The purpose of this work is to examine the hydrocarbon sector in the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) group of countries.
Author: Derek Fee
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
In order to alleviate their problems many less developed countries (LDCs) are endeavoring to develop to the full their energy resources and in particular their hydrocarbon resources. However, the development of these resources is hindered by many factors, among which are the following: badly established estimates of indigenous resources; under-exploration; lack of competent Government institutions to monitor the hydrocarbon sector; lack of local markets to exploit non-oil hydrocarbon finds; refineries which are outdated, producing the wrong product mix and where economies of scale make upgrading difficult. The purpose of this work is to examine the hydrocarbon sector in the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) group of countries. An examination of such a diverse group of nations on a global scale is difficult since the group includes relatively rich countries such as Trinidad and Tobago with a GNP per capita of $4000, to the sub-Saharan countries such as Mali with a GNP per capita of $120. No easy solutions will be presented to improve the present energy situation in these countries but the reasons for the lack of hydrocarbon development will be examined. The work of the World Bank and similar international financial institutions will be assessed and a potted review of the hydrocarbon sector in each country will be presented.
The resulting shortage of foreign exchange prevents many nations from importing sufficient raw materials and capital equipment for their industries. Consequently, plant utilisation rates are running at very low levels.
Author: Derek Fee
The oil crises of 1973 and 1979 have had a profound effect on the economies of the less developed countries (LDCs). The African, Carib bean and Pacific (ACP) countries associated with the European Com munity as joint signatories of the Lome conventions have suffered in equal measure with other LDCs. Energy, because of its contribution to national development, is of primary importance to the ACP countries and since oil forms the basis of the energy sector in these countries any increase in price leads to considerable economic knock-on effects. The majority, over 90%, of the ACP countries are energy importers, that means oil importers. Their economies are based in the main on agriculture which normally contributes most to total GDP. Exports from these countries are mainly primary commodities such as coffee, cotton, tea, cereals, tobacco, copper, zinc, lead, cobalt etc. In most of the ACP nations, exports of commodities comprise over four-fifths of total merchandise exports. Imports, meanwhile, consist mainly of capital goods (including transport equipment), manufactures, petroleum and food stuffs. As a result of the international recession, falling commodity prices and the increase in crude oil prices, the balance of payments position of these countries has deteriorated sharply over the past few years. The resulting shortage of foreign exchange prevents many nations from importing sufficient raw materials and capital equipment for their industries. Consequently, plant utilisation rates are running at very low levels.
The third consideration is peculiar to companies and is the analysis of country
risk . 41 . See Derek Fee , Oil and Gas Databook for Developing Countries ,
Graham Trotman 1988 , 2nd Edition , at p . 35 . 42 . See Clarence P . Cazalot Jnr
Author: André Pereira da Fonseca,Publish On: 2020-08-10
Thus, currently, Ghana has provisions under the Petroleum (Exploration and ... 12 Derek Fee, Oil and Gas Databook for Developing Countries with Special ...
Author: André Pereira da Fonseca,
Publisher: Kluwer Law International B.V.
In the process of resolving disputes, it is not uncommon for parties to justify actions otherwise in breach of their obligations by invoking the need to protect some aspect of the elusive concept of public order. Until this thoroughly researched book, the criteria and factors against which international dispute bodies assess such claims have remained unclear. Now, by providing an in-depth comparative analysis of relevant jurisprudence under four distinct international dispute resolution systems – trade, investment, human rights and international commercial arbitration – the author of this invaluable book identifies common core benchmarks for the application of the public order exception. To achieve the broadest possible scope for her analysis, the author examines the public order exception’s function, role and application within the following international dispute resolution systems: relevant World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements as enforced by the organization’s Dispute Settlement Body and Appellate Body; international investment agreements as enforced by competent Arbitral Tribunals and Annulment Committees under the International Center for Settlement of Investment Disputes; provisions under the Inter-American Convention of Human Rights and the European Convention of Human Rights as enforced by the Inter-American Court of Human Rights and the European Court of Human Rights, respectively; and the New York Convention as enforced by national tribunals across the world. Controversies, tensions and pitfalls inherent in invoking the public order exception are elucidated, along with clear guidelines on how arguments may be crafted in order to enhance prospects of success. Throughout, tables and graphs systematize key aspects of the relevant jurisprudence under each of the dispute resolution systems analysed. As an immediate practical resource for lawyers on any side of a dispute who wish to invoke or strengthen a public order exception claim, the book’s systematic analysis will be welcomed by lawyers active in WTO disputes, international investment arbitration, human rights law or enforcement of foreign arbitral awards. Academics and policymakers will find a signal contribution to the ongoing debate on the existence, legal basis, content and functions of the transnational public order.
3-25 Upgraded bituminous crudes boosting world oil supply 4-1 OPEC price
defense augurs il for 2003 oil demandBob Williams .... 4-1 EIA sees developing nations as key to energy demand jump . 4-15 Embargos and instability . 4-22
Author: International Labour Office. Central Library and Documentation BranchPublish On: 1986
85A2274 PEE D OIL AND GAS DATABOOK FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES :
WITH SPECIAL REPERENCE TO THE ACP ... 215 P. Study of the / petroleum
industry , and / petroleum resources / in / ACP / / developing country's - reviews ...
Author: International Labour Office. Central Library and Documentation Branch
Vols. for 1947- include 10 sections: International petroleum, Highlights and basic statistics, Exploration and development, Drilling, Production of petroleum, Refining and processing, Gas processing, Transportation, Marketing, Investment ...
Author: Henry Julius Struth
Category: Natural gas
Vols. for 1947- include 10 sections: International petroleum, Highlights and basic statistics, Exploration and development, Drilling, Production of petroleum, Refining and processing, Gas processing, Transportation, Marketing, Investment and finance.
Despite significant increases in the consumption of energy attained in other developed countries since 1950 , the per ... British Petroleum's ( 1988-2003 )
Statistical Review of World Energy , and PennWell's Oil & Gas Journal Data Book
Author: Amos Salvador
Publisher: Amer Assn of Petroleum Geologists
Accompanying CD-ROM contains the appendix tables as Excel spreadsheets with detailed historical data on human population, energy consumption, and current information about present and future sources of energy.
B.P. Statistical Review of World Energy , BP Publication , June 1984 . 4. Energy
in Developing Countries . 5. Petroleum Exploitation Strategies in Developing Countries , Graham & Trotman , London , 1982 . 6. Fee , D. , Oil and Gas Databook ...