Nutrient Elements in Grassland

Nutrient Elements in Grassland

Introduction. Nutrient elements in soils. Uptake and concentrations of nutrient. elements in grassland herbage. Nutrient elements in ruminant animals. Nitrogen. Phosphorus. Sulphur.

Author: David Charles Whitehead

Publisher: Cabi

ISBN: 0851994377

Category: Medical

Page: 369

View: 343

Introduction. Nutrient elements in soils. Uptake and concentrations of nutrient. elements in grassland herbage. Nutrient elements in ruminant animals. Nitrogen. Phosphorus. Sulphur. Macronutrient cations: Potassium, Sodium, Calcium and Magnesium. Micronutrient cations: Iron, Manganese, Zinc, Copper and Cobalt. The nutrient halogens: Chlorine and Iodine. Boron, Molybdenum and Selenium.
Categories: Medical

Nutrient Elements in Grassland

Nutrient Elements in Grassland

This book is an essential reference source covering the chemical elements that are nutrients for plants or grazing animals.

Author: D. C. Whitehead

Publisher: CABI

ISBN: 0851999387

Category: Medical

Page: 384

View: 856

This book is an essential reference source covering the chemical elements that are nutrients for plants or grazing animals. It deals with the concentrations and transformations of these elements in soils, grassland plants, and ruminant animals, particularly cattle and sheep. For each element, the following data are given: forms occurring in soil, factors that affect availability and concentration, uptake and distribution in grassland plants, role in animal nutrition, amounts and forms excreted by grazing animals, and concentrations needed by ruminant animals.
Categories: Medical

Suitability of semi natural grassland biomass for bioenergy production through combustion

Suitability of semi natural grassland biomass for bioenergy production through combustion

I. Effects of hydrothermal conditioning and mechanical dehydration on mass flows of organic and mineral plant compounds, and nutrient balances. Grass and Forage Science 64, 132-143. Whitehead D.C. (2000) Nutrient elements in grassland: ...

Author: Bettina Tonn

Publisher: Cuvillier Verlag

ISBN: 9783736938762

Category: Science

Page: 182

View: 916

Species-rich semi-natural grasslands with low-intensity management have a high nature conservation value. Due to the low digestibility of the mature herbage at the usually late cutting dates of these grasslands, their use in animal nutrition is limited. As a result, semi-natural grasslands are threatened by either intensification or abandonment of management in many parts of Europe. Production of bioenergy from semi-natural grassland biomass is an alternative utilization that can help to keep up the low-intensity agricultural management necessary for the conservation of these grasslands. Combustion is a particularly well-adapted conversion technology for the decentralized utilization of lignocellulosic biomass. However, as semi-natural grasslands have low biomass yields and the harvested biomass has a low energy density, it is not evident if its combustion will result in relevant net energy production and relevant greenhouse gas emission savings. Compared to other biomass fuels, moreover, few studies have focussed on the content of combustion-relevant elements in semi-natural grassland biomass. Available information points towards a sometimes problematic chemical fuel composition with high variability. On the basis of a long-term field experiment with for management intensities, a life cycle assessment of semi-natural grassland biomass combustion was performed. Cumulative energy consumption and global warming potential of the experimental variants without N fertilization were 87-91% lower than those of a fossil fuel reference scenario. Acidification potential, however, was higher than in the reference scenario due to nitrogen oxide, sulphur dioxide and hydrogen chloride emissions. The influence of maturity, botanical composition and site conditions on chemical composition of semi-natural grassland biomass was investigated in a field experiment at six grassland sites in southwest Germany. At these sites, the primary growth was harvested in monthly intervals from mid June to mid October. Chemical composition of the biomass was analyzed separately for the two species groups ‘grasses’ and ‘forbs’. Ash, N, K and Cl partly reached contents problematic for the combustion process. Ash and N are responsible for dust and nitrogen oxide emissions, for which legal emission limits exist. K and Cl play a key role in ash high-temperature behaviour. They are the cause of slagging, fouling and corrosion, which may severely impair the functioning of combustion systems. Variability of biomass chemical composition was largely influenced by differences between grasses and forbs and by nutrient availability at the experimental sites. Grasses had lower ash and N contents than forbs and were less strongly influenced by site effects. However, they had higher K/Ca ratios, leading to more problematic ash melting behaviour. Harvest date had a small effect on fuel quality. The K/Ca ratio, decreasing between June and October, was the only parameter showed a relevant change over time. These results point to a low potential for conflict between nature conservation targets and fuel production from semi-natural grassland biomass. An experiment using biomass from two grassland sites of contrasting management intensity showed that leaching by rain during the field period can lead to strong reductions of K and Cl and to smaller reductions of ash contents. These leaching effects only occurred in dry but not in freshly cut biomass. There were also differences in leachability between biomass from the two grassland sites. For this reason, a laboratory method was calibrated against the leaching effect of simulated rain in a follow-up experiment. This method was used to assess the effects of different biomass characteristics and harvest dates on leachability. Differences in leachability between biomass from five grassland sites harvested on two different dates were found to be small and were not related to initial elemental contents. The results can therefore be considered to be representative for the primary growth of semi-natural grasslands. An analysis of long-term weather data showed that the option of using on-field leaching will not exist every year, so that technical leaching processes are of interest as well. A method adapted from combustion technology was used to investigate ash high-temperature behaviour of leached and unleached biomass. It could be established that leaching improved ash melting behaviour and reduced the release of volatile elements. Knowledge about the factors influencing semi-natural grassland biomass chemical composition allows match biomass from specific grassland sites with the most suitable combustion technology and to identify grassland biomass of high fuel quality. For biomass of a less favourable chemical composition, on-field leaching is an option for fuel quality optimization. Semi-natural grassland biomass combustion therefore has the potential to combine biodiversity conservation with the production of bioenergy.
Categories: Science

Grassland Management for Sustainable Agroecosystems

Grassland Management for Sustainable Agroecosystems

Whitehead, D.C. Nutrient Elements in Grassland: Soil-Plant-Animal Relationships; CABI Publishing: New York, NY, USA, 2000. 4. Norman, M.J.T.; Green, J.O. The local influence of cattle dung and urine upon yield and botanical composition ...

Author: Abad Chabbi

Publisher: MDPI

ISBN: 9783039282227

Category: Science

Page: 252

View: 348

This book is a remarkable work that brings together the most recent international research on grassland management, covering a broad range of topics and geographical areas. The different contributions explore the complex relationships between landscape, climate features, and soil fertility with the support of observational data and modeling. Clearly, this is a wide and multifaceted area of research that opens up new prospects for the management of a biome, which should no longer be considered only as a feed resource for domestic herbivore farming, but also—and above all—as a source of ecosystem services to society and a contributor to the sustainability of agriculture. Textbooks like this positively demonstrate the importance and significance of how grassland science, when viewed in this way, can make tangible the progress in understanding the complexity of grassland management and its current and future challenges.
Categories: Science

Grasses and Grassland Ecology

Grasses and Grassland Ecology

4.2.2 Nutrient elements Knowledge of nutrient levels in grasses and associated grassland plants is important in grassland agriculture. Bioavailability of nutrients in forage affects ...

Author: David J. Gibson

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198529187

Category: Science

Page: 305

View: 633

Grasses and Grassland Ecology provides an ecologically orientated introduction to this influential group of plants, summarizing the most recent scientific research in ecology and agriculture in the context of the older, classic literature. Ten chapters cover the morphology, anatomy, physiology and systematics of grasses, their population, community and ecosystem ecology, their global distribution, and the effects of disturbanceand grassland management.
Categories: Science

Grassland Ecophysiology and Grazing Ecology

Grassland Ecophysiology and Grazing Ecology

Also available from CABI Publishing Nutrient Elements in Grassland : Forage Evaluation in Ruminant Nutrition Soil - Plant - Animal Relationships Edited by D.I. Givens , E. Owen , D.C. Whitehead H.M. Omed and R.F.E. Axford 2000 352 pages ...

Author: Gilles Lemaire

Publisher: CABI

ISBN: 0851999409

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 432

View: 186

This text presents edited key papers from the International Symposium on Grassland Ecophyisiology and Grazing Ecology held in Curitiba, Brazil in August 1999. It considers how plants within grasslands respond to and are adapted to grazing animals.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Trace Elements in the Environment

Trace Elements in the Environment

Whitehead, D.C., Nutrient Elements in Grassland: Soil–Plant Relationships. CABI Publishers, New York, 2000. Tucker, M.R., Stokes, D.H., and Stokes, C.E., Heavy metals in North Carolina soils: occurrence and significance.

Author: M.N.V. Prasad

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420032048

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 744

View: 529

New analytical techniques have enhanced current understanding of the behavior of trace and ultratrace elements in the biogeochemical cycling, chemical speciation, bioavailability, bioaccumulation, and as applied to the phytoremediation of contaminated soils. Addressing worldwide regulatory, scientific, and environmental issues, Trace Elements in the Environment explores these frontiers, including biotechnological aspects of metal-binding proteins and peptides and phytoremediation strategies using trees, grasses, crop plants, aquatics, and risks to ecological and human health. Discussing trace elements in the holistic environment, this book covers advances in state-of-the-art analytical techniques, molecular biotechology, and contemporary biotechnology that enhances knowledge of the behavior of trace elements in the biogeosphere and at the cellular and molecular level. The editors and their hand-picked panel of contributors provide authoritative coverage of trace elements in the environment. They highlight cutting-edge applications of emerging strategies and technologies to the problems of trace elements in the environment. The editors discuss emerging areas such as bacterial biosorption of trace elements, processes, and applications of electroremediation of heavy metals-contaminated soils, application of novel nanoporous sorbents for the removal of heavy metals, metalloids, and radionuclides. The book focuses on the effects of increasing levels of trace elements on ecological and human health, evaluates the effectiveness of methods of phytoremediation, and covers risk assessment, pathways, and trace element toxicity. Containing more than 150 illustrations, tables, photographs, and equations, the book's coverage spans the entire body of knowledge available about how and why plants interact with metals and other trace elements.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Improved Grassland Management

Improved Grassland Management

... Grassland Society, 19(1964), pp.363–372 Tolkamp, B.J.,and I.Kyriazakis, 'Toward a new practical energy evaluation system for dairy cows', Animal, 3 (2009), pp.307–314 †Whitehead, D.C., Nutrient Elements in Grassland (CABI, 2000) ...

Author: A S Laidlaw

Publisher: Crowood

ISBN: 9781847977274

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 352

View: 978

This new, fully updated and revised edition of Improved Grassland Management covers all aspects of grassland management and is of particular relevance to the UK and the Republic of Ireland, although the principles discussed apply to all temperate grassland zones. Almost twenty years ago, when the original edition of this book was written by John Frame, issues such as efficiency in the use of nutrients in manures, grassland biodiversity and greenhouse gas emissions from ruminant production were either nascent, or of no relevance to mainstream grassland farming. The intervening two decades have seen the introduction of water and, latterly, air quality directives by the EU, cross compliance, the single farm payment, and an ever-increasing need for grassland farmers to be conscious of the economics of their business. The present edition, which has been thoroughly revised by Scott Laidlaw, covers the full scope of modern grassland management. Accordingly the application of technical developments in supplying and utilizing grass and forage, which remain central to grassland management, is presented in the context of these changes.Topics covered include: breeding and evaluation of new varieties of grass to meet current needs; new technology in establishing swards; legislative constraints, background science and practice in determining forage quality and the utilization of forage either for grazing or silage; feed budgeting, grassland biodiversity, grassland and climate change, and transferring knowledge and technology; wide-ranging list of sources and references, which provides the reader with further detailed information. Essential reading for all those involved in modern grassland management including grassland farmers, agricultural consultants and advisory officers, as well as agricultural, land use and biology students. Written in a reader-friendly advisory style, it can be read and understood without an in-depth technical or scientific background. Fully illustrated with 61 colour photographs.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants

Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants

Nutrient Elements in Grassland : Soil - Plant - Animal Relationships . New York : CABI Publishing . Whiteman , P. C. , L. R. Humphreys , and N. H. Montheith . 1974. A Course Manual in Tropical Pasture Science .

Author: National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants

Publisher: 中国法制出版社

ISBN: 0309102138

Category: Medical

Page: 362

View: 923

Proper formulation of diets for small ruminants depends on adequate knowledge of their nutrient requirements.
Categories: Medical

Forage Legumes for Temperate Grasslands

Forage Legumes for Temperate Grasslands

Grassland Nitrogen. Wallingford, UK: CAB Intemational. Whitehead, D.C. 2000. Nutrient Elements in Grassland: Soil-Plant-Animal Relationships. Wallingford, UK: CAB] Publishing. Whytock, G.P. and Frame, ]. 1985a. Update on growing forage ...

Author: John Frame

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: IND:30000123974754

Category: Science

Page: 309

View: 992

With the underpinning role of forage legumes in the nitrogen economy and animal productivity from temperate grasslands certain to expand in the future, particularly in regions where their potential has not yet been realized, it is essential that the wealth of information currently available is widely disseminated. This book serves the purpose with very detailed information on and illustrations of 35 selected forage legume species that will contribute to more efficient and viable grassland farming.
Categories: Science

Improving the Profitability Sustainability and Efficiency of Nutrients Through Site Specific Fertilizer Recommendations in West Africa Agro Ecosystems

Improving the Profitability  Sustainability and Efficiency of Nutrients Through Site Specific Fertilizer Recommendations in West Africa Agro Ecosystems

Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 53, 113–119. Peoples, M. B., Freney, J. R., & Mosier, A. R. (1995). ... In D. C. Whitehead (Ed.), Nutrient elements in grassland (pp. 95–125). Wallingford: CAB International. Yameogo, P. L., Segda, Z.

Author: Andre Bationo

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319587929

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 313

View: 363

As part of its efforts to improve fertilizer use and efficiency in West Africa, and following the recent adoption of the West African fertilizer recommendation action plan (RAP) by ECOWAS, this volume focuses on IFDC's technical lead with key partner institutions and experts to build on previous and current fertilizer recommendations for various crops and countries in West Africa for wider uptake by public policy makers and fertilizer industry actors.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Agronomy of Grassland Systems

Agronomy of Grassland Systems

This chapter thus concentrates on these elements , although plant nutrition texts give more detailed descriptions of all elements . Level of organization and the perspective of the human participants in the grassland system - is ...

Author: Craig J. Pearson

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521568897

Category: Philosophy

Page: 222

View: 148

Revised edition, with an increased emphasis on systems, reflects current environmental and ethical concerns.
Categories: Philosophy

Competition and Succession in Pastures

Competition and Succession in Pastures

... 2001 416 pages ISBN O 85199 432 6 P.C. de F. Carvalho and C. Nabinger Field and Laboratory Methods for 2000 432 pages ISBN O 85199 452 0 Grassland and Animal Production Nutrient Elements in Grassland : Research Soil - Plant - Animal ...

Author: P. G. Tow

Publisher: CABI

ISBN: 0851997031

Category: Science

Page: 322

View: 903

This book describes how competition between plant species, and succession in plant ecosystems, operate in grasslands and grazed pastures, both natural and sown. It discusses how competition both affects botanical structure, productivity and persistence of pastures and is itself regulated by biological, environmental and management factors, such as grazing animals. The book also examines the ways in which competition and succession are analysed, evaluated and measured, and brings to the agricultural arena the considerable progress made in understanding the principles of competition from theoretical and experimental ecology.
Categories: Science

Carbon Management for Promoting Local Livelihood in the Hindu Kush Himalayan HKH Region

Carbon Management for Promoting Local Livelihood in the Hindu Kush Himalayan  HKH  Region

The three different forms of grassland use have a common feature, that is, they continuously provide nutrients and propagation components ... The main reason for degradation of artificial grassland is the loss of soil nutrient elements.

Author: Zhanhuan Shang

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783030205911

Category: Science

Page: 347

View: 993

This book contributes to our understanding of linkages between carbon management and local livelihoods by taking stock of the existing evidence and drawing on field experiences in the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region, an area that provides fresh water to more than 2 billion people and supports the world’s largest population of pastoralists and millions of livestock. This edited volume addresses two main questions: 1. Does carbon management offer livelihood opportunities or present risks, and what are they? 2. Do the attributes of carbon financing alter the nature of livelihood opportunities and risks? Chapters analyze the most pressing deficiencies in understanding carbon storage in both soils and in above ground biomass, and the related social and economic challenges associated with carbon sequestration projects. Chapters deliver insights to both academics from diverse disciplines (natural sciences, social sciences and engineering) and to policy makers.
Categories: Science

Rainforest Ecosystems of East Kalimantan

Rainforest Ecosystems of East Kalimantan

On the other hand, the fluxes of nutrient elements in soil water in the grassland were almost the same as in the natural forest, except for Ca, which was even smaller in the grassland than in the natural forest.

Author: Edi Guhardja

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9784431679110

Category: Science

Page: 332

View: 591

Since the late 1960s the Indonesian state of East Kalimantan has witnessed a marked increase in the impact of human activities chiefly commercial logging and agricultural exploitation. Located on the island of Borneo, East Kalimantan also was subjected to prolonged droughts and extensive wildfires in 1982-83 and 1997-98 that were linked to the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. The changes in the rainforest ecosystem in East Kalimantan during this 15-year cycle of severe ENSO events are the subject of this book. With an eye toward development of rehabilitation techniques for sustainable forest management, the authors examine possible interactive effects of drought, fire, and human impacts on the flora and fauna of the area.
Categories: Science

Disturbance in Grasslands

Disturbance in Grasslands

Soil sampling of grassland is usually restricted to the top 10 cm, where most of the root mass usually occurs, and where the ... The total'concentration of elements in the soil is normally a very unsatisfactory measure of nutrient ...

Author: J. van Andel

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400940550

Category: Science

Page: 317

View: 874

This volume is the result of a Symposium, held in October, 1985, to celebrate the Silver Jubilee of the De partment of Plant Ecology of the University of Groningen. The Department of Plant Ecology was founded by Professor Dingeman Bakker and has, since its incep tion, been involved with studies of grasslands, and especially with the effects of human interference on grassland communities. It has been especially involved in an almost unique enterprise to convert areas of grassland from intensive agricultural production to nature reserves. With over-production of most food commodities in the EEC, and increasing interest in various types of 'set aside' schemes, this initiative now seems to be remarkably prescient. The Netherlands have a long history of human manipulation of the environment. Indeed, the Dutch en vironment is probably more man-made than that of any other country. In view of this, and the Laborato ry's interest in managed grasslands, it is not surprising that 'Disturbance in Grasslands' was selected as the topic for the Laboratory's Jubilee Symposium. Although both the Symposium and the resulting vo lume, have a strong Dutch component, the organisers invited a number of contributors from Europe and elsewhere to provide key chapters. The result is a volume which covers many aspects of disturbance in a variety of grasslands. Disturbance is considered at both the community and the population level, and the principles and processes underlying those responses are explored.
Categories: Science

Soil and Water Contamination

Soil and Water Contamination

Whitehead, D.C., 2000, Nutrient Elements in Grassland: Soil–Plant–Animal Relationships, (Wallingford: CAB International). Whitehead, P.G. and Williams, R.J., 1982, A dynamic nitrogen balance model for river systems ...

Author: Marcel van der Perk

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780203768891

Category: Science

Page: 428

View: 628

Soil and Water Contamination, Second Edition gives a structured overview of transport and fate processes of environmental contaminants. Providing a structured overview of transport and fate processes of environmental contaminants, this textbook approaches the environmental issues of soil and water contamination from a spatial and earth science point of view. The new edition contains new material on pesticides and pharmaceutical contaminants and a greater number of exercises, case studies, and examples. It covers topics essential to understanding and predicting contaminant patterns in soil, groundwater, and surface water and contributes to the formation of a solid basis for adequate management and control of soil and water pollution and integrated catchment.
Categories: Science

Agricultural Pollution

Agricultural Pollution

Whitehead, D.C., Pain, B.F. and Ryden, J.C. (1986) Nitrogen in UK grassland agriculture. Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society of England 147, 190–201. Whitehead, D.C. (2000) Nutrient Elements in Grassland: Soil–Plant–Animal ...

Author: Graham Merrington

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781482288148

Category: Science

Page: 264

View: 210

This comprehensive text provides a concise overview of environmental problems caused by agriculture, (such as pesticide pollution and increased nitrate levels) and offers practical solutions to them. It is well illustrated and contains a fully-referenced introduction to the main contemporary agricultural pollution issues in the UK. It will help provide clear, scientific and technical understanding of the most important sources of agricultural pollution.
Categories: Science

Genetics Biofuels and Local Farming Systems

Genetics  Biofuels and Local Farming Systems

J Range Manag 26(1):13–18 Whitehead DC (2000) Nutrient elements in Grassland: soil-plant-animal relationships. CABI Publishing, Wallingford Wilkie AC (2008) Biomethane from biomass, biowaste and biofuels. In: Wall JD, Harwood CS, ...

Author: Eric Lichtfouse

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400715218

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 426

View: 671

Sustainable agriculture is a rapidly growing field aiming at producing food and energy in a sustainable way for our children. This discipline addresses current issues such as climate change, increasing food and fuel prices, starvation, obesity, water pollution, soil erosion, fertility loss, pest control and biodiversity depletion. Novel solutions are proposed based on integrated knowledge from agronomy, soil science, molecular biology, chemistry, toxicology, ecology, economy, philosophy and social sciences. As actual society issues are now intertwined, sustainable agriculture will bring solutions to build a safer world. This book series analyzes current agricultural issues and proposes alternative solutions, consequently helping all scientists, decision-makers, professors, farmers and politicians wishing to build safe agriculture, energy and food systems for future generations.
Categories: Technology & Engineering