This book examines the physical principles behind the operation of high-speed transistors operating at frequencies above 10 GHz and having switching times less than 100 psec.
Author: Juras Pozela
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This book examines the physical principles behind the operation of high-speed transistors operating at frequencies above 10 GHz and having switching times less than 100 psec. If the 1970s cannot be remembered for the opportunities for creating and extensively using transistors operating at such high speeds, then, the situation has changed radically because of rapid progress in sub micrometer technology for manufacturing transistors and integrated circuits from GaAs and other semiconductor materials and the powerful influx of new physical concepts. Not only have transistors having switching speeds of 50-100 psec operating in the 10-20 GHz region been created in recent years, but the possibilities for manufacturing transistors operating one to two orders of magnitude faster have been revealed. As superhigh-speed transistors have been created, many of the most important areas of technology such as communications, computing technology, television, radar, and the manufacture of scientific, industrial, and medical equipment have qualitatively changed. Microwave transistors operating at millimeter wavelengths make it possible to produce compact and highly efficient equipment for communications and radar technology. Transistors with switching speeds better than 10-100 psec make it possible to increase the speed of microprocessors and other computer components to tens of billions of operations per second and thereby solve one of the most pressing problems of modern electronics - increasing the speed of digital information processing.
EIGHT. HIGH. SPEED. FIELD. EFFECT. TRANSISTORS. A transistor is defined
as a semiconductor device capable of amplification. It has the base, emitter and
the collector terminals. A transistor in which most current flows in a channel
Author: Cliff Orori Mosiori
Publisher: Anchor Academic Publishing
Solid state physics is a fascinating sub-genre of condensed matter physics - though some graduate students consider it a very boring and tedious subject area in Physics and others even call it a “squalid state”. Topics covered in this book are built on standard solid state physics references available in most online libraries or in other books on solid state physics. The complexity of high speed semiconductor physics and related devices arose from condensed solid state matter. The content covered in this book gives a deep coverage on some topics or sections that may be covered only superficially in other literature. Therefore, these topics are likely to differ a great deal from what is deemed important elsewhere in other books or available literature. There are many extremely good books on solid-state physics and condensed matter physics but very few of these books are restricted to high speed semiconductor physic though. Chapter one covers the general semiconductor qualities that make high speed semiconductor devices effect and includes the theory of crystals, diffusion and ist mechanisms, while chapter two covers solid state materials, material processing for high speed semiconductor devices and an introduction to quantum theory for materials in relation to density of states of the radiation for a black body and ist radiation properties. Chapter three discuss high speed semiconductor energy band theory, energy bands in general solid semiconductor materials, the Debye model, the Einstein model the Debye model and semiconductor transport carriers in 3D semiconductors while chapter four discuss effect of external force on current flow based on the concept of holes valence band, and lattice scattering in high speed devices. Chapter five briefly describes solid state thermoelectric fundamentals, thermoelectric material and thermoelectric theory of solids in lattice and phonons while chapter six scattering in high field effect in semiconductors in inter-valley electron scattering and the associated Fermi Dirac statistics and Maxwell-Boltzmann approximation on their carrier concentration variation with energy in extrinsic doping chapter seven covers p-n junction diodes, varactor diode, pin diode Schottky diode and their transient response of diode in multi-valley semiconductors. Chapter eight discusses high speed metal semiconductor field effect transistors.
1-3 , 5-14 HALF A CENTURY FOR TRANSISTOR PHYSICS * J. Požela and V.
Jucienė Semiconductor Physics Institute ... A brief review is done on the physics
of up - to - date high - speed transistors at frequencies over 10 Ghz , the switching
Physics of High - Speed Transistors cov tors , which are the possible claimants
ers many of the standard topics on the of future electronics . physical properties of
transistors , but it goes beyond the usual presentation by in - - Michael A ...
M.S. Abrahams , B.J. Buiocchi , " Cross sectional Electron Microscopy of Silicon
on Sapphire " , Applied Physics Letters , Vol . 27 , pp . 325 , 1975 . 70 . F. Ponce ,
J. Aranovich - Magran , " Imaging of the Silicon on Sapphire Interface by High ...
SiGe/Si - MODFETs have obtained encouraging results with maximum oscillation frequencies for p- and n-channel devices around 100 GHz. The SiGe/Si system is the only one with nearly symmetrical transport properties of holes and electrons.
SiGe/Si - MODFETs have obtained encouraging results with maximum oscillation frequencies for p- and n-channel devices around 100 GHz. The SiGe/Si system is the only one with nearly symmetrical transport properties of holes and electrons. Future development of silicon based ultra high frequency devices will be strongly influenced by integration demands, quality of MOS gates on heterostructures, strained layer engineering and band ordering. Devices which exploit tunnelling, coherent transport and transit time effects will gain importance. Room temperature tunnelling via SiGe quantum wells and quantum dots is proposed and partly tested. Resonance phase operation may allow oscillators with defined frequencies above the conventional frequency limits.
Even though very high speed / frequency transistor performance has been
achieved using modulation doped ... important since it relates directly to high speed / frequency potential and intrinsic physics of operation of the transistor
2458–2461 ( 2005 The Japan Society of Applied Physics High Temperature
Performance and Low Frequency Noise ... AIGN Double Heterostructure Metal -
Oxide - Semiconductor Heterostructure Field - Effect - Transistors with
Physical and technological problems for high - speed transistor development (
review ) J.Pozhela and V.Juciene ( Semiconductor Physics Institute ) Received
13 May 1992 UDC 621.382 Physical and technological problems for
This book reviews the state of the art of very high speed digital integrated circuits.
Author: Mark J. W. Rodwell
Publisher: World Scientific
Category: Technology & Engineering
This book reviews the state of the art of very high speed digital integrated circuits. Commercial applications are in fiber optic transmission systems operating at 10, 40, and 100 Gb/s, while the military application is ADCs and DACs for microwave radar. The book contains detailed descriptions of the design, fabrication, and performance of wideband Si/SiGe-, GaAs-, and InP-based bipolar transistors. The analysis, design, and performance of high speed CMOS, silicon bipolar, and III-V digital ICs are presented in detail, with emphasis on application in optical fiber transmission and mixed signal ICs. The underlying physics and circuit design of rapid single flux quantum (RSFQ) superconducting logic circuits are reviewed, and there is extensive coverage of recent integrated circuit results in this technology. Contents: Preface (M J W Rodwell); High-Speed and High-Data-Bandwidth Transmitter and Receiver for Multi-Channel Serial Data Communication with CMOS Technology (M Fukaishi et al.); High-Performance Si and SiGe Bipolar Technologies and Circuits (M Wurzer et al.); Self-Aligned Si BJT/SiGe HBT Technology and Its Application to High-Speed Circuits (K Washio); Small-Scale InGaP/GaAs Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors for High-Speed and Low-Power Integrated-Circuit Applications (T Oka et al.); Prospects of InP-Based IC Technologies for 100-Gbit/S-Class Lightwave Communications Systems (T Enoki et al.); Scaling of InGaAs/InAlAs HBTs for High Speed Mixed-Signal and mm-Wave ICs (M J W Rodwell); Progress Toward 100 GHz Logic in InP HBT IC Technology (C H Fields et al.); Cantilevered Base InP DHBT for High Speed Digital Applications (A L Gutierrez-Aitken et al.); RSFQ Technology: Physics and Devices (P Bunyk et al.); RSFQ Technology: Circuits and Systems (D K Brock). Readership: Researchers, industrialists and academics in electrical and electronic engineering.
The fifth part of the book progresses to an up-to-date discussion of heterostructure field-effect (HEMT in chapter 9), potential-effect (HBT in chapter 10), and quantum-effect devices (chapters 11 and 12), all of which are certain to have a ...
Author: C. Y. Chang
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Category: Technology & Engineering
The performance of high-speed semiconductor devices—the genius driving digital computers, advanced electronic systems for digital signal processing, telecommunication systems, and optoelectronics—is inextricably linked to the unique physical and electrical properties of gallium arsenide. Once viewed as a novel alternative to silicon, gallium arsenide has swiftly moved into the forefront of the leading high-tech industries as an irreplaceable material in component fabrication. GaAs High-Speed Devices provides a comprehensive, state-of-the-science look at the phenomenally expansive range of engineering devices gallium arsenide has made possible—as well as the fabrication methods, operating principles, device models, novel device designs, and the material properties and physics of GaAs that are so keenly integral to their success. In a clear five-part format, the book systematically examines each of these aspects of GaAs device technology, forming the first authoritative study to consider so many important aspects at once and in such detail. Beginning with chapter 2 of part one, the book discusses such basic subjects as gallium arsenide materials and crystal properties, electron energy band structures, hole and electron transport, crystal growth of GaAs from the melt and defect density analysis. Part two describes the fabrication process of gallium arsenide devices and integrated circuits, shedding light, in chapter 3, on epitaxial growth processes, molecular beam epitaxy, and metal organic chemical vapor deposition techniques. Chapter 4 provides an introduction to wafer cleaning techniques and environment control, wet etching methods and chemicals, and dry etching systems, including reactive ion etching, focused ion beam, and laser assisted methods. Chapter 5 provides a clear overview of photolithography and nonoptical lithography techniques that include electron beam, x-ray, and ion beam lithography systems. The advances in fabrication techniques described in previous chapters necessitate an examination of low-dimension device physics, which is carried on in detail in chapter 6 of part three. Part four includes a discussion of innovative device design and operating principles which deepens and elaborates the ideas introduced in chapter 1. Key areas such as metal-semiconductor contact systems, Schottky Barrier and ohmic contact formation and reliability studies are examined in chapter 7. A detailed discussion of metal semiconductor field-effect transistors, the fabrication technology, and models and parameter extraction for device analyses occurs in chapter 8. The fifth part of the book progresses to an up-to-date discussion of heterostructure field-effect (HEMT in chapter 9), potential-effect (HBT in chapter 10), and quantum-effect devices (chapters 11 and 12), all of which are certain to have a major impact on high-speed integrated circuits and optoelectronic integrated circuit (OEIC) applications. Every facet of GaAs device technology is placed firmly in a historical context, allowing readers to see instantly the significant developmental changes that have shaped it. Featuring a look at devices still under development and device structures not yet found in the literature, GaAs High-Speed Devices also provides a valuable glimpse into the newest innovations at the center of the latest GaAs technology. An essential text for electrical engineers, materials scientists, physicists, and students, GaAs High-Speed Devices offers the first comprehensive and up-to-date look at these formidable 21st century tools. The unique physical and electrical properties of gallium arsenide has revolutionized the hardware essential to digital computers, advanced electronic systems for digital signal processing, telecommunication systems, and optoelectronics. GaAs High-Speed Devices provides the first fully comprehensive look at the enormous range of engineering devices gallium arsenide has made possible as well as the backbone of the technology—ication methods, operating principles, and the materials properties and physics of GaAs—device models and novel device designs. Featuring a clear, six-part format, the book covers: GaAs materials and crystal properties Fabrication processes of GaAs devices and integrated circuits Electron beam, x-ray, and ion beam lithography systems Metal-semiconductor contact systems Heterostructure field-effect, potential-effect, and quantum-effect devices GaAs Microwave Monolithic Integrated Circuits and Digital Integrated Circuits In addition, this comprehensive volume places every facet of the technology in an historical context and gives readers an unusual glimpse at devices still under development and device structures not yet found in the literature.
The source of the series noise can be reduced by employing a bipolar devices as
the input stage of the preamplifier , since this transistor has a large
transconductance4 . It also permits the use of high speed monolithic technology ,
Author: Valeriĭ Viktorovich TuchinPublish On: 1999
D . E . Cooper , S . C . Moss , “ Picosecond Optoelectronics measurement of the
high - frequency scattering parameters of a GaAs FET , ” IEEE J . Quantum .
Electron . , QE ... Pogela , “ Physics of high - speed transistors ” , Moclas , Vilnyus
, p .
Author: Valeriĭ Viktorovich Tuchin
Publisher: Society of Photo Optical
Category: Technology & Engineering
These 76 papers on the use of light scattering technologies in the fields of mechanics, biomedicine and material science originate from the 1998 Saratov Fall Meeting.
682-687 , 1983 . 9. Yu . Pozhela and V. Yutsene , Physics of Ultra - High - Speed Transistors ( in Russian ) , Vokslas , Vilnius , 1985 . 10. S. Hiyamizu , J. Saito , K.
Nambu , and T. Ishikawa , " Improved electron mobility higher than 10 % cm /V.c ...