This book treats the central physical concepts and mathematical techniques used to investigate the dynamics of open quantum systems.
Author: Heinz-Peter Breuer
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
This book treats the central physical concepts and mathematical techniques used to investigate the dynamics of open quantum systems. To provide a self-contained presentation the text begins with a survey of classical probability theory and with an introduction into the foundations of quantum mechanics with particular emphasis on its statistical interpretation. The fundamentals of density matrix theory, quantum Markov processes and dynamical semigroups are developed. The most important master equations used in quantum optics and in the theory of quantum Brownian motion are applied to the study of many examples. Special attention is paid to the theory of environment induced decoherence, its role in the dynamical description of the measurement process and to the experimental observation of decohering Schrodinger cat states. The book includes the modern formulation of open quantum systems in terms of stochastic processes in Hilbert space. Stochastic wave function methods and Monte Carlo algorithms are designed and applied to important examples from quantum optics and atomic physics, such as Levy statistics in the laser cooling of atoms, and the damped Jaynes-Cummings model. The basic features of the non-Markovian quantum behaviour of open systems are examined on the basis of projection operator techniques. In addition, the book expounds the relativistic theory of quantum measurements and discusses several examples from a unified perspective, e.g. non-local measurements and quantum teleportation. Influence functional and super-operator techniques are employed to study the density matrix theory in quantum electrodynamics and applications to the destruction of quantum coherence are presented. The text addresses graduate students and lecturers in physics and applied mathematics, as well as researchers with interests in fundamental questions in quantum mechanics and its applications. Many analytical methods and computer simulation techniques are developed and illustrated with the help of numerous specific examples. Only a basic understanding of quantum mechanics and of elementary concepts of probability theory is assumed.
In this volume the fundamental theory of open quantum systems is revised in the light of modern developments in the field.
Author: Ángel Rivas
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
In this volume the fundamental theory of open quantum systems is revised in the light of modern developments in the field. A unified approach to the quantum evolution of open systems is presented by merging concepts and methods traditionally employed by different communities, such as quantum optics, condensed matter, chemical physics and mathematical physics. The mathematical structure and the general properties of the dynamical maps underlying open system dynamics are explained in detail. The microscopic derivation of dynamical equations, including both Markovian and non-Markovian evolutions, is also discussed. Because of the step-by-step explanations, this work is a useful reference to novices in this field. However, experienced researches can also benefit from the presentation of recent results.
Significant progress in the understanding of such systems has been made recently. These books present the mathematical theories involved in the modeling of such phenomena.
Author: Stéphane Attal
Understanding dissipative dynamics of open quantum systems remains a challenge in mathematical physics. This problem is relevant in various areas of fundamental and applied physics. Significant progress in the understanding of such systems has been made recently. These books present the mathematical theories involved in the modeling of such phenomena. They describe physically relevant models, develop their mathematical analysis and derive their physical implications.
This book presents four survey articles on various aspects of open quantum systems, specifically addressing quantum Markovian processes, Feller semigroups and nonequilibrium dynamics.
Author: Dorothea Bahns
This book presents four survey articles on various aspects of open quantum systems, specifically addressing quantum Markovian processes, Feller semigroups and nonequilibrium dynamics. The contributions are based on lectures given by distinguished experts at a summer school in Göttingen, Germany. Starting from basic notions, the authors of these lecture notes accompany the reader on a journey up to the latest research, highlighting new challenges and addressing unsolved problems at the interface between mathematics and physics. Though the book is primarily addressed to graduate students, it will also be of interest to researchers.
Exercises and short summaries at the end of every chapter enable the reader to approach the frontiers of current research quickly and make the book useful for quick reference.
Author: Gernot Schaller
This monograph provides graduate students and also professional researchers aiming to understand the dynamics of open quantum systems with a valuable and self-contained toolbox. Special focus is laid on the link between microscopic models and the resulting open-system dynamics. This includes how to derive the celebrated Lindblad master equation without applying the rotating wave approximation. As typical representatives for non-equilibrium configurations it treats systems coupled to multiple reservoirs (including the description of quantum transport), driven systems and feedback-controlled quantum systems. Each method is illustrated with easy-to-follow examples from recent research. Exercises and short summaries at the end of every chapter enable the reader to approach the frontiers of current research quickly and make the book useful for quick reference.
Author: Gonzalo Manzano PaulePublish On: 2018-07-04
This book explores some of the connections between dissipative and quantum effects from a theoretical point of view.
Author: Gonzalo Manzano Paule
This book explores some of the connections between dissipative and quantum effects from a theoretical point of view. It focuses on three main topics: the relation between synchronization and quantum correlations, the thermodynamical properties of fluctuations, and the performance of quantum thermal machines. Dissipation effects have a profound impact on the behavior and properties of quantum systems, and the unavoidable interaction with the surrounding environment, with which systems continuously exchange information, energy, angular momentum and matter, is ultimately responsible for decoherence phenomena and the emergence of classical behavior. However, there is a wide intermediate regime in which the interplay between dissipative and quantum effects gives rise to a plethora of rich and striking phenomena that has just started to be understood. In addition, the recent breakthrough techniques in controlling and manipulating quantum systems in the laboratory have made this phenomenology accessible in experiments and potentially applicable.
Author: Theo M. NieuwenhuizenPublish On: 2014-10-03
The Advanced School on Quantum Foundations and Open Quantum Systems was an exceptional combination of lectures. These comprise lectures in standard physics and investigations on the foundations of quantum physics.
Author: Theo M. Nieuwenhuizen
Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company Incorporated
The Advanced School on Quantum Foundations and Open Quantum Systems was an exceptional combination of lectures. These comprise lectures in standard physics and investigations on the foundations of quantum physics. On the one hand it included lectures on quantum information, quantum open systems, quantum transport and quantum solid state. On the other hand it included lectures on quantum measurement, models for elementary particles, sub-quantum structures and aspects on the philosophy and principles of quantum physics. The special program of this school offered a broad outlook on the current and near future fundamental research in theoretical physics. The lectures were delivered at the level of PhD students.
This volume contains ten lectures presented in the series ULB Lectures in Nonlinear Optics at the Universite Libre de Bruxelles during the period October 28 to November 4, 1991.
Author: Howard Carmichael
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This volume contains ten lectures presented in the series ULB Lectures in Nonlinear Optics at the Universite Libre de Bruxelles during the period October 28 to November 4, 1991. A large part of the first six lectures is taken from material prepared for a book of somewhat larger scope which will be published,by Springer under the title Quantum Statistical Methods in Quantum Optics. The principal reason for the early publication of the present volume concerns the material contained in the last four lectures. Here I have put together, in a more or less systematic way, some ideas about the use of stochastic wavefunctions in the theory of open quantum optical systems. These ideas were developed with the help of two of my students, Murray Wolinsky and Liguang Tian, over a period of approximately two years. They are built on a foundation laid down in a paper written with Surendra Singh, Reeta Vyas, and Perry Rice on waiting-time distributions and wavefunction collapse in resonance fluorescence [Phys. Rev. A, 39, 1200 (1989)]. The ULB lecture notes contain my first serious atte~pt to give a complete account of the ideas and their potential applications. I am grateful to Professor Paul Mandel who, through his invitation to give the lectures, stimulated me to organize something useful out of work that may, otherwise, have waited considerably longer to be brought together.
In this work the objective has been to investigate some aspects of the dynamics of quantum open systems, in particular the quantum theory of dissipation.
Author: Subhashish Banerjee
Publisher: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing
In this work the objective has been to investigate some aspects of the dynamics of quantum open systems, in particular the quantum theory of dissipation. This is a very vast and challenging topic ranging from fundamental aspects of quantum statistical mechanics, quantum optics to applications in as diverse areas as superconducting devices and quantum gravity. The approach used in these investigations is that of functional integration. This approach, apart from its beauty and elegance is also the most suitable one in the above scenario in that it is able to penetrate into regimes which are inaccessible by other means. The principal object used is the influence functional which is a functional integral that gives the effect of the environment on the system of interest. Here our main thrust has been to develop the tools and techniques of functional integration to investigate some aspects of quantum open systems in their generality. The quantum theory of a Stern-Gerlach system in contact with a linearly dissipative environment is investigated using the influence functional generalized to allow for nonfactorizable initial conditions. Then, the general problem of a two-level at
This book shows how Bohmian mechanics overcomes the need for a measurement postulate involving wave function collapse.
Author: Antonio B. Nassar
This book shows how Bohmian mechanics overcomes the need for a measurement postulate involving wave function collapse. The measuring process plays a very important role in quantum mechanics. It has been widely analyzed within the Copenhagen approach through the Born and von Neumann postulates, with later extension due to Lüders. In contrast, much less effort has been invested in the measurement theory within the Bohmian mechanics framework. The continuous measurement (sharp and fuzzy, or strong and weak) problem is considered here in this framework. The authors begin by generalizing the so-called Mensky approach, which is based on restricted path integral through quantum corridors. The measuring system is then considered to be an open quantum system following a stochastic Schrödinger equation. Quantum stochastic trajectories (in the Bohmian sense) and their role in basic quantum processes are discussed in detail. The decoherence process is thereby described in terms of classical trajectories issuing from the violation of the noncrossing rule of quantum trajectories.
Author: Nicolae Alexandru EnachiPublish On: 2015-09-01
As the book contains the class of non-linear effects of generations of the particle in such cooperative phenomena, the author's aim was to describe squeezed problems and affect entanglement between the generation photons and phonons in ...
Author: Nicolae Alexandru Enachi
Publisher: Nova Science Publishers
Category: Open systems (Physics)
This monograph, "Non-linear Cooperative Effects in Open Quantum Systems: Entanglement and Second Order Coherence" is dedicated to the large auditory of specialists interested in the modern approaches in quantum open systems, cooperative phenomena between excited atoms and the field of the non-linear interaction. Special attention is dedicated to the problems of non-linear interaction with vacuum fields and thermostat with finite temperature, but quantum aspects of laser generation of light in non-linear interaction with finite numbers of cavity modes remain the center of attention. In many situations, the limit to the traditional cooperative phenomena of open quantum systems and thermodynamics are taken into consideration. As the book contains the class of non-linear effects of generations of the particle in such cooperative phenomena, the authors aim was to describe squeezed problems and affect entanglement between the generation photons and phonons in cooperative processes. The new phenomenon of cooperative emission in the single- and two-quantum processes are carefully described for large audiences of specialists in the field of quantum optics and condensed matter physics, chemistry and biology.
Open quantum systems is the study of quantum dynamics of the system of
interest, taking into account the effects of the ambient environment. It is
ubiquitous in the sense that any system could be envisaged to be surrounded by
its environment ...
Author: Subhashish Banerjee
This book discusses the elementary ideas and tools needed for open quantum systems in a comprehensive manner. The emphasis is given to both the traditional master equation as well as the functional (path) integral approaches. It discusses the basic paradigm of open systems, the harmonic oscillator and the two-level system in detail. The traditional topics of dissipation and tunneling, as well as the modern field of quantum information, find a prominent place in the book. Assuming a basic background of quantum and statistical mechanics, this book will help readers familiarize with the basic tools of open quantum systems. Open quantum systems is the study of quantum dynamics of the system of interest, taking into account the effects of the ambient environment. It is ubiquitous in the sense that any system could be envisaged to be surrounded by its environment which could naturally exert its influence on it. Open quantum systems allows for a systematic understanding of irreversible processes such as decoherence and dissipation, of the essence in order to have a correct understanding of realistic quantum dynamics and also for possible implementations. This would be essential for a possible development of quantum technologies.
In this thesis, we focus on computational problems related to open quantum systems. In particular, we study efficient constructions of open quantum systems and their algorithmic applications.
Author: Chunhao Wang
Category: Quantum computing
A quantum system that has interaction with external resources, such as probability distribution, dissipation, and noise, is referred to as an open quantum system. Not only do open quantum systems play a vital role in the field of quantum physics, but they are also fundamental objects in quantum information and quantum computing. In this thesis, we focus on computational problems related to open quantum systems. In particular, we study efficient constructions of open quantum systems and their algorithmic applications. A unitary 2-design is a quantum analogue of universal 2-hash functions. It is an example of open quantum systems in the sense that it is a probability distribution of unitaries. As unitary 2-designs inherit many properties of the Haar randomness on the unitary group, they have many applications in quantum information, such as benchmarking and decoupling. We study the structures of unitary 2-designs and present efficient methods for their constructions. The continuous-time evolution of a closed quantum system can be described by the Schrödinger equation. A natural generalization of the Schrödinger equation to Markovian open quantum systems, in the sense of generating dynamical semigroups, is called the Lindblad equation. We show that it is impossible for a simple reductionist approach to simulate Lindblad evolution with gate complexity that has linear dependence in evolution time. Moreover, we use a novel variation of the "linear combination of unitaries" construction that pertains to quantum channels to achieve the desired linear dependence in evolution time and poly-logarithmic dependence in precision. Open quantum systems can also be used as building blocks of quantum algorithms. We present a dissipative query model, which is based on the amplitude damping process. With this dissipative query model, we provide a quantum algorithm that performs a fixed-point quantum search while preserving the quadratic speedup against classical algorithms.