Oxidative Damage to Plants

Oxidative Damage to Plants

7.1 INTRODUCTION Plants during the vegetation process are exposed to a
variety of biotic and abiotic stress conditions, ... and oxidative stress are often
correlated and these conditions singularly or in combination cause cellular
damage.

Author: Parvaiz Ahmad

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780128004609

Category: Science

Page: 672

View: 107

With contributions that review research on this topic throughout the world, Oxidative Damage to Plants covers key areas of discovery, from the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROSs), their mechanisms, quenching of these ROSs through enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, and detailed aspects of such antioxidants as SOD and CAT. Environmental stress is responsible for the generation of oxidative stress, which causes oxidative damage to biomolecules and hence reduces crop yield. To cope up with these problems, scientists have to fully understand the generation of reactive oxygen species, its impact on plants and how plants will be able to withstand these stresses. Provides invaluable information about the role of antioxidants in alleviating oxidative stress Examines both the negative effects (senescence, impaired photosynthesis and necrosis) and positive effects (crucial role that superoxide plays against invading microbes) of ROS on plants Features contributors from a variety of regions globally
Categories: Science

Reactive Oxygen Species and Oxidative Damage in Plants Under Stress

Reactive Oxygen Species and Oxidative Damage in Plants Under Stress

Rice Sci 12:179–186 Perez-Ruiz JM, Spinola MC, Kirchsteiger K, Moreno J,
Sahraway M, Cejudo FJ (2006) Rice NTRC is a high-efficiency redox system for
chloroplast protection against oxidative damage. Plant Cell 18:2356–2368
Pitzschke ...

Author: Dharmendra K. Gupta

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319204215

Category: Science

Page: 370

View: 111

This book provides detailed and comprehensive information on oxidative damage caused by stresses in plants with especial reference to the metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In plants, as in all aerobic organisms, ROS are common by-products formed by the inevitable leakage of electrons onto O2 from the electron transport activities located in chloroplasts, mitochondria, peroxisomes and in plasma membranes or as a consequence of various metabolic pathways confined in different cellular loci. Environmental stresses such as heat, cold, drought, salinity, heavy-metal toxicity, ozone and ultraviolet radiation as well as pathogens/contagion attack lead to enhanced generation of ROS in plants due to disruption of cellular homeostasis. ROS play a dual role in plants; at low concentrations they act as signaling molecules that facilitate several responses in plant cells, including those promoted by biotic and abiotic agents. In divergence, at high levels they cause damage to cellular constituents triggering oxidative stress. In either case, small antioxidant molecules and enzymes modulate the action of these ambivalent species.
Categories: Science

Oxidative Stress in Plants

Oxidative Stress in Plants

The current volume mainly elucidates major recent advances through physiological and molecular studies on the aspects of the causes, consequences of oxidative stress and also discusses and suggests potential strategies for enhancing ...

Author: Naser A. Anjum

Publisher:

ISBN: 9381141029

Category: Oxidation, Physiological

Page: 522

View: 892

Categories: Oxidation, Physiological

Oxidative Stress in Plants

Oxidative Stress in Plants

Plants have an additional source of oxygen intermediates through
photosynthesis, thus rendering them more prone to oxidative damage. Therefore,
it comes as no surprise that higher plants possess an array of antioxidant
molecules, such as ...

Author: Dirk Inze

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780203303146

Category: Science

Page: 336

View: 858

Plants depend on physiological mechanisms to combat adverse environmental conditions, such as pathogen attack, wounding, drought, cold, freezing, salt, UV, intense light, heavy metals and SO2. Many of these cause excess production of active oxygen species in plant cells. Plants have evolved complex defense systems against such oxidative stress. The
Categories: Science

Oxidative Stress Exercise and Aging

Oxidative Stress  Exercise and Aging

Helaine M Alessio, Ann E Hagerman. (Chen and Shi, 2002), resulting in oxidative
damage and chronic diseases such as cancer. 2.9 Nutrient Stress Nutritional
requirements of plants and animals are fundamentally different, since plants are ...

Author: Helaine M Alessio

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9781783260058

Category: Science

Page: 184

View: 659

This book brings together some of the leading researchers in the actively investigated field of oxidative stress, an area of study which is of importance to human health and disease. It examines oxidative stress in a variety of models, at rest and after exercise, in young and old. Key concepts of oxidative stress, exercise and aging are presented in clear and easy-to-understand terms. Oxidative stress in different types of exercises — isometric, isotonic and sports — is explained in detail, with several chapters focusing on acute and chronic adaptations of skeletal muscles following both aerobic and non-aerobic exercises. The book includes current knowledge of the underlying mechanisms influencing health and disease processes associated with oxidative stress. Contents:Chemistry of Reactive Oxygen Species and Antioxidants (D C Close & A E Hagerman)Oxidative Stress in Plants and Animals (D C Close & A E Hagerman)The Exercise Continuum (R L Wiley)Oxidative Stress and Muscle Size, Type, and Action (H M Alessio)Oxidative Stress Across the Exercise Continuum (H M Alessio)Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Defense: Effects of Aging and Exercise (L L Ji)Muscle, Oxidative Stress and Aging (J S Moylan et al.)Aging, Exercise, Antioxidants, and Cardioprotection (J Quindry & S Powers)Genetic Expressions: Oxidative Stress, Exercise, and Aging (N B Schweitzer & H M Alessio) Readership: Academics, researchers, upper undergraduate and graduate students in biochemistry, biological chemistry, physiology, gerontology, and cell & molecular biology; companies that develop and market products for sports, health, antioxidants and anti-aging interventions. Key Features:Descriptions of oxidative stress reactions in plants as well as animal modelsThe role of gene expression regulation in oxidative stressDiscussion of Oxidative stress reactions in skeletal and cardiac musclesNew mechanisms for understanding positive and negative consequences of oxidative stressKeywords:Exercise;Oxidative Stress;Aging;Health;Sports;Radicals;Antioxidants;Plants and Oxidative Stress
Categories: Science

Plant Responses to Abiotic Stress

Plant Responses to Abiotic Stress

to metabolic imbalances and oxidative stress. Plant salt tolerance mechanisms
can be grouped into cellular homeostasis (including ion homeostasis and
osmotic adjustment), stress damage control (repair and detoxification), and
growth ...

Author: Heribert Hirt

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540200371

Category: Science

Page: 300

View: 567

Environmental stresses represent the most limiting factors for agricultural productivity. Apart from biotic stress caused by plant pathogens, there are a number of abiotic stresses such as extremes in temperature, drought, salinity, heavy metals and radiation which all have detrimental effects on plant growth and yield. However, certain plant species and ecotypes have developed various mechanisms to adapt to such stress conditions. Recent advances in the understanding of these abiotic stress responses provided the impetus for compiling up-to-date reviews discussing all relevant topics in abiotic stress signaling of plants in a single volume. Topical reviews were prepared by selected experts and contain an introduction, discussion of the state of the art and important future tasks of the particular fields.
Categories: Science

Ascorbate Glutathione Pathway and Stress Tolerance in Plants

Ascorbate Glutathione Pathway and Stress Tolerance in Plants

Although, reactive oxygen species are important signal molecules that regulate
plant responses to environmental stress factors but these must be rapidly
processed and/or detoxified if oxidative damage is to be averted in cells. The
ascorbate ...

Author: Naser A. Anjum

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9048194040

Category: Science

Page: 443

View: 444

Plants are sessile organisms that live under a constant barrage of biotic and abiotic insults. Both biotic and abiotic stress factors have been shown to affect various aspects of plant system including the acceleration in the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The ascorbate (AsA)-glutathione (GSH) pathway is a key part of the network of reactions involving enzymes and metabolites with redox properties for the detoxification of ROS, and thus to avert the ROS-accrued oxidative damage in plants. The present book mainly deals with the information gained through the cross-talks and inter-relationship studies on the physiological, biochemical and molecular aspects of the cumulative response of various components of AsA-GSH pathway to stress factors and their significance in plant stress tolerance.
Categories: Science

Recent Advances in Plant Biotechnology and Its Applications

Recent Advances in Plant Biotechnology and Its Applications

If free radicals overwhelm the body's ability to regulate them, a condition is known
as oxidative stress ensues. Cellular damage or oxidative injury arising from free
radicals or ROS appears to be one of the fundamental mechanism underlying a ...

Author: Karl-Hermann Neumann

Publisher: I. K. International Pvt Ltd

ISBN: 9788189866099

Category: Plant biotechnology

Page: 694

View: 101

The present book is divided into five sections. The first section deals with the methodology and bioresource generation, techniques related to genetic engineering, and gene transfer to the nuclear genome and chloroplast genome. The new techniques of genome profiling and gene silencing are also presented. The second section of the book deals with the classical aspect of plant biotechnology viz. tissue culture and micropropagation. Use of genetic engineering via Agrobacterium and direct transfer of DNA via particle bombardment to develop transformed plants in Artemesia, castor and orchids, and production of recombinant proteins in plant cells have been dealt with in the third section. The fourth section deals with the abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in plants. The basic biology of some of the stress responses, and designing plants for stress tolerance is discussed in this section. The fifth section deals with medicinal plants and alkaloid production.
Categories: Plant biotechnology

Ecophysiology and Responses of Plants under Salt Stress

Ecophysiology and Responses of Plants under Salt Stress

Salinity stress is one of the major abiotic stresses that limit agricultural yield.
Salinity is responsible for the induction of primary effects like ionic and osmotic
stress, which in turn induce oxidative stress in plants. In plants exposed to salt
stress, ...

Author: Parvaiz Ahmad

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461447474

Category: Science

Page: 512

View: 287

This book will shed light on the effect of salt stress on plants development, proteomics, genomics, genetic engineering, and plant adaptations, among other topics. Understanding the molecular basis will be helpful in developing selection strategies for improving salinity tolerance. The book will cover around 25 chapters with contributors from all over the world.
Categories: Science

Plant Tissue Culture and Moelcular Markers

Plant Tissue Culture and Moelcular Markers

40 ALTERNATIVE RESPIRATION MAY HAVE A ROLE IN REDUCING
OXIDATIVE STRESS IN PLANTS K. ANNAMALAINATHAN1, N.L. TAYLOR2,
JAMES JACOB1, P.M. FINNEGAN2 AND D.A. DAY 3 1Rubber Research Institute
of India, ...

Author: Ashwani Kumar

Publisher: I. K. International Pvt Ltd

ISBN: 9788189866105

Category: Agricultural productivity

Page: 686

View: 474

Besides, recently molecular biology has assumed great importance with respect to plant biotechnology. The present book amalgamates all three aspects into one, practical applications of various techniques being the need of the hour. It discusses micropropagation studies on several crop plants, molecular basis of understanding various life processes including molecular basis of somatic embryogenesis and other physiological and biochemical processes having significant biotechnological applications. It also includes in vitro studies of some important plants like Aloe vera, Simmondsia chinensis, Anacyclus pyrethrum and Crataeva nurvala, Arachis hypogaea L., Phoenix dactylifera, Dendrocalamus asper, Asparagus adescendens Roxb., natural products of plant origin with their therapeutic potential and biotechnological production, genome analysis of crop plants with future applications in biotechnology etc.
Categories: Agricultural productivity

Free Radical Damage in Stored Plant Germplasm

Free Radical Damage in Stored Plant Germplasm

Erica E. Benson International Board for Plant Genetic Resources ... Mineral oil
overlay may also have a similar effect by reducing the amount of contact the plant
tissue has with the atmosphere ... 6.2 Consequences of in wfro oxidative damage
 ...

Author: Erica E. Benson

Publisher: Bioversity International

ISBN: 9789290431961

Category: Free radicals (Chemistry)

Page: 128

View: 255

Categories: Free radicals (Chemistry)

Heavy Metal Stress in Plants

Heavy Metal Stress in Plants

In between lie the sub- lethal concentrations where toxic symptoms are observed
but no lethality occurs (Fig. 4.3b). Zone of optimal growth and tolerance Deficient
growth (b) Metal Heavy Metal Induced Oxidative Damage in Terrestrial Plants ...

Author: Jurgen Hagemeyer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540401318

Category: Nature

Page: 462

View: 940

Heavy metal phytotoxicity has been known for more than a century. Not until recently, however, has research confirmed the immense damage by metal pollution to plants, the soil and ultimately to humans. This completely updated and enlarged second edition gives a state-of-the art review of both field and laboratory work on heavy metal phytotoxicity.
Categories: Nature

Plant Biotechnology and Transgenic Plants

Plant Biotechnology and Transgenic Plants

Plants. Expressing. Tolerance. Toward. Oxidative. Stress. Frank Van Breusegem
and Dirk Inzé Flanders Interuniversity ... as chilling, ozone, high light, drought,
and heat) can severely damage crop plants with consequent high yield losses.

Author: Kirsi-Marja Oksman-Caldentey

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780824743789

Category: Science

Page: 720

View: 798

This text discusses technologies and research on the engineering, synthesis, utilization and control of primary and secondary plant metabolites, such as carbohydrates, amino acids, lipids, polymers, proteins and phytochemicals for industrial, pharmaceutical and food and feed applications.
Categories: Science

Handbook of Plant and Crop Stress Second Edition

Handbook of Plant and Crop Stress  Second Edition

25 Oxidative Damage to Proteins in Plants JULIAN P. WHITELEGGE University of
California , Los Angeles , California INTRODUCTION Although oxidative
modification of protein and oxidative stress have been studied for many years , it
is only ...

Author: Mohammad Pessarakli

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0824746724

Category: Science

Page: 1254

View: 349

Detailing interrelated topics, this work addresses issues and concerns related to plant and crop stress. This edition includes information on pH stress, temperature stress, water-deficit conditions, carotenoids and stress, light stress, pollution stress, agrichemical stress, oxidative damage to proteins, UV-B induced stress and abiotic stress tolerance.
Categories: Science

Waterlogging Signalling and Tolerance in Plants

Waterlogging Signalling and Tolerance in Plants

Oxidative. Stress. Olga Blokhina and Kurt V. Fagerstedt Abstract In this chapter,
we discuss the metabolic changes relevant for the production of reactive oxygen
and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) in plant tissues during oxygen deprivation.

Author: Stefano Mancuso

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642103057

Category: Science

Page: 294

View: 940

In the last half century, because of the raising world population and because of the many environmental issues posed by the industrialization, the amount of arable land per person has declined from 0.32 ha in 1961–1963 to 0.21 ha in 1997–1999 and is expected to drop further to 0.16 ha by 2030 and therefore is a severe menace to food security (FAO 2006). At the same time, about 12 million ha of irrigated land in the developing world has lost its productivity due to waterlogging and salinity. Waterlogging is a major problem for plant cultivation in many regions of the world. The reasons are in part due to climatic change that leads to the increased number of precipitations of great intensity, in part to land degradation. Considering India alone, the total area suffering from waterlogging is estimated to be about 3.3 million ha (Bhattacharya 1992), the major causes of waterlogging include super- ous irrigation supplies, seepage losses from canal, impeded sub-surface drainage, and lack of proper land development. In addition, many irrigated areas are s- jected to yield decline because of waterlogging due to inadequate drainage systems. Worldwide, it has been estimated that at least one-tenth of the irrigated cropland suffers from waterlogging.
Categories: Science

Reactive Oxygen Species and Antioxidants in Higher Plants

Reactive Oxygen Species and Antioxidants in Higher Plants

Uncontrolled production of ROS can cause oxidative damage by reacting with
cellular macromolecules. Apart from its role as toxic molecules capable of
injuring plant cells, ROS can control many different processes in plants. There
exists a ...

Author: S. Dutta Gupta

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439854082

Category: Science

Page: 384

View: 852

Providing basic information on reactive oxygen species (ROS), this volume describes new developments in the action of ROS, the role of antioxidants, and the mechanisms developed to scavenge free radical associated cellular damage. It illustrates the chemistry of ROS, ROS signaling, antioxidative defense systems, transgene approaches in scavenging R
Categories: Science

Molecular Biology and Biotechnology of Plant Organelles

Molecular Biology and Biotechnology of Plant Organelles

Plants must be capable of coping with various environmental stresses. These
stresses range from high and low temperatures to salinity, drought, oxidative, and
radiation damage. Much of the biochemical machinery localized in the
chloroplast ...

Author: Henry Daniell

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402027130

Category: Science

Page: 659

View: 815

Plant organelles have intrigued biologists since the discovery of their endosymbiontic origin and maternal inheritance. The first application of organelle biotechnology was the role of cytoplasmic male sterility in hybrid seed production and "Green Revolution". In modern times, plant organelles are again leading the way for the creation of genetically modified crops. On a global scale, 75% of GM crops are engineered for herbicide resistance and most of these herbicides target pathways that reside within plastids. Several thousand proteins are imported into chloroplasts that participate in biosynthesis of fatty acids, amino acids, pigments, nucleotides and numerous metabolic pathways including photosynthesis. Thus, from green revolution to golden rice, plant organelles have played a critical role in revolutionizing agriculture. This book details not only basic concepts and current understanding of plant organelle genetics and molecular biology but also focuses on the synergy between basic biology and biotechnology. Forty four authors from nine countries have contributed twenty four chapters containing many figures and tables. Section 1 on organelle genomes and proteomes discusses molecular features of plastid and mitochondrial genomes, evolutinary origins, somatic and sexual inheritance, proteomics, bioinformatics and functional genomics. Section 2 on organelle gene expression and signalling discusses transcription, translation, RNA processing/editing, introns and splicing, protein synthesis, proteolysis, import of proteins into chloroplast and mitochondria and their regulation. Section 3 on organelle biotechnology discusses chloroplast and nuclear genetic engineering for biotic/abiotic stress tolerance, improved fatty acid/amino acid biosynthesis, biopharmaceuticals, biopolymers and biomaterials, cytoplasmic male sterility for hybrid seed production, plant improvement and restoration of fertility. This book is designed to serve as a comprehensive volume and reference guide for teachers, advanced undergraduates and graduate students and researchers in plant molecular biology and biotechnology.
Categories: Science

Genetic Improvement of Rice for Water limited Environments

Genetic Improvement of Rice for Water limited Environments

Oxidative stress-related genes. Moran et al (1994) showed that drought induced
oxidative stress in pea plants. ... These observations suggest that abiotic stresses
primarily affect plants through oxidative damage. Many groups have developed ...

Author: Osamu Ito

Publisher: Int. Rice Res. Inst.

ISBN: 9789712201387

Category: Plant-water relationships

Page: 353

View: 548

Categories: Plant-water relationships

Developments in Physiology Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Plants

Developments in Physiology  Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Plants

Stress Tolerance and Oxidative Enzymes When plants are subjected to
environmental stress the balance between the production of reactive O , species
and the quenching activity of antioxidants is upset often resulting in oxidative
damage .

Author: Bandana Bose

Publisher: New India Publishing

ISBN: 8189422928

Category: Science

Page: 400

View: 224

The Volume 2 of the treatise on the Developments in Physiology, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Plants provides additional information in the crucial areas for making precise and applied research in the national context, on the one hand, and to unravel the science, on the other hand. In the earlier volume, the theme of publishing this needful treatise has been already made obvious. However, in view of the experiences and enormous advances in plant science research in the last few decades providing enough insight to scan vital research in this century has, almost certainly, enlightened the path to undertake necessary research projects for the benefit of mankind to which we are indispensably committed. We, the plant physiologists, biochemists, molecular biologists and plant nutritionists must be proud of our support to the world's farmers which has helped them make their achievement possible. In this century, up to 2025, the human population is expected to double and that is in truth a serious issue for us to trace out the limiting factors reducing yield potentiality of crop plants, on the one hand, and to understand the science of related processes at different levels, alternatively. This principally necessitates for elucidation of dimensions of environmental stresses in relation to crop plants and their genotypes, optimally suitable to prevailing stress conditions. Of course, in the last few decades more emphasis was laid in this direction and remarkable progress has been made at the global scale to meet the challenges. Owing to this, distinguished scientists have been consistently reviewing and synchronizing the manifold research and signifying specific research of basic and applied implication in classified segment. It is delightful to mention that our attempt to sufficiently provide the essential and comprehensive literature to speed up important research in explicit areas of plant sciences has been once again tremendously satisfactory due to exceptional dedication of illustrious Indian scientists in the preparation of this momentous work. This treatise has been ordered with twelve excellent contributions in the form of review articles by thirty well- known Indian workers and academicians. The reviews are relevant to guide for theme oriented research as well as for scientific future planning of research projects. The four applicable sections related to: I. Sustainable Crop Productivity, II. Recent Advances in Plant Metabolism; III. Molecular Physiology of Plants; IV. Environmental Stresses in Plants consist of over twelve meaningful review articles as substantial chapteMoreover, as promised, prominence has been given to compile extremely important aspects of Stress Physiology. The detailed choice of the contents of the various contributions has been left largely to the individual authoDoubtless, this book will be of immense help to scientists, teachers and students of almost all disciplines of Agriculture, Botany and Biotechnology.
Categories: Science

Issues in Life Sciences Botany and Plant Biology Research 2011 Edition

Issues in Life Sciences  Botany and Plant Biology Research  2011 Edition

A report, 'Cadmium-induced oxidative stress and the response of the
antioxidative defense system in Spartina densiflora,' is newly published data in
Physiologia Plantarum. “Spartina densiflora is an invasive cordgrass that is
colonizing new ...

Author:

Publisher: ScholarlyEditions

ISBN: 9781464963438

Category: Science

Page: 3674

View: 754

Issues in Life Sciences: Botany and Plant Biology Research: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Life Sciences—Botany and Plant Biology Research. The editors have built Issues in Life Sciences: Botany and Plant Biology Research: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Life Sciences—Botany and Plant Biology Research in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Life Sciences: Botany and Plant Biology Research: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.
Categories: Science