Numbers and Geometry

Author: John Stillwell

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461206871

Category: Mathematics

Page: 343

View: 4089

DOWNLOAD NOW »

A beautiful and relatively elementary account of a part of mathematics where three main fields - algebra, analysis and geometry - meet. The book provides a broad view of these subjects at the level of calculus, without being a calculus book. Its roots are in arithmetic and geometry, the two opposite poles of mathematics, and the source of historic conceptual conflict. The resolution of this conflict, and its role in the development of mathematics, is one of the main stories in the book. Stillwell has chosen an array of exciting and worthwhile topics and elegantly combines mathematical history with mathematics. He covers the main ideas of Euclid, but with 2000 years of extra insights attached. Presupposing only high school algebra, it can be read by any well prepared student entering university. Moreover, this book will be popular with graduate students and researchers in mathematics due to its attractive and unusual treatment of fundamental topics. A set of well-written exercises at the end of each section allows new ideas to be instantly tested and reinforced.
Release

Elements of Algebra

Geometry, Numbers, Equations

Author: John Stillwell

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387942902

Category: Mathematics

Page: 184

View: 4615

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Algebra is abstract mathematics - let us make no bones about it - yet it is also applied mathematics in its best and purest form. It is not abstraction for its own sake, but abstraction for the sake of efficiency, power and insight. Algebra emerged from the struggle to solve concrete, physical problems in geometry, and succeeded after 2000 years of failure by other forms of mathematics. It did this by exposing the mathematical structure of geometry, and by providing the tools to analyse it. This is typical of the way algebra is applied; it is the best and purest form of application because it reveals the simplest and most universal mathematical structures. The present book aims to foster a proper appreciation of algebra by showing abstraction at work on concrete problems, the classical problems of construction by straightedge and compass. These problems originated in the time of Euclid, when geometry and number theory were paramount, and were not solved until th the 19 century, with the advent of abstract algebra. As we now know, alge bra brings about a unification of geometry, number theory and indeed most branches of mathematics. This is not really surprising when one has a historical understanding of the subject, which I also hope to impart.
Release

Mathematics and Its History

Author: John Stillwell

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 144196052X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 662

View: 2793

DOWNLOAD NOW »

From a review of the second edition: "This book covers many interesting topics not usually covered in a present day undergraduate course, as well as certain basic topics such as the development of the calculus and the solution of polynomial equations. The fact that the topics are introduced in their historical contexts will enable students to better appreciate and understand the mathematical ideas involved...If one constructs a list of topics central to a history course, then they would closely resemble those chosen here." (David Parrott, Australian Mathematical Society) This book offers a collection of historical essays detailing a large variety of mathematical disciplines and issues; it’s accessible to a broad audience. This third edition includes new chapters on simple groups and new sections on alternating groups and the Poincare conjecture. Many more exercises have been added as well as commentary that helps place the exercises in context.
Release

Naive Lie Theory

Author: John Stillwell

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387782157

Category: Mathematics

Page: 217

View: 7182

DOWNLOAD NOW »

In this new textbook, acclaimed author John Stillwell presents a lucid introduction to Lie theory suitable for junior and senior level undergraduates. In order to achieve this, he focuses on the so-called "classical groups'' that capture the symmetries of real, complex, and quaternion spaces. These symmetry groups may be represented by matrices, which allows them to be studied by elementary methods from calculus and linear algebra. This naive approach to Lie theory is originally due to von Neumann, and it is now possible to streamline it by using standard results of undergraduate mathematics. To compensate for the limitations of the naive approach, end of chapter discussions introduce important results beyond those proved in the book, as part of an informal sketch of Lie theory and its history. John Stillwell is Professor of Mathematics at the University of San Francisco. He is the author of several highly regarded books published by Springer, including The Four Pillars of Geometry (2005), Elements of Number Theory (2003), Mathematics and Its History (Second Edition, 2002), Numbers and Geometry (1998) and Elements of Algebra (1994).
Release

The Real Numbers

An Introduction to Set Theory and Analysis

Author: John Stillwell

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 331901577X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 244

View: 1550

DOWNLOAD NOW »

While most texts on real analysis are content to assume the real numbers, or to treat them only briefly, this text makes a serious study of the real number system and the issues it brings to light. Analysis needs the real numbers to model the line, and to support the concepts of continuity and measure. But these seemingly simple requirements lead to deep issues of set theory—uncountability, the axiom of choice, and large cardinals. In fact, virtually all the concepts of infinite set theory are needed for a proper understanding of the real numbers, and hence of analysis itself. By focusing on the set-theoretic aspects of analysis, this text makes the best of two worlds: it combines a down-to-earth introduction to set theory with an exposition of the essence of analysis—the study of infinite processes on the real numbers. It is intended for senior undergraduates, but it will also be attractive to graduate students and professional mathematicians who, until now, have been content to "assume" the real numbers. Its prerequisites are calculus and basic mathematics. Mathematical history is woven into the text, explaining how the concepts of real number and infinity developed to meet the needs of analysis from ancient times to the late twentieth century. This rich presentation of history, along with a background of proofs, examples, exercises, and explanatory remarks, will help motivate the reader. The material covered includes classic topics from both set theory and real analysis courses, such as countable and uncountable sets, countable ordinals, the continuum problem, the Cantor–Schröder–Bernstein theorem, continuous functions, uniform convergence, Zorn's lemma, Borel sets, Baire functions, Lebesgue measure, and Riemann integrable functions.
Release

The Real Numbers and Real Analysis

Author: Ethan D. Bloch

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387721762

Category: Mathematics

Page: 554

View: 841

DOWNLOAD NOW »

This text is a rigorous, detailed introduction to real analysis that presents the fundamentals with clear exposition and carefully written definitions, theorems, and proofs. It is organized in a distinctive, flexible way that would make it equally appropriate to undergraduate mathematics majors who want to continue in mathematics, and to future mathematics teachers who want to understand the theory behind calculus. The Real Numbers and Real Analysis will serve as an excellent one-semester text for undergraduates majoring in mathematics, and for students in mathematics education who want a thorough understanding of the theory behind the real number system and calculus.
Release

Number, Shape, & Symmetry

An Introduction to Number Theory, Geometry, and Group Theory

Author: Diane L. Herrmann,Paul J. Sally, Jr.

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466554649

Category: Mathematics

Page: 444

View: 9093

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Through a careful treatment of number theory and geometry, Number, Shape, & Symmetry: An Introduction to Number Theory, Geometry, and Group Theory helps readers understand serious mathematical ideas and proofs. Classroom-tested, the book draws on the authors’ successful work with undergraduate students at the University of Chicago, seventh to tenth grade mathematically talented students in the University of Chicago’s Young Scholars Program, and elementary public school teachers in the Seminars for Endorsement in Science and Mathematics Education (SESAME). The first half of the book focuses on number theory, beginning with the rules of arithmetic (axioms for the integers). The authors then present all the basic ideas and applications of divisibility, primes, and modular arithmetic. They also introduce the abstract notion of a group and include numerous examples. The final topics on number theory consist of rational numbers, real numbers, and ideas about infinity. Moving on to geometry, the text covers polygons and polyhedra, including the construction of regular polygons and regular polyhedra. It studies tessellation by looking at patterns in the plane, especially those made by regular polygons or sets of regular polygons. The text also determines the symmetry groups of these figures and patterns, demonstrating how groups arise in both geometry and number theory. The book is suitable for pre-service or in-service training for elementary school teachers, general education mathematics or math for liberal arts undergraduate-level courses, and enrichment activities for high school students or math clubs.
Release

Number Theory and Geometry: An Introduction to Arithmetic Geometry

Author: Álvaro Lozano-Robledo

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 147045016X

Category: Arithmetical algebraic geometry

Page: 488

View: 7543

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Geometry and the theory of numbers are as old as some of the oldest historical records of humanity. Ever since antiquity, mathematicians have discovered many beautiful interactions between the two subjects and recorded them in such classical texts as Euclid's Elements and Diophantus's Arithmetica. Nowadays, the field of mathematics that studies the interactions between number theory and algebraic geometry is known as arithmetic geometry. This book is an introduction to number theory and arithmetic geometry, and the goal of the text is to use geometry as the motivation to prove the main theorems in the book. For example, the fundamental theorem of arithmetic is a consequence of the tools we develop in order to find all the integral points on a line in the plane. Similarly, Gauss's law of quadratic reciprocity and the theory of continued fractions naturally arise when we attempt to determine the integral points on a curve in the plane given by a quadratic polynomial equation. After an introduction to the theory of diophantine equations, the rest of the book is structured in three acts that correspond to the study of the integral and rational solutions of linear, quadratic, and cubic curves, respectively. This book describes many applications including modern applications in cryptography; it also presents some recent results in arithmetic geometry. With many exercises, this book can be used as a text for a first course in number theory or for a subsequent course on arithmetic (or diophantine) geometry at the junior-senior level.
Release

Number Theory, Fourier Analysis and Geometric Discrepancy

Author: Giancarlo Travaglini

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107044030

Category: Mathematics

Page: 252

View: 3661

DOWNLOAD NOW »

"The first part of this book is dedicated to the first goal. The reader will find some topics typically presented in introductory books on Number Theory: factorization, arithmetic functions and integer points, congruences and cryptography, quadratic reciprocity, and sums of two and four squares. Starting from the first few pages we introduce some simple and captivating findings, such as Chebyshev's theorem and the elementary results for the Gauss circle problem and for the Dirichlet divisor problem, which may lead the reader to a deeper study of Number Theory, particularly students who are interested in Calculus and Analysis"--
Release

Mathematical Analysis

An Introduction

Author: Andrew Browder

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461207150

Category: Mathematics

Page: 335

View: 4523

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Among the traditional purposes of such an introductory course is the training of a student in the conventions of pure mathematics: acquiring a feeling for what is considered a proof, and supplying literate written arguments to support mathematical propositions. To this extent, more than one proof is included for a theorem - where this is considered beneficial - so as to stimulate the students' reasoning for alternate approaches and ideas. The second half of this book, and consequently the second semester, covers differentiation and integration, as well as the connection between these concepts, as displayed in the general theorem of Stokes. Also included are some beautiful applications of this theory, such as Brouwer's fixed point theorem, and the Dirichlet principle for harmonic functions. Throughout, reference is made to earlier sections, so as to reinforce the main ideas by repetition. Unique in its applications to some topics not usually covered at this level.
Release