Prime Numbers and the Riemann Hypothesis

Author: Barry Mazur,William Stein

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107101921

Category: Mathematics

Page: 150

View: 752

This book introduces prime numbers and explains the famous unsolved Riemann hypothesis.

The Riemann Hypothesis

A Resource for the Afficionado and Virtuoso Alike

Author: Peter Borwein,Stephen Choi,Brendan Rooney,Andrea Weirathmueller

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387721258

Category: Mathematics

Page: 533

View: 1842

The Riemann Hypothesis has become the Holy Grail of mathematics in the century and a half since 1859 when Bernhard Riemann, one of the extraordinary mathematical talents of the 19th century, originally posed the problem. While the problem is notoriously difficult, and complicated even to state carefully, it can be loosely formulated as "the number of integers with an even number of prime factors is the same as the number of integers with an odd number of prime factors." The Hypothesis makes a very precise connection between two seemingly unrelated mathematical objects, namely prime numbers and the zeros of analytic functions. If solved, it would give us profound insight into number theory and, in particular, the nature of prime numbers. This book is an introduction to the theory surrounding the Riemann Hypothesis. Part I serves as a compendium of known results and as a primer for the material presented in the 20 original papers contained in Part II. The original papers place the material into historical context and illustrate the motivations for research on and around the Riemann Hypothesis. Several of these papers focus on computation of the zeta function, while others give proofs of the Prime Number Theorem, since the Prime Number Theorem is so closely connected to the Riemann Hypothesis. The text is suitable for a graduate course or seminar or simply as a reference for anyone interested in this extraordinary conjecture.

Prime Numbers

The Most Mysterious Figures in Math

Author: David Wells

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0471718920

Category: Mathematics

Page: 288

View: 8319

A fascinating journey into the mind-bending world of prime numbers Cicadas of the genus Magicicada appear once every 7, 13, or 17 years. Is it just a coincidence that these are all prime numbers? How do twin primes differ from cousin primes, and what on earth (or in the mind of a mathematician) could be sexy about prime numbers? What did Albert Wilansky find so fascinating about his brother-in-law's phone number? Mathematicians have been asking questions about prime numbers for more than twenty-five centuries, and every answer seems to generate a new rash of questions. In Prime Numbers: The Most Mysterious Figures in Math, you'll meet the world's most gifted mathematicians, from Pythagoras and Euclid to Fermat, Gauss, and Erd?o?s, and you'll discover a host of unique insights and inventive conjectures that have both enlarged our understanding and deepened the mystique of prime numbers. This comprehensive, A-to-Z guide covers everything you ever wanted to know--and much more that you never suspected--about prime numbers, including: * The unproven Riemann hypothesis and the power of the zeta function * The "Primes is in P" algorithm * The sieve of Eratosthenes of Cyrene * Fermat and Fibonacci numbers * The Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search * And much, much more

Prime Obsession

Bernhard Riemann and the Greatest Unsolved Problem in Mathematics

Author: John Derbyshire

Publisher: Joseph Henry Press

ISBN: 0309512573

Category: Science

Page: 429

View: 7493

In August 1859 Bernhard Riemann, a little-known 32-year old mathematician, presented a paper to the Berlin Academy titled: "On the Number of Prime Numbers Less Than a Given Quantity." In the middle of that paper, Riemann made an incidental remark — a guess, a hypothesis. What he tossed out to the assembled mathematicians that day has proven to be almost cruelly compelling to countless scholars in the ensuing years. Today, after 150 years of careful research and exhaustive study, the question remains. Is the hypothesis true or false? Riemann's basic inquiry, the primary topic of his paper, concerned a straightforward but nevertheless important matter of arithmetic — defining a precise formula to track and identify the occurrence of prime numbers. But it is that incidental remark — the Riemann Hypothesis — that is the truly astonishing legacy of his 1859 paper. Because Riemann was able to see beyond the pattern of the primes to discern traces of something mysterious and mathematically elegant shrouded in the shadows — subtle variations in the distribution of those prime numbers. Brilliant for its clarity, astounding for its potential consequences, the Hypothesis took on enormous importance in mathematics. Indeed, the successful solution to this puzzle would herald a revolution in prime number theory. Proving or disproving it became the greatest challenge of the age. It has become clear that the Riemann Hypothesis, whose resolution seems to hang tantalizingly just beyond our grasp, holds the key to a variety of scientific and mathematical investigations. The making and breaking of modern codes, which depend on the properties of the prime numbers, have roots in the Hypothesis. In a series of extraordinary developments during the 1970s, it emerged that even the physics of the atomic nucleus is connected in ways not yet fully understood to this strange conundrum. Hunting down the solution to the Riemann Hypothesis has become an obsession for many — the veritable "great white whale" of mathematical research. Yet despite determined efforts by generations of mathematicians, the Riemann Hypothesis defies resolution. Alternating passages of extraordinarily lucid mathematical exposition with chapters of elegantly composed biography and history, Prime Obsession is a fascinating and fluent account of an epic mathematical mystery that continues to challenge and excite the world. Posited a century and a half ago, the Riemann Hypothesis is an intellectual feast for the cognoscenti and the curious alike. Not just a story of numbers and calculations, Prime Obsession is the engrossing tale of a relentless hunt for an elusive proof — and those who have been consumed by it.

The Prime Number Theorem

Author: G. J. O. Jameson

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521891103

Category: Mathematics

Page: 252

View: 5134

The prime numbers appear to be distributed in a very irregular way amongst the integers, but the prime number theorem provides a simple formula that tells us (in an approximate but well-defined sense) how many primes we can expect to find that are less than any integer we might choose. This is indisputably one of the the great classical theorems of mathematics. Suitable for advanced undergraduates and beginning graduates, this textbook demonstrates how the tools of analysis can be used in number theory to attack a famous problem.

The Riemann Zeta-Function

Theory and Applications

Author: Aleksandar Ivic

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486140040

Category: Mathematics

Page: 562

View: 5350

This text covers exponential integrals and sums, 4th power moment, zero-free region, mean value estimates over short intervals, higher power moments, omega results, zeros on the critical line, zero-density estimates, and more. 1985 edition.

Casimir Force, Casimir Operators and the Riemann Hypothesis

Mathematics for Innovation in Industry and Science

Author: Gerrit van Dijk,Masato Wakayama

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 311022612X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 286

View: 7179

This volume contains the proceedings of the conference "Casimir Force, Casimir Operators and the Riemann Hypothesis Mathematics for Innovation in Industry and Science" held in November 2009 in Fukuoka (Japan). The conference focused on the following topics: Casimir operators in harmonic analysis and representation theory Number theory, in particular zeta functions and cryptography Casimir force in physics and its relation with nano-science Mathematical biology Importance of mathematics for innovation in industry "

Riemann's Zeta Function

Author: Harold M. Edwards

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 9780486417400

Category: Mathematics

Page: 315

View: 4037

Superb high-level study of one of the most influential classics in mathematics examines landmark 1859 publication entitled “On the Number of Primes Less Than a Given Magnitude,” and traces developments in theory inspired by it. Topics include Riemann's main formula, the prime number theorem, the Riemann-Siegel formula, large-scale computations, Fourier analysis, and other related topics. English translation of Riemann's original document appears in the Appendix.

Prime Numbers

A Computational Perspective

Author: Richard Crandall,Carl B. Pomerance

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387289798

Category: Mathematics

Page: 597

View: 7872

Bridges the gap between theoretical and computational aspects of prime numbers Exercise sections are a goldmine of interesting examples, pointers to the literature and potential research projects Authors are well-known and highly-regarded in the field

An Introduction to the Theory of the Riemann Zeta-Function

Author: S. J. Patterson

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521499057

Category: Mathematics

Page: 172

View: 5534

This is a modern introduction to the analytic techniques used in the investigation of zeta-function. Riemann introduced this function in connection with his study of prime numbers, and from this has developed the subject of analytic number theory. Since then, many other classes of "zeta-function" have been introduced and they are now some of the most intensively studied objects in number theory. Professor Patterson has emphasized central ideas of broad application, avoiding technical results and the customary function-theoretic approach.