Philosophy In The Flesh

Author: George Lakoff

Publisher: Basic Books

ISBN: 9780465056743

Category: Philosophy

Page: 640

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What are human beings like? How is knowledge possible? What is truth? Where do moral values come from? Questions like these have stood at the center of Western philosophy for centuries. In addressing them, philosophers have made certain fundamental assumptions-that we can know our own minds by introspection, that most of our thinking about the world is literal, and that reason is disembodied and universal-that are now called into question by well-established results of cognitive science. It has been shown empirically that:Most thought is unconscious. We have no direct conscious access to the mechanisms of thought and language. Our ideas go by too quickly and at too deep a level for us to observe them in any simple way.Abstract concepts are mostly metaphorical. Much of the subject matter of philosopy, such as the nature of time, morality, causation, the mind, and the self, relies heavily on basic metaphors derived from bodily experience. What is literal in our reasoning about such concepts is minimal and conceptually impoverished. All the richness comes from metaphor. For instance, we have two mutually incompatible metaphors for time, both of which represent it as movement through space: in one it is a flow past us and in the other a spatial dimension we move along.Mind is embodied. Thought requires a body-not in the trivial sense that you need a physical brain to think with, but in the profound sense that the very structure of our thoughts comes from the nature of the body. Nearly all of our unconscious metaphors are based on common bodily experiences.Most of the central themes of the Western philosophical tradition are called into question by these findings. The Cartesian person, with a mind wholly separate from the body, does not exist. The Kantian person, capable of moral action according to the dictates of a universal reason, does not exist. The phenomenological person, capable of knowing his or her mind entirely through introspection alone, does not exist. The utilitarian person, the Chomskian person, the poststructuralist person, the computational person, and the person defined by analytic philosopy all do not exist.Then what does?Lakoff and Johnson show that a philosopy responsible to the science of mind offers radically new and detailed understandings of what a person is. After first describing the philosophical stance that must follow from taking cognitive science seriously, they re-examine the basic concepts of the mind, time, causation, morality, and the self: then they rethink a host of philosophical traditions, from the classical Greeks through Kantian morality through modern analytic philosopy. They reveal the metaphorical structure underlying each mode of thought and show how the metaphysics of each theory flows from its metaphors. Finally, they take on two major issues of twentieth-century philosopy: how we conceive rationality, and how we conceive language.
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Metaphors We Live By

Author: George Lakoff,Mark Johnson

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226470997

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 256

View: 707

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The now-classic Metaphors We Live By changed our understanding of metaphor and its role in language and the mind. Metaphor, the authors explain, is a fundamental mechanism of mind, one that allows us to use what we know about our physical and social experience to provide understanding of countless other subjects. Because such metaphors structure our most basic understandings of our experience, they are "metaphors we live by"—metaphors that can shape our perceptions and actions without our ever noticing them. In this updated edition of Lakoff and Johnson's influential book, the authors supply an afterword surveying how their theory of metaphor has developed within the cognitive sciences to become central to the contemporary understanding of how we think and how we express our thoughts in language.
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The Meaning of the Body

Aesthetics of Human Understanding

Author: Mark Johnson

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022602699X

Category: Philosophy

Page: 328

View: 8394

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In The Meaning of the Body, Mark Johnson continues his pioneering work on the exciting connections between cognitive science, language, and meaning first begun in the classic Metaphors We Live By. Johnson uses recent research into infant psychology to show how the body generates meaning even before self-consciousness has fully developed. From there he turns to cognitive neuroscience to further explore the bodily origins of meaning, thought, and language and examines the many dimensions of meaning—including images, qualities, emotions, and metaphors—that are all rooted in the body’s physical encounters with the world. Drawing on the psychology of art and pragmatist philosophy, Johnson argues that all of these aspects of meaning-making are fundamentally aesthetic. He concludes that the arts are the culmination of human attempts to find meaning and that studying the aesthetic dimensions of our experience is crucial to unlocking meaning's bodily sources. Throughout, Johnson puts forth a bold new conception of the mind rooted in the understanding that philosophy will matter to nonphilosophers only if it is built on a visceral connection to the world. “Mark Johnson demonstrates that the aesthetic and emotional aspects of meaning are fundamental—central to conceptual meaning and reason, and that the arts show meaning-making in its fullest realization. If you were raised with the idea that art and emotion were external to ideas and reason, you must read this book. It grounds philosophy in our most visceral experience.”—George Lakoff, author of Moral Politics
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Scriptures, Schools and Forms of Practice in Daoism

A Berlin Symposium

Author: Poul Andersen,Florian C. Reiter

Publisher: Otto Harrassowitz Verlag

ISBN: 9783447051712

Category: Religion

Page: 262

View: 4602

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Table of contents I. Daoist Scripture and Practice in Comparative Perspective A. Feldtkeller, Scriptures, Forms of Practice, and Comparative Religion P. Andersen, Scriptural Traditions West and East: Foundation of Belief vs. Frameworks for the Transmission of Methods S.R. Bokenkamp, Sackcloth and Ashes: Self and Family in the Tutan zhai J. Lagerwey, Scriptures are the Dregs of the Men of Old: Scripture and Practice in Comparative Perspective E.L. Davis, Daoist Scripture in Comparative Perspective: A Commentary on J. Lagerwey and P. Andersen II. Daoist Scripture and Practice Past and Present F.C. Reiter, The Name of the Nameless and Thunder Magic P. Nickerson, Attacking the Fortress: Prolegomenon to the Study of Ritual Efficacy in Vernacular Daoism Liu Yi, Research into the Catalogue of the Daozang of the Early Tang Dynasty: Based on Nanzhu guan ji and the Daoist Scriptures of Dunhuang Wang Zongyu, Historical Materials for the Quanzhen Daoism in the Wuxing Area V. Olles, Stars and Legends: Some Observations about Sacred Space in Daoism.
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The Ivory Leg in the Ebony Cabinet

Madness, Race, and Gender in Victorian America

Author: Thomas Cooley

Publisher: Univ of Massachusetts Press

ISBN: 9781558492844

Category: History

Page: 302

View: 2435

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"Essentially a "faculty" psychology, this model conceived of the human mind as a set of separate roomlike compartments, each with its proper office or capacity. Under this architecture, a healthy mind was characterized by the harmonious interrelation of these faculties; madness, conversely, was believed to occur when the "chambers" of the mind became cut off from one another. In addition, gender and racial qualities were associated with different mental functions: the reasoning intellect took on a "masculine" and "white" valence, while the emotions and appetitive faculties were considered "feminine" or "black."".
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Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Linguistic Approaches to Food and Wine Description (Actas Del Primer Congreso Internacional Sobre Aproximaciones Lingüísticas a la Descripción de la Comida Y Del Vino, Que Tuvo Lugar en Madrid en Mayo de 2009)

Author: Margarita GODED RAMBAUD,Alfredo POVES LUELMO

Publisher: Editorial UNED

ISBN: 8436267680

Category: Foreign Language Study

Page: 264

View: 7216

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Incluye una selección de las ponencias en el Primer Congreso Internacional sobre Aproximaciones Lingüísticas a la Descripción de la Comida y del Vino, que tuvo lugar en Madrid en mayo de 2009.
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From Judgment to Passion

Devotion to Christ and the Virgin Mary, 800–1200

Author: Rachel Fulton Brown

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231500769

Category: History

Page: 752

View: 2022

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Devotion to the crucified Christ is one of the most familiar, yet most disconcerting artifacts of medieval European civilization. How and why did the images of the dying God-man and his grieving mother achieve such prominence, inspiring unparalleled religious creativity as well such imitative extremes as celibacy and self-flagellation? To answer this question, Rachel Fulton ranges over developments in liturgical performance, private prayer, doctrine, and art. She considers the fear occasioned by the disappointed hopes of medieval Christians convinced that the apocalypse would come soon, the revulsion of medieval Jews at being baptized in the name of God born from a woman, the reform of the Church in light of a new European money economy, the eroticism of the Marian exegesis of the Song of Songs, and much more. Devotion to the crucified Christ is one of the most familiar yet disconcerting artifacts of medieval European civilization. How and why did the images of the dying God-man and his grieving mother achieve such prominence, inspiring unparalleled religious creativity and emotional artistry even as they fostered such imitative extremes as celibacy, crusade, and self-flagellation? Magisterial in style and comprehensive in scope, From Judgment to Passion is the first systematic attempt to explain the origins and initial development of European devotion to Christ in his suffering humanity and Mary in her compassionate grief. Rachel Fulton examines liturgical performance, doctrine, private prayer, scriptural exegesis, and art in order to illuminate and explain the powerful desire shared by medieval women and men to identify with the crucified Christ and his mother. The book begins with the Carolingian campaign to convert the newly conquered pagan Saxons, in particular with the effort to explain for these new converts the mystery of the Eucharist, the miraculous presence of Christ's body at the Mass. Moving on to the early eleventh century, when Christ's failure to return on the millennium of his Passion (A.D. 1033) necessitated for believers a radical revision of Christian history, Fulton examines the novel liturgies and devotions that arose amid this apocalyptic disappointment. The book turns finally to the twelfth century when, in the wake of the capture of Jerusalem in the First Crusade, there occurred the full flowering of a new, more emotional sensibility of faith, epitomized by the eroticism of the Marian exegesis of the Song of Songs and by the artistic and architectural innovations we have come to think of as quintessentially high medieval. In addition to its concern with explaining devotional change, From Judgment to Passion presses a second, crucial question: How is it possible for modern historians to understand not only the social and cultural functions but also the experience of faith—the impulsive engagement with the emotions, sometimes ineffable, of prayer and devotion? The answer, magnificently exemplified throughout this book's narrative, lies in imaginative empathy, the same incorporation of self into story that lay at the heart of the medieval effort to identify with Christ and Mary in their love and pain.
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Confronting Metaphor in Use

An applied linguistic approach

Author: Mara Sophia Zanotto,Lynne Cameron,Marilda C. Cavalcanti

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 902729142X

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 315

View: 7564

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It is timely for researchers to approach metaphor as social and situated, as a matter of language and discourse, and not just as a matter of thought. Over the last twenty five years, scholars have come to appreciate in depth the cognitive, motivated and embodied nature of metaphor, but have tended to background the linguistic form of metaphor and have largely ignored how this connects to its role in the discourses in which our lives are constructed and lived. This book brings language and social dimensions into the picture, offering snapshots of metaphor use in real language and in real lives across the very different cultures of Europe and Brazil and contributing to the theorizing of metaphor in discourse.
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A Companion to Buddhist Philosophy

Author: Steven M. Emmanuel

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118323882

Category: Philosophy

Page: 760

View: 5560

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A Companion to Buddhist Philosophy is the most comprehensive single volume on the subject available; it offers the very latest scholarship to create a wide-ranging survey of the most important ideas, problems, and debates in the history of Buddhist philosophy. Encompasses the broadest treatment of Buddhist philosophy available, covering social and political thought, meditation, ecology and contemporary issues and applications Each section contains overviews and cutting-edge scholarship that expands readers understanding of the breadth and diversity of Buddhist thought Broad coverage of topics allows flexibility to instructors in creating a syllabus Essays provide valuable alternative philosophical perspectives on topics to those available in Western traditions
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Pristine Dao, The

Metaphysics in Early Daoist Discourse

Author: Thomas Michael

Publisher: SUNY Press

ISBN: 9780791483176

Category: Philosophy

Page: 182

View: 5974

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A new reading of Daoism, arguing that it originated in a particular textual tradition distinct from Confucianism and other philosophical traditions of early China.
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