Optical Systems for Soft X Rays

Author: A.G. Michette

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461322235

Category: Science

Page: 344

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A fundamental problem in cell biology is the cause of aging. The solution to this problem has not yet been obtained because,(l) until recently, it was not possible to image living cells directly. The use of low-energy (soft) X rays has made such imaging possible, perhaps thereby allowing the aging process to be understood and possibly overcome (a result that may well generate further social, moral, and ethical problems). Fortun ately this is not the only aspect of cell biology amenable to soft X-ray imaging, and it is envisaged that many less controversial studies--such as investigations of the detailed differences between healthy and diseased or malignant cells (in their natural states) and processes of cell division and growth-will be made possible. The use of soft X rays is not limited to biological studies-many applications are possible in, for example, fusion research, materials science, and astronomy. Such studies have only recently begun in earnest because several difficulties had to be overcome, major among these being the lack (for some purposes) of sufficiently intense sources, and the technological difficulties associated with making efficient optical systems. As is well known, the advent of dedicated synchrotron radiation sources, in particular, has alleviated the first of these difficulties, not just for the soft X-ray region. It is the purpose of this book to consider progress in the second.
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Soft X-ray Optics

Author: Eberhard Spiller

Publisher: SPIE Press

ISBN: 9780819416544

Category: Science

Page: 278

View: 1478

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This text describes optics mainly in the 10 to 500 angstrom wavelength region. These wavelengths are 50 to 100 times shorter than those for visible light and 50 to 100 times longer than the wavelengths of medical x rays or x-ray diffraction from natural crystals. There have been substantial advances during the last 20 years, which one can see as an extension of optical technology to shorter wavelengths or as an extension of x-ray diffraction to longer wavelengths. Artificial diffracting structures like zone plates and multilayer mirrors are replacing the natural crystals of x-ray diffraction. Some of these structures can now be fabricated to have diffraction-limited resolution. The new possibilities are described in a simple, tutorial way.
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Optical Engineering

The Journal of the Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Optical instruments

Page: N.A

View: 7120

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Optical Technologies for Extreme-Ultraviolet and Soft X-ray Coherent Sources

Author: Federico Canova,Luca Poletto

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3662474433

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 197

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The book reviews the most recent achievements in optical technologies for XUV and X-ray coherent sources. Particular attention is given to free-electron-laser facilities, but also to other sources available at present, such as synchrotrons, high-order laser harmonics and X-ray lasers. The optical technologies relevant to each type of source are discussed. In addition, the main technologies used for photon handling and conditioning, namely multilayer mirrors, adaptive optics, crystals and gratings are explained. Experiments using coherent light received during the last decades a lot of attention for the X-ray regime. Strong efforts were taken for the realization of almost fully coherent sources, e.g. the free-electron lasers, both as independent sources in the femtosecond and attosecond regimes and as seeding sources for free-electron-lasers and X-ray gas lasers. In parallel to the development of sources, optical technologies for photon handling and conditioning of such coherent and intense X-ray beams advanced. New problems were faced for the realization of optical components of beamlines demanding to manage coherent X-ray photons, e.g. the preservation of coherence and time structure of ultra short pulses.
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Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation

Principles and Applications

Author: David Attwood

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 052102997X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 470

View: 7547

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This comprehensive book describes the fundamental properties of soft X-rays and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation and discusses their applications in a wide variety of fields, including EUV lithography for semiconductor chip manufacture and soft X-ray biomicroscopy. The author provides a wealth of useful reference material such as electron binding energies, characteristic emission lines and photo-absorption cross-sections. The book will be of great interest to graduate students and researchers in engineering, physics, chemistry, and the...
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Handbook of Optics Third Edition, 5 Volume Set

Author: Optical Society of America

Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional

ISBN: 0071753427

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 5600

View: 2171

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The most comprehensive and up-to-date optics resource available Prepared under the auspices of the Optical Society of America, the five carefully architected and cross-referenced volumes of the Handbook of Optics, Third Edition, contain everything a student, scientist, or engineer requires to actively work in the field. From the design of complex optical systems to world-class research and development methods, this definitive publication provides unparalleled access to the fundamentals of the discipline and its greatest minds. Individual chapters are written by the world's most renowned experts who explain, illustrate, and solve the entire field of optics. Each volume contains a complete chapter listing for the entire Handbook, extensive chapter glossaries, and a wealth of references. This pioneering work offers unprecedented coverage of optics data, techniques, and applications. Volume I covers geometrical and physical optics, polarized light, components, and instruments. Volume II covers design, fabrications, testing, sources, detectors, radiometry, and photometry. Volume III, all in full color, covers vision and vision optics. Volume IV covers optical properties of materials, nonlinear optics, and quantum optics. Volume V covers atmospheric optics, modulators, fiber optics, and x-ray and neutron optics. Visit www.HandbookofOpticsOnline.com to search all five volumes and download a comprehensive index.
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Modern Developments in X-Ray and Neutron Optics

Author: Alexei Erko,Mourad Idir,Thomas Krist,Alan G. Michette

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540745602

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 534

View: 5000

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This volume describes modern developments in reflective, refractive and diffractive optics for short wavelength radiation. It also covers recent theoretical approaches to modelling and ray-tracing the x-ray and neutron optical systems. It is based on the joint research activities of specialists in x-ray and neutron optics, working together under the framework of the European Programme for Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST, Action P7) in the period 2002-2006.
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Laser-generated, synchrotron, and other laboratory X-ray and EUV sources, optics, and applications II

2-4 August 2005, San Diego, California, USA

Author: George A. Kyrala

Publisher: Society of Photo Optical

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 362

View: 3111

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Proceedings of SPIE present the original research papers presented at SPIE conferences and other high-quality conferences in the broad-ranging fields of optics and photonics. These books provide prompt access to the latest innovations in research and technology in their respective fields. Proceedings of SPIE are among the most cited references in patent literature.
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Gratings, Mirrors and Slits

Beamline Design for Soft X-Ray Synchrotron Radiation Sources

Author: W B Peatman

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9789056990282

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 228

View: 6775

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Intended to provide scientists and engineers at synchrotron radiation facilities with a sound and convenient basis for designing beamlines for monochromatic soft x-ray radiation, this text will also be helpful to the users of synchrotron radiation who want to help ensure that beamlines being built are optimized for the experiments to be performed on them. The primary purpose of a beamline is to capture as much of the light of the source as possible and then to transfer the desired portion of that light as completely as possible to the experiment. With the development of dedicated, brilliant synchrotron radiation sources, the first half of the task has been greatly simplified. The beamline designer must contend with the second half of the problem -- conserving the brilliance of the source through an optical system which monochromatizes and focuses the radiation.
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