Reasons for Considering Biofertilizer Technology (i) Agriculture in tropical countries like India produces a ... inoculant first patented by Nobe and Hiltner in 1896 (Fred $& Potential Microorganisms for Sustainable Agriculture.
Author: D. K. Maheshwari
Publisher: I. K. International Pvt Ltd
Category: Agricultural microbiology
The number of potential microbes exploited commercially is scanty irrespective of their high number present in the diverse habitats. In recent years, they have shown successfulness in multifarious areas such as production of industrially viable products, organic chemicals, pharmaceuticals, recovery of metals, improvement and maintenance of environmental quality, and insect and pest control. The Twenty-three articles included here fall under three broad categories, namely, agricultural microbiology, industrial microbiology and bioremediation. The psychrophiles hold many biological secrets such as biochemical limits to macromolecular stability and the blueprints for constructing the stable macromolecules. Lactic acid bacteria are known for their role in the preparation of fermented dairy products. Potential strains for production of lactic acid with emphasis on its fermentation, economics and systematics have been dealt with in greater detail. Biotechnological applications of pectinases in general and alkaline pectinases in particular play an important role in industry. Production, characteristics and applications of microbial alkaline pectinolytic enzymes have been elaborated. Production of ergot alkaloids thrives a novel knowledge. Now-a-days, semi-synthetic ergot alkaloids are widely used as a potential therapeutic agent. Microbial production of glucans, functional organization and their industrial significance have been systematically reviewed. Bioactive exopolysaccharides from mushrooms have gained importance in recent years. Production and characterization of exopolysaccharides and conversion of unsaturated fatty acids into value-added hydroxyl fatty acids by using microorganisms are used in a wide range of industrial products. Enhancing the microbial production of 1,3-propanidial and its application highlights the commercial exploitation of potential microorganisms. Aldehyde and organic acid production by using oxydases and their derivatives advantageous role in industry. Some chapters are devoted to the potential entomopathogenic fungi for management of insect pests, biotechnological applications of fusaria, microbial metabolite-mediated biocontrol of soil-borne plant pathogens, bioremediation of heavy metals, organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides. Bioinoculants apart from being eco-friendly are being used, but reviewers have emphasized the constraints in commercial bioinoculant production and their quality assurance. All the articles of this volume depict the role of microorganisms in agricultural industries. The exploitation of such beneficial microorganisms may improve agricultural systems with economically sound production of human food and animal feed. This volume will certainly help the PG and research students of agricultural microbiology and biotechnology.
Actinomycetes, the gram-positive filamentous bacteria showing several attributes similar to fungi and bacteria, are one of the potential microorganisms with potential applications in agricultural, medical, and environmental sectors.
Author: Ajay Kumar
Publisher: Woodhead Publishing
Category: Technology & Engineering
Role of Plant Growth Promoting Microorganisms in Sustainable Agriculture and Nanotechnology explores PGPMs (actinomycetes, bacteria, fungi and cyanobacteria) and their multidimensional roles in agriculture, including their increasing applications in sustainable agriculture. In addition to their traditional understanding and applications in agriculture, PGPMs are increasingly known as a source of nano-particles production that are gaining significant interest in their ability to provide more economically, environmentally friendly and safe technologies to crop growers. The book considers new concepts and current developments in plant growth, thus promoting microorganisms research and evaluating its implications for sustainable productivity. Users will find this to be an invaluable resource for researchers in applied microbial biotechnology, soil science, nano-technology of microbial strains, and industry personnel in these areas. Presents basic and applied aspects of sustainable agriculture, including nano-technology in sustainable agriculture Identifies molecular tools/omics approaches for enhancing plant growth promoting microorganisms Discusses plant growth promoting microorganisms in bioactive compounds production, and as a source of nano-particles
Author: Mohammad Saghir KhanPublish On: 2009-08-25
Furthermore, the long-term sustainability of agricultural systems depends most likely on effective handling of the internal/ ... These microorganisms are the potential tools for sustainable agriculture because they not only ensure the ...
Author: Mohammad Saghir Khan
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Category: Technology & Engineering
With an ever-increasing human population, the demand placed upon the agriculture sector to supply more food is one of the greatest challenges for the agrarian community. In order to meet this challenge, environmentally unfriendly agroch- icals have played a key role in the green revolution and are even today commonly recommended to circumvent nutrient de?ciencies of the soils. The use of ag- chemicals is, though, a major factor for improvement of plant production; it causes a profound deteriorating effect on soil health (soil fertility) and in turn negatively affects the productivity and sustainability of crops. Concern over disturbance to the microbial diversity and consequently soil fertility (as these microbes are involved in biogeochemical processes), as well as economic constraints, have prompted fun- mental and applied research to look for new agro-biotechnologies that can ensure competitive yields by providing suf?ciently not only essential nutrients to the plants but also help to protect the health of soils by mitigating the toxic effects of certain pollutants. In this regard, the role of naturally abundant yet functionally fully unexplored microorganisms such as biofertilizers assume a special signi?cance in the context of supplementing plant nutrients, cost and environmental impact under both conventional practices and derelict environments. Therefore, current devel- ments in sustainability involve a rational exploitation of soil microbial communities and the use of inexpensive, though less bio-available, sources of plant nutrients, which may be made available to plants by microbially-mediated processes.
Author: Everlon Cid RigobeloPublish On: 2022-04-18
Together, these results emphasized the potential use of microbes as biocontrol agents that might be as efficient as the ... concerned about the environmental and health issues associated with intensive agriculture and chemical inputs.
In: Potential microorganisms of sustainable agriculture. I K International, New Delhi, pp 27–48 Govindasamy V, Senthilkumar M, Magheshwan V, Kumar U, Bose P, Sharma V, Annapurna K (2010) Bacillus and Paenibaccilus spp.
Author: Bhoopander Giri
This book provides a comprehensive overview of the benefits of biofertilizers as an alternative to chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Agricultural production has increased massively over the last century due to increased use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, but these gains have come at a price. The chemicals are not only expensive; they also reduce microbial activity in agricultural soils and accumulate in the food chain, with potentially harmful effects for humans. Accordingly, it is high time to explore alternatives and to find solutions to overcome our increasing dependence on these chemicals. Biofertilizers, which consist of plant remains, organic matter and microorganisms, might offer an alternative. They are natural, organic, biodegradable, eco-friendly and cost-effective. Further, the microbes present in the biofertilizers are important, because they produce nutrients required for plant growth (e.g., nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium), as well as substances essential for plant growth and development (e.g., auxins and cytokinins). Biofertilizers also improve the physical properties, fertility and productivity of soil, reducing the need for chemical fertilizers while maintaining high crop yield. This makes biofertilizers a powerful tool for sustainable agriculture and a sustainable environment. The book covers the latest research on biofertilizers, ranging from beneficial fungal, bacterial and algal inoculants; to microbes for bioremediation, wastewater treatment; and recycling of biodegradable municipal, agricultural and industrial waste; as well as biocontrol agents and bio-pesticides. As such, it offers a valuable resource for researchers, academics and students in the broad fields of microbiology and agriculture.
Silicophilic and aluminophilic bacteria are potential agents to release K from potassic minerals, and consequently ... 18.10 Conclusions The development of sustainable agricultural system requires a new technique to use less amount of ...
Author: Vijay Singh Meena
Category: Technology & Engineering
The potassium solubilizing microorganisms (KSMs) are a rhizospheric microorganism which solubilizes the insoluble potassium (K) to soluble forms of K for plant growth and yield. K-solubilization is carried out by a large number of saprophytic bacteria (Bacillus mucilaginosus, B. edaphicus, B. circulans, Acidothiobacillus ferrooxidans, Paenibacillus spp.) and fungal strains (Aspergillus spp. and Aspergillus terreus). Major amounts of K containing minerals (muscovite, orthoclase, biotite, feldspar, illite, mica) are present in the soil as a fixed form which is not directly taken up by the plant. Nowadays most of the farmers use injudicious application of chemical fertilizers for achieving maximum productivity. However, the KSMs are most important microorganisms for solubilizing fixed form of K in soil system. The KSMs are an indigenous rhizospheric microorganism which show effective interaction between soil-plant systems. The main mechanism of KSMs is acidolysis, chelation, exchange reactions, complexolysis and production of organic acid. According to the literature, currently negligible use of potassium fertilizer as chemical form has been recorded in agriculture for enhancing crop yield. Most of the farmers use only nitrogen and phosphorus and not the K fertilizer due to unawareness that the problem of K deficiency occurs in rhizospheric soils. The K fertilizer is also costly as compared to other chemical fertilizers.
However, it would also be fraudulent to claim that through the use of organic farming or, genetically engineered crops ... the role of soil microorganisms in sustainable crop productivity without further deterioration in soil health, ...
Author: Rajeev K. Upadhyay
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Plant based biotechnology has come to represent a means of mitigating the problems of global food security in the twenty-first century. Products and processes in agriculture are increasingly becoming linked to science and cutting edge technology, to enable the engineering of what are in effect, designer plants. One of the most successful , non-chemical approaches to pest management and disease control is biological control, which seeks a solution in terms of using living organisms to regulate the incidence of pests and pathogens, providing a natural control' while still maintaining the biological balance with the ecosystem. This volume, (the first of two), addresses the different types of biocontrol for different pests, namely, crop diseases, weeds and nematodes, and details the biology of both the pest and its enemies, which is vital for efficient use of biological control. The book has numerous contributors who are authorities in their fields, and would be an asset to those who have interest in sustainable agriculture and crop productivity.
Earlier findings suggest that indigenous microorganism own a potential to degrade wide range of pollutants (Cai et al., 2013; Kumar and Gopal, 2015). However, time involved is essentially more as these develop a mechanism of degradation ...
Author: Jeyabalan Sangeetha
Publisher: CRC Press
Microbes are the most abundant organisms in the biosphere and regulate many critical elemental and biogeochemical phenomena. Because microbes are the key players in the carbon cycle and in related biological reactions, microbial ecology is a vital research area for understanding the contribution of the biosphere in global warming and the response of the natural environment to climate variations. The beneficial uses of microbes have enabled constructive and cost-effective responses that have not been possible through physical or chemical methods. This new volume reviews the multifaceted interactions among microbes, ecosystems, and their pivotal role in maintaining a more balanced environment, in order to help facilitate living organisms coexisting with the natural environment. With extensive references, tables, and illustrations, this book provides valuable information on microbial utilization for environmental sustainability and provides fascinating insights into microbial diversity. Key features include: Looks at enhancing plant production through growth-promoting arbuscular mycorrhizae, endophytic bacteria, and microbiome networks Considers microbial degradation and environmental management of e-wastes and azo dyes Explores soil-plant microbe interactions in metal-contaminated soils Examines radiation-resistant thermophiles for engineered bioremediation Describes potential indigenous/effective microbes for wastewater treatment processes Presents research on earthworms and microbes for organic farming
Microorganisms for sustainability, vol 5. Springer, Singapore pp 217–232. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-5514-0_10 Kour D, Rana KL, Kaur T, Yadav N, Yadav AN, Kumar M et al (2021) Biodiversity, current developments and potential ...
Author: Ajar Nath Yadav
Publisher: Springer Nature
This book encompasses current knowledge of soil microbiomes and their potential biotechnological application for plant growth, crop yield, and soil health under the natural as well as harsh environmental conditions for sustainable agriculture. The microbes are ubiquitous in nature. The soil is a natural hotspot of the soil microbiome. The soil microbiome plays a critical role in the maintenance of global nutrient balance and ecosystem functioning. The soil microbiomes are associated with plant ecosystems through the intense network of plant–microbe interactions. The microbes present in bulk soil move toward the rhizospheric region due to the release of different nutrients by plant systems. The rhizospheric microbes may survive or proliferate in rhizospheric zone depending on the extent of influences of the chemicals secreted into the soil by roots. The root exudates contain the principal nutrients factors (amino acids, glucose, fructose, and sucrose). The microbes present in rhizospheric region have capabilities to fix atmospheric nitrogen, produce different phytohormones, and solubilize phosphorus, potassium, and zinc. The plant systems take these nutrients for their growth and developments. These soil and plant associated microbes also play an important role in protection of plants from different plant pathogenic organisms by producing different secondary metabolites such as ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, siderophores, and hydrolytic enzymes. The soil microbiomes with plant growth-promoting (PGP) attributes have emerged as an important and promising tool for sustainable agriculture. The soil microbiomes promote the plant growth and enhance the crop yield and soil fertility via directly or indirectly different plant growth-promoting mechanism. The soil microbes help the plant for adaptation in extreme habitats by mitigating the abiotic stress of high/low temperatures, hypersalinity, drought, and acidic/alkaline soil. These PGP microbes are used as biofertilizers/bioinoculants to replace the harmful chemical fertilizers for sustainable agriculture and environments. The aim of the book “Soil Microbiomes for Sustainable Agriculture” is to provide the recent advances in mechanisms of plant growth promotion and applications of soil microbiomes for mitigation of different abiotic stresses in plants. The book is useful to scientists, researchers, and students related to microbiology, biotechnology, agriculture, molecular biology, environmental biology, and related subjects.
In: Potential microorganisms for sustainable agriculture, pp 26–47 Grover M, Ali SKZ, Sandhya V, Venkateswarlu B (2011) Role of microorganisms in the adaptation of agricultural crops to abiotic stresses. World J Microbiol Biotechnol ...
Author: R. Z. Sayyed
Publisher: Springer Nature
Increasing agro productivity to feed a growing global population under the present climate scenario requires optimizing the use of resources and adopting sustainable agricultural production. This can be achieved by using plant beneficial bacteria, i.e., those bacteria that enhance plant growth under abiotic stress conditions, and more specifically, microorganisms such as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), which are the most promising candidates in this regard. Attaining sustainable agricultural production while preserving environmental quality, agro-ecosystem functions and biodiversity represents a major challenge for current agricultural practices; further, the traditional use of chemical inputs (fertilizers, pesticides, nutrients etc.) poses serious threats to crop productivity, soil fertility and the nutritional value of farm produce. Given these risks, managing pests and diseases, maintaining agro-ecosystem health, and avoiding health issues for humans and animals have now become key priorities. The use of PGPR as biofertilizers, plant growth promoters, biopesticides, and soil and plant health managers has attracted considerable attention among researchers, agriculturists, farmers, policymakers and consumers alike. Using PGPR can help meet the expected demand for global agricultural productivity to feed the world’s booming population, which is predicted to reach roughly 9 billion by 2050. However, to do so, PGPR strains must be safe for the environment, offer considerable plant growth promotion and biocontrol potential, be compatible with useful soil rhizobacteria, and be able to withstand various biotic and abiotic stresses. Accordingly, the book also highlights the need for better strains of PGPR to complement increasing agro-productivity.