Pasteur's Quadrant

Basic Science and Technological Innovation

Author: Donald E. Stokes

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 9780815719076

Category: Science

Page: 196

View: 9998

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Over fifty years ago, Vannevar Bush released his enormously influential report, Science, the Endless Frontier, which asserted a dichotomy between basic and applied science. This view was at the core of the compact between government and science that led to the golden age of scientific research after World War II—a compact that is currently under severe stress. In this book, Donald Stokes challenges Bush's view and maintains that we can only rebuild the relationship between government and the scientific community when we understand what is wrong with that view. Stokes begins with an analysis of the goals of understanding and use in scientific research. He recasts the widely accepted view of the tension between understanding and use, citing as a model case the fundamental yet use-inspired studies by which Louis Pasteur laid the foundations of microbiology a century ago. Pasteur worked in the era of the "second industrial revolution," when the relationship between basic science and technological change assumed its modern form. Over subsequent decades, technology has been increasingly science-based. But science has been increasingly technology-based--with the choice of problems and the conduct of research often inspired by societal needs. An example is the work of the quantum-effects physicists who are probing the phenomena revealed by the miniaturization of semiconductors from the time of the transistor's discovery after World War II. On this revised, interactive view of science and technology, Stokes builds a convincing case that by recognizing the importance of use-inspired basic research we can frame a new compact between science and government. His conclusions have major implications for both the scientific and policy communities and will be of great interest to those in the broader public who are troubled by the current role of basic science in American democracy.
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Creating Value with Science and Technology

Author: Eliezer Geisler

Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group

ISBN: 9781567204056

Category: Social Science

Page: 328

View: 5115

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Geisler argues that the value of science and technology for corporations, society, and the economy outweigh the negative impacts that inevitably arise. This remarkable new book shows that the benefits can be measured and evaluated, compiling all existing knowledge on the subject of assessment and including Geisler's own methods. The result is a compelling argument that science and technology has been, ultimately, a positive force for individuals, organizations, and nations.
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Basic Research And Industrial Innovation In China

Author: Liu Xielin,He Yubing,Cheng Peng

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9813236574

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 536

View: 5550

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Chinese enterprises have relied on importing technology and imitation as their main technology strategies in the past. Based on analysis of cross-countries' case studies and the history of industrial innovation, the authors proposed the concept of industry-driven basic research and expounds the important role of scientific discovery in industrial technological innovation. They are convinced that both the government and enterprises should focus on industry-driven basic research in order to bridge the gap between the government's target and what enterprises actually do in China. The challenge remains to be seen if China can transform Science and technology investment into real industrial innovation capability.
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Spectra

A Bi-monthly Publication of the Speech Association of America

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Speech

Page: N.A

View: 764

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Innovation for a Low Carbon Economy

Economic, Institutional and Management Approaches

Author: Tim Foxon,Jonathan Köhler,Christine Oughton

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: N.A

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 276

View: 3453

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Innovation for a Low Carbon Economy analyses the interplay of technological, institutional, market and management factors in the dynamics of energy systems. The book aims to inform national and international policies to promote low carbon innovation.
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Knowledge Policy

Challenges for the 21st Century

Author: Greg Hearn,David Rooney

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: N.A

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 277

View: 2016

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Knowledge Policy illustrates how the production of knowledge has become central to economic life, and that competitiveness in the 21st century market place is characterized by the ability to translate scientific and technological knowledge into innovation. Does this therefore render cultural and social knowledge unimportant? The contributors attempt to answer this and other important questions using a broader epistemological base for the term 'knowledge'. Policy implications are then developed from this perspective. By examining long-term challenges, this unique book explains what we actually mean by the term 'knowledge' and raises fundamental critiques of existing conceptions of knowledge. It argues that fresh policy thinking is needed not only in more obviously knowledge-intensive sectors, but also across all areas of knowledge production. By way of illustration, the effects of the different dynamics of the knowledge era on defence, health, employment, environment, indigenous and international relations, multiculturalism and urban policy are explored. The book then addresses the enduring question of whether it is possible to produce too much knowledge at the expense of wisdom.Providing a thorough treatment on the meaning, production and application of knowledge, this book will provide a fascinating read for academics, researchers, students, practitioners and policymakers with an interest in public policy and knowledge-based economies.
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Business Systems and Organizational Capabilities

The Institutional Structuring of Competitive Competences

Author: Richard Whitley

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: N.A

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 388

View: 3645

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Whitley is one of the leading exponents of the 'business systems' approach which analyses the different character and organisation of firms in different national settings. Here he summarises his approach and links it to the capabilities and strategies of firms.
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