tale of gaming the system, introducing us to individuals who used their ingenuity to be active, be creative, and be heard.
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Making IT Work

A History of the Computer Services Industry

Author: Jeffrey R. Yost

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 026203672X

Category: Computers

Page: 376

View: 3010

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The computer services industry has worldwide annual revenues of nearly a trillion dollars and employs millions of workers, but is often overshadowed by the hardware and software products industries. In this book, Jeffrey Yost shows how computer services, from consulting and programming to data analytics and cloud computing, have played a crucial role in shaping information technology -- in making IT work. Tracing the evolution of the computer services industry from the 1950s to the present, Yost provides case studies of important companies (including IBM, Hewlett Packard, Andersen/Accenture, EDS, Infosys, and others) and profiles of such influential leaders as John Diebold, Ross Perot, and Virginia Rometty. He offers a fundamental reinterpretation of IBM as a supplier of computer services rather than just a producer of hardware, exploring how IBM bundled services with hardware for many years before becoming service-centered in the 1990s. Yost describes the emergence of companies that offered consulting services, data processing, programming, and systems integration. He examines the development of industry-defining trade associations; facilities management and the firm that invented it, Ross Perot's EDS; time sharing, a precursor of the cloud; IBM's early computer services; and independent contractor brokerages. Finally, he explores developments since the 1980s: the transformations of IBM and Hewlett Packard; the offshoring of enterprises and labor; major Indian IT service providers and the changing geographical deployment of U.S.-based companies; and the paradigm-changing phenomenon of cloud service.
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