Philosophical Issues in Psychiatry III

The Nature and Sources of Historical Change

Author: Kenneth S. Kendler,Josef Parnas

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0198725973

Category: Medical

Page: 464

View: 1264

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Psychiatry has long struggled with the nature of its diagnoses. The problems raised by questions about the nature of psychiatric illness are particularly fascinating because they sit at the intersection of philosophy, empirical psychiatric/psychological research, measurement theory, historical tradition and policy. In being the only medical specialty that diagnoses and treats mental illness, psychiatry has been subject to major changes in the last 150 years. This book explores the forces that have shaped these changes and especially how substantial "internal" advances in our knowledge of the nature and causes of psychiatric illness have interacted with a plethora of external forces that have impacted on the psychiatric profession. It includes contributions from philosophers of science with an interest in psychiatry, psychiatrists and psychologists with expertise in the history of their field and historians of psychiatry. Each chapter is accompanied by an introduction and a commentary. The result is a dynamic discussion about the nature of psychiatric disorders, and a book that is compelling reading for those in the field of mental health, history of science and medicine, and philosophy.
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Philosophical Issues in Psychiatry IV

Psychiatric Nosology

Author: Kenneth S. Kendler,Josef Parnas

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198796021

Category:

Page: 448

View: 3210

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The revisions of both DSM-IV and ICD-10 have again focused the interest of the field of psychiatry and clinical psychology on the issue of nosology. This interest has been further heightened by a series of controversies associated with the development of DSM-5 including the fate of proposedrevisions of the personality disorders, bereavement, and the autism spectrum. Major debate arose within the DSM process about the criteria for changing criteria, leading to the creation of first the Scientific Review Committee and then a series of other oversight committees which weighed in on thefinal debates on the most controversial proposed additions to DSM-5, providing important influences on the final decisions. Contained within these debates were a range of conceptual and philosophical issues. Some of these - such as the definition of mental disorder or the problems of psychiatric"epidemics" - have been with the field for a long time. Others - the concept of epistemic iteration as a framework for the introduction of nosologic change - are quite new.This book reviews issues within psychiatric nosology from clinical, historical and particularly philosophical perspectives. The book brings together a range of distinguished authors - including major psychiatric researchers, clinicians, historians and especially nosologists - including severalleaders of the DSM-5 effort and the DSM Steering Committee. It also includes contributions from psychologists with a special interest in psychiatric nosology and philosophers with a wide range of orientations. The book is organized into four major sections: * The first explores the nature of psychiatric illness and the way in which it is defined, including clinical and psychometric perspectives. * The second section examines problems in the reification of psychiatric diagnostic criteria, the problem of psychiatric epidemics, and the nature and definition of individual symptoms. * The third section explores the concept of epistemic iteration as a possible governing conceptual framework for the revision efforts for official psychiatric nosologies such as DSM and ICD and the problems of validation of psychiatric diagnoses.* The book ends by exploring how we might move from the descriptive to the etiologic in psychiatric diagnoses, the nature of progress in psychiatric research, and the possible benefits of moving to a living document (or continuous improvement) model for psychiatric nosologic systems. The result is a book that captures the dynamic cross-disciplinary interactions that characterize the best work in the philosophy of psychiatry.
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Alternative Perspectives on Psychiatric Validation

Author: Peter Zachar,Drozdstoj St. Stoyanov,Assen Jablensky,Massimiliano Aragona

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0199680736

Category: Medical

Page: 274

View: 4979

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Many of the current debates about validity in psychiatry and psychology are predicated on the unexpected failure to validate commonly used diagnostic categories. The recognition of this failure has resulted in, what Thomas Kuhn calls, a period of extraordinary science in which validation problems are given increased weight, alternatives are proposed, methodologies are debated, and philosophical and historical analyses are seen as more relevant than usual. In this important new book in the IPPP series, a group of leading thinkers in psychiatry, psychology, and philosophy offer alternative perspectives that address both the scientific and clinical aspects of psychiatric validation, emphasizing throughout their philosophical and historical considerations. This is a book that all psychiatrists, as well as philosophers with an interest in psychiatry, will find thought provoking and valuable.
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Philosophical Issues in Psychiatry II

Nosology

Author: Kenneth S. Kendler,Josef Parnas

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191625760

Category: Medical

Page: 360

View: 390

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Psychiatric and psychological practice and research is critically dependent on diagnosis. Yet the nature of psychiatric diagnosis and the rules by which disorders should be created and organized have been highly controversial for over 100 years. Unlike simple medical disorders (like infectious diseases), psychiatric disorders cannot be traced to one simple etiologic agent. The last two generations have seen major conceptual shifts in the approach to diagnosis with the rise of operationalized criteria and an emphasis on a descriptive rather than etiological approach to diagnosis. The interest in psychiatric diagnoses is particularly heightened now because both of the major psychiatric classifications in the world - DSM and ICD - are now undergoing major revisions. What makes psychiatric nosology so interesting is that it sits at the intersection of philosophy, empirical psychiatric/psychological research, measurement theory, historical tradition and policy. This makes the field fertile for a conceptual analysis. This book brings together established experts in the wide range of disciplines that have an interest in psychiatric nosology. The contributors include philosophers, psychologists, psychiatrists, historians and representatives of the efforts of DSM-III, DSM-IV and DSM-V. Some of the questions addressed include i) what is the nature of psychiatric illness? Can it be clearly defined and if so how? ii) What is the impact of facts versus values in psychiatric classification? iii) How have concepts of psychiatric diagnosis changed over time? iv) How can we best conceptualize the central idea of diagnostic validity? And v) Can psychiatric classification be a cumulative enterprise seeking improvements at each iteration of the diagnostic manual? Each individual chapter is introduced by the editors and is followed by a commentary, resulting in a dynamic discussion about the nature of psychiatric disorders. This book will be valuable for psychiatrists, psychologists and other mental health trainees and professionals with an interest in the questions and problems of psychiatric diagnosis, as well as philosophers and philosophy students interested in the problems posed by psychiatry, particularly those working in the philosophy of science.
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Philosophy in medicine

conceptual and ethical issues in medicine and psychiatry

Author: Charles M. Culver,Bernard Gert

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: N.A

Category: Medical

Page: 201

View: 1326

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Vagueness in Psychiatry

Author: Professor of Philosophy Geert Keil,Lara Keuck,Rico Hauswald

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198722370

Category:

Page: 288

View: 7119

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Blurred boundaries between the normal and the pathological are a recurrent theme in almost every publication concerned with the classification of mental disorders. However, systematic approaches that take into account the philosophical discussions about vagueness are rare. This is the first volume to systematically draw various lines of philosophical and psychiatric inquiry together, including the debates about categorical versus dimensional approaches in current psychiatric classification systems, the principles of psychiatric classification, the problem of prodromal phases and sub-threshold disorders, and the problem of over- diagnosis in psychiatry, and to explore the connections of these debates to philosophical discussions about vagueness. The book consists of three parts. The first part encompasses historical and recent philosophical positions regarding the nature of demarcation problems in nosology. Here, the authors discuss the pros and cons of gradualist approaches to health and disease, and the relevance of philosophical discussions of vagueness for these debates. The second part of the book narrows the focus to psychiatric nosology. The authors approach the vagueness of psychiatric classification by drawing on contentious medical categories, such as PTSD or schizophrenia, and on the dilemmas of day-to-day diagnostic and therapeutic practice. Against this background, the chapters critically evaluate how current revisions of the ICD and DSM manuals conceptualise mental disorders and how they are applied in various contexts. The third part is concerned with social, moral, and legal implications that arise when being mentally ill is a matter of degree. Not surprisingly, the law is ill-equipped to deal with these challenges due to its binary logic. Still, the authors show that there are more and less reasonable ways of dealing with blurred boundaries and of arriving at warranted decisions in hard cases.
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Psychiatry

Author: Allan Tasman,Jerald Kay,Jeffrey A. Lieberman,Michael B. First,Michelle Riba

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118753364

Category: Medical

Page: 2768

View: 4502

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Now in a new Fourth Edition, Psychiatry remains the leading reference on all aspects of the current practice and latest developments in psychiatry. From an international team of recognised expert editors and contributors, Psychiatry provides a truly comprehensive overview of the entire field of psychiatry in 132 chapters across two volumes. It includes two new sections, on psychosomatic medicine and collaborative care, and on emergency psychiatry, and compares Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5) and International Classification of Diseases (ICD10) classifications for every psychiatric disorder. Psychiatry, Fourth Edition is an essential reference for psychiatrists in clinical practice and clinical research, residents in training, and for all those involved in the treatment psychiatric disorders. Includes a a companion website at www.tasmanpsychiatry.com featuring PDFs of each chapter and downloadable images
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Oxford Textbook of Philosophy and Psychiatry

Author: K. W. M. Fulford,Timothy Thornton,George Graham

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780198526940

Category: Medical

Page: 872

View: 9420

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This title includes the following features: The first of its kind - acore textbook for all trainee psychiatrists and mental health practitionersteaching them the philosophical underpinnings of psychiatric practice; Withphilosophy now making up part of the MRCPsych, all those wanting to becomepsychiatrists will need this book; Written to have broad international appeal toall those working in mental health services
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