Nordic Neoshamanisms

Nordic Neoshamanisms

This book proposes that the drive for religiosity and experiences of the sacred are far from lost in contemporary western societies.

Author: S. Kraft

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9781137461407

Category: Social Science

Page: 270

View: 109

This book proposes that the drive for religiosity and experiences of the sacred are far from lost in contemporary western societies. The contributors' objective is to explore the myriad of ways late modern shamanism is becoming more vital and personally significant to people, communities, and economies in Nordic countries.
Categories: Social Science

Contemporary Shamanisms in Norway

Contemporary Shamanisms in Norway

Nordic NeoShamanisms. New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 215–234. ... “The Rise of Neoshamanism in Norway: Local Structures—Global Currents. ... In James R. Lewis and Inga Bårsen Tøllefsen (eds)., Handbook of Nordic New Religions.

Author: Trude Fonneland

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780190699222

Category: Social Science

Page: 248

View: 220

One of the fastest growing religious movements in the Western world, neo-shamanism embraces notions and techniques borrowed from various tribal peoples and adapted to the life of contemporary urban dwellers. Until the twenty-first century, the neo-shamanism found in northern Europe differed little from neo-shamanism elsewhere in the Western world. In the new millennium, a Sámi and Nordic version of neo-shamanism came into being, along with a new focus on the uniqueness of the arctic north, expressed through New Age courses and events. The Norwegian New Age scene is increasingly overrun with Sámi and Nordic shamans, symbols, and traditions. Contemporary Shamanisms in Norway examines the construction of this Sámi neo-shamanistic movement and argues that it fits into the broader ethno-political search for a Sami identity. Drawing on ten years of ethnographic research, Trude Fonneland highlights the values important to neo-shamans' self-development and their marketing of shamanistic products and services. She explores Sáami and Nordic neo-shamans' promotion of Arctic nature, their negotiations of gender in neo-shamanism, and their ritual inventions. Focusing on contemporary shamanism in Norway and Nordic contexts, Fonneland argues that the spiritual quest in Nordic countries has developed surprising and innovative forms of spirituality that call for a reevaluation of the relationship between religion and the secular world.
Categories: Social Science

The Oxford Handbook of New Religious Movements

The Oxford Handbook of New Religious Movements

Temenos: Nordic Journal of Comparative Religion 48(2): 155–178. ... Nordic Neoshamanisms.” In Siv Ellen Kraft, Trude Fonneland, ... “New Age Medicine Men versus New Age Noaidi: Same Neoshamanism, Different Sociopolitical Situation.

Author: James R. Lewis

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780190466190

Category: Religion

Page: 576

View: 605

The study of New Religious Movements (NRMs) is one of the fastest-growing areas of religious studies, and since the release of the first edition of The Oxford Handbook of New Religious Movements in 2003, the field has continued to expand and break new ground. In this all-new volume, James R. Lewis and Inga B. Tøllefsen bring together established and rising scholars to address an expanded range of topics, covering traditional religious studies topics such as "scripture," "charisma," and "ritual," while also applying new theoretical approaches to NRM topics. Other chapters cover understudied topics in the field, such as the developmental patterns of NRMs and subcultural considerations in the study of NRMs. The first part of this book examines NRMs from a social-scientific perspective, particularly that of sociology. In the second section, the primary factors that have put the study of NRMs on the map, controversy and conflict, are considered. The third section investigates common themes within the field of NRMs, while the fourth examines the approaches that religious studies researchers have taken to NRMs. As NRM Studies has grown, subfields such as Esotericism, New Age Studies, and neo-Pagan Studies have grown as distinct and individual areas of study, and the final section of the book investigates these emergent fields.
Categories: Religion

Heritage Democracy and the Public

Heritage  Democracy and the Public

The Rise of Neoshamanism in Norway: Local Structures – Global Currents. In Siv E. Kraft, Trude Fonneland and James R. Lewis (eds) 2015. Nordic neoshamanisms. Palgrave macmillan, New York: 33−54. Fonneland, Trude 2015a.

Author: Torgrim Sneve Guttormsen

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781317122319

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 314

View: 415

What is the significance of heritage for how welfare is defined? What function does heritage have in the public realm and how is heritage becoming a resource for citizens to gain influence in society? Who and what defines the public debates and the politics about heritage? Is there a knowledge gap between research communities, management, and the public understanding and use of heritage? These are some of the questions that the authors of this book reflect upon. They provide Nordic perspectives on how the management of the past takes place, and how it is carried out in the service of the society, offering new interpretations of the role of heritage in present society, where institutional heritage management has become just one of the many and multiple ways in which different publics engage with cultural heritage. This book addresses the main challenges faced by heritage managers today in light of the changing understanding of heritage in society.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

S mi Religion

S  mi Religion

The Rise of Neoshamanism in Norway: Local Structures—Global Currents. In Nordic Neoshamanisms. Edited by Siv Ellen Kraft, Trude Fonneland and James R. Lewis. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 33–54. Fonneland, Trude. 2018.

Author: Trude A. Fonneland

Publisher: MDPI

ISBN: 9783039437276

Category: Social Science

Page: 198

View: 287

“Sámi Religion: Religious Identities, Practices, and Dynamics” explores expressions of ‘’Sámi religion’’ in contemporary cultures, the role it plays in identity politics and heritagization processes, and the ways the past and present are entangled. In recent years, attitudes towards ‘’Sámi religion’’ have changed both within religious, cultural, political, and educational contexts as a consequence of what can be called the ‘’Indigenous turn’’. Contemporary, indigenous religion is approached as a something that adds value by a range of diverse actors and for a variety of reasons. In this Special Issue, we take account of emic categories and connections, focusing on which notions of ‘’Sámi religion’’ are used today by religious entrepreneurs and others who share and promote these types of spiritual beliefs, and how Sámi religion is taking shape on a plenitude of arenas in contemporary society.
Categories: Social Science

Routledge International Handbook of Charisma

Routledge International Handbook of Charisma

Acta Borealia: A Nordic Journal of Circumpolar Societies 30(2):190–208. Fonneland, Trude. 2017. ... Nordic Neoshamanisms. ... “New Age Medicine Men Versus New Age Noaidi: Same Neoshamanism, Different Sociopolitical Situation.” In Nordic ...

Author: José Pedro Zúquete

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9780429558276

Category: Social Science

Page: 482

View: 158

The Routledge International Handbook of Charisma provides an unprecedented multidimensional and multidisciplinary comparative analysis of the phenomenon of charisma – first defined by Max Weber as the irrational bond between deified leader and submissive follower. It includes broad overviews of foundational theories and experiences of charisma and of associated key issues and themes. Contributors include 45 influential international scholars who approach the topic from different disciplinary perspectives and utilize examples from an array of historical and cultural settings. The Handbook presents up-to-date, concise, thought-provoking, innovative, and informative perspectives on charisma as it has been expressed in the past and as it continues to be manifested in the contemporary world by leaders ranging from shamans to presidents. It is designed to be essential reading for all students, researchers, and general readers interested in achieving a comprehensive understanding of the power and potential of charismatic authority in all its varieties, subtleties, dynamics, and current and potential directions.
Categories: Social Science

The Rise of Contemporary Spiritualism

The Rise of Contemporary Spiritualism

“Shared Facilities: The Fabric of Shamanism, Spiritualism, and Therapy in a Nordic Setting.” In Siv Ellen Kraft, Trude Fonneland and James R. Lewis (eds.), Nordic Neoshamanisms. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. 67–88.

Author: Anne Kalvig

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 9781317017592

Category: Social Science

Page: 118

View: 830

Talking to the dead and communication with 'the other side' is often presented as a taboo in an increasingly technological and medically advanced world. However, practices of spiritualism and mediumship continue to remain popular and in high demand within contemporary Western societies. This book analyses the practices of today’s mediums, who insist on standing at the threshold between life and death, interpreting signs and passing on communications, and asks how such concepts and practices are perceived by contemporary society. Using first-hand material gathered from alternative fairs, mediumistic congresses, séances, and interviews with both practitioners and clients, as well as thorough textual analysis, Anne Kalvig provides a clear overview of the various forms of consumption of mediumship in Western society and places these within a socio-cultural, religious and historical context. She also raises questions as to the controversies surrounding spiritualism and its representation and relationship with popular culture and the media. This book will be of interest to researchers in the field of sociology, religious studies, folklore, media studies and anthropology as well as to anyone interested in the upsurge of contemporary spiritualism, psychic phenomena and the paranormal.
Categories: Social Science

Edward Burnett Tylor Religion and Culture

Edward Burnett Tylor  Religion and Culture

Kalvig, A. (2015), 'Shared Facilities: The Fabric of Shamanism, Spiritualism, and Therapy in a Nordic Setting', in S. E. Kraft, T. Fonneland and J. R. Lewis (eds), Nordic Neoshamanisms, 67–88, New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Author: Paul-François Tremlett

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 9781350003422

Category: Religion

Page: 240

View: 239

Through revisiting and challenging what we think we know about the work of Edward Burnett Tylor, a founding figure of anthropology, this volume explores new connections and insights that link Tylor and his work to present concerns in new and important ways. At the publication of Primitive Culture in 1871, Tylor was at the centre of anthropological research on religion and culture, but today Tylor's position in the anthropological canon is rarely acknowledged. Edward Burnett Tylor, Religion and Culture does not claim to present a definitive, new Tylor. The old Tylor - the founder of British anthropology; the definer of religion; the intellectualist; the evolutionist; the liberal; the utilitarian; the avatar of white, Protestant rationalism; the Tylor of the canon - remains. Part I explore debates and contexts of Tylor's lifetime, while the chapters in Part II explore a series of new Tylors, including Tylor the ethnographer and Tylor the Spiritualist, re-writing the legacy of the founder of anthropology in the process. Edward Burnett Tylor, Religion and Culture is essential reading for anyone interested in the study of religion and the anthropology of religion.
Categories: Religion

Handbook of Indigenous Religion s

Handbook of Indigenous Religion s

Nordic Journal of Comparative Religion 48:2, 155–178. Fonneland, T. 2015. “The Festival Isogaisa: Neoshamanism in New Arenas.” In S.E. Kraft, T. Fonneland and J. Lewis, eds. Nordic Neoshamanisms, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 175–190.

Author: Greg Johnson

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9789004346710

Category: Religion

Page: 420

View: 451

Consisting of original scholarship at the intersection of indigenous studies and religious studies, the Handbook of Indigenous Religion(s) includes a programmatic introduction arguing for new ways of conceptualizing the field, numerous case study-based examples, and an Afterword by Thomas Tweed.
Categories: Religion

Tourism and Indigeneity in the Arctic

Tourism and Indigeneity in the Arctic

Nordic Journal of Comparative Religion 45 (2), 179–206. Kramvig, B. (2011) Orientalisme eller kulturmøter? ... In T. Fonneland, S.E. Kraft and J. Lewis (eds) Nordic Neoshamanisms (pp. 191–213). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Author: Dr. Arvid Viken

Publisher: Channel View Publications

ISBN: 9781845416119

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 291

View: 396

This is the first book to exclusively address tourism and indigenous peoples in the circumpolar North. It examines how tourism in indigenous communities is influenced by academic and political discourses, and how these communities are influenced by tourism. The volume focuses on the ambivalence relating to tourism as a modern force within ethnic groups who are concerned with maintaining indigenous roots and traditional practices. It seeks to challenge stereotypical understandings of indigenousness and indigeneity and considers conflicting imaginaries of the Arctic and Arctic indigenous tourism. The book contains case studies from Canada, Greenland, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia and will be of interest to postgraduate students and researchers of tourism, geography, sociology, cultural studies and anthropology.
Categories: Business & Economics

Indigenous Religion s

Indigenous Religion s

Nordic Neoshamanisms. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Longkumer, Arkotong. 2015. ... Scandinavian Journal of History 21 (3): 221–246. Minde, Henry. 2003. “Assimilation of the Sami: Implementation and Consequences”.

Author: Siv Ellen Kraft

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781000095937

Category: Religion

Page: 196

View: 638

What counts as 'indigenous religion' in today ́s world? Who claims this category? What are the processes through which local entities become recognisable as 'religious' and 'indigenous'? How is all of this connected to struggles for power, rights and sovereignty? This book sheds light on the contemporary lives of indigenous religion(s), through case studies from Sápmi, Nagaland, Talamanca, Hawai`i, and Gujarat, and through a shared focus on translations, performances, mediation and sovereignty. It builds on long term case-studies and on the collaborative comparison of a long-term project, including shared fieldwork. At the center of its concerns are translations between a globalising discourse (indigenous religion in the singular) and distinct local traditions (indigenous religions in the plural). With contributions from leading scholars in the field, this book is a must read for students and researchers in indigenous religions, including those in related fields such as religious studies and social anthropology.
Categories: Religion

The Bloomsbury Handbook of Religion and Nature

The Bloomsbury Handbook of Religion and Nature

Recent publications include Brill Handbook of Indigenous Religion(s) (edited with Greg Johnson, Brill, 2017), New Age Spiritualities in Norway (edited with Ingvild Sælid Gilhus and James Lewis, Equinox, 2017), and Nordic Neoshamanisms ...

Author: Laura Hobgood

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 9781350046832

Category: Social Science

Page: 360

View: 748

Divided into four parts-Earth, Air, Fire, and Water-this book takes an elemental approach to the study of religion and ecology. It reflects recent theoretical and methodological developments in this field which seek to understand the ways that ideas and matter, minds and bodies exist together within an immanent frame of reference. The Bloomsbury Handbook of Religion and Nature focuses on how these matters materialize in the world around us, thereby addressing key topics in this area of study. The editors provide an extensive introduction to the book, as well as useful introductions to each of its parts. The volume's international contributors are drawn from the USA, South Africa, Netherlands, Norway, Indonesia, and South Korea, and offer a variety of perspectives, voices, cultural settings, and geographical locales. This handbook shows that human concern and engagement with material existence is present in all sectors of the global community, regardless of religious tradition. It challenges the traditional methodological approach of comparative religion, and argues that globalization renders a comparative religious approach to the environment insufficient.
Categories: Social Science

Charismatic Christianity in Finland Norway and Sweden

Charismatic Christianity in Finland  Norway  and Sweden

1996. Psykopolitiikka: Paljastava psykologia suomalaisen yhteiskunnallisen keskustelun perinteenä. Helsinki: Hanki ja jää. Kraft, Siv Ellen, Trude Fonneland, and James R. Lewis. 2015. Introduction. In Nordic Neoshamanisms, ed.

Author: Jessica Moberg

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319696140

Category: Religion

Page: 248

View: 565

This is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license The history of Charismatic Christianity in the Nordic countries reaches as far back as Pentecostalism itself. The bounds of these categories remain a topic of discussion, but Nordic countries have played a vital role in developing this rapidly spreading form of world-wide Christianity. Until now, research on global Charismatic Christianity has largely overlooked the region. This book addresses and analyzes its historical and contemporary trajectories in Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Through a selection of cases written by Nordic scholars from various disciplines, it demonstrates historical and contemporary diversity as well as interconnections between local, national, and global currents. Highlighting change and continuity, the anthology reveals new aspects of Charismatic Christianity.
Categories: Religion

S mi Media and Indigenous Agency in the Arctic North

S  mi Media and Indigenous Agency in the Arctic North

2012. “Reclaiming the Past: On the History-Making Significance of the Sámi Film The Kautokeino Rebellion.” Acta Borealia 29 (1): 56–76. ———. 2015. “Sami Shamanism and Indigenous Film: The Case of Pathfinder.” In Nordic Neoshamanisms ...

Author: Thomas A. DuBois

Publisher: University of Washington Press

ISBN: 9780295746616

Category: Social Science

Page: 344

View: 998

Digital media–GIFs, films, TED Talks, tweets, and more–have become integral to daily life and, unsurprisingly, to Indigenous people’s strategies for addressing the historical and ongoing effects of colonization. In Sámi Media and Indigenous Agency in the Arctic North, Thomas DuBois and Coppélie Cocq examine how Sámi people of Norway, Finland, and Sweden use media to advance a social, cultural, and political agenda anchored in notions of cultural continuity and self-determination. Beginning in the 1970s, Sámi have used Sámi-language media—including commercially produced musical recordings, feature and documentary films, books of literature and poetry, and magazines—to communicate a sense of identity both within the Sámi community and within broader Nordic and international arenas. In more contemporary contexts—from YouTube music videos that combine rock and joik (a traditional Sámi musical genre) to Twitter hashtags that publicize protests against mining projects in Sámi lands—Sámi activists, artists, and cultural workers have used the media to undo layers of ignorance surrounding Sámi livelihoods and rights to self-determination. Downloadable songs, music festivals, films, videos, social media posts, images, and tweets are just some of the diverse media through which Sámi activists transform how Nordic majority populations view and understand Sámi minority communities and, more globally, how modern states regard and treat Indigenous populations.
Categories: Social Science

Cosmopolitanism Nationalism and Modern Paganism

Cosmopolitanism  Nationalism  and Modern Paganism

Nordic neoshamanisms. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Kuper, A. (2003). The return of the native. Current Anthropology, 44, 389–402. Mulcock, J. (2001). Ethnography in awkward spaces, an anthropology of cultural borrowing.

Author: Kathryn Rountree

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9781137562005

Category: Religion

Page: 276

View: 451

This volume explores how Pagans negotiate local and global tensions as they craft their identities, both as members of local communities and as cosmopolitan “citizens of the world.” Based on cutting edge international case studies from Pagan communities in the United States, Poland, Russia, Ukraine, Israel, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, and Malta, it considers how modern Pagans negotiate tensions between the particular and universal, nationalism and cosmopolitanism, ethnicity, and world citizenship. The burgeoning of modern Paganisms in recent decades has proceeded alongside growing globalization and human mobility, ubiquitous Internet use, a mounting environmental crisis, the re-valuing of indigenous religions, and new political configurations. Cosmopolitanism and nationalism have both influenced the weaving of unique local Paganisms in diverse contexts. Pagans articulate a strong attachment to local or indigenous traditions and landscapes, constructing paths that reflect local socio-cultural, political, and historical realities. However, they draw on the Internet and the global circulation of people and universal ideas. This collection considers how they confound these binaries in fascinating, complex ways as members of local communities and global networks.
Categories: Religion

Indigenous Religion s in S pmi

Indigenous Religion s  in S  pmi

In: K. Goodnow and H. Ackman, eds., Scandinavian Museums and Cultural Diversity. Museum of London and Berghahn Books, pp. ... In: and S. E. Kraft, T. Fonneland & J. Lewis, eds, Nordic Neoshamanisms. New York: Palgrave, pp. 191–214.

Author: Siv Ellen Kraft

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781000482966

Category: Religion

Page: 232

View: 307

Indigenous religion(s) are afterlives of a particular sort, shaped by globalizing discourses on what counts as an indigenous religion on the one hand and the continued presence of local traditions on the other. Focusing on the Norwegian side of Sápmi since the 1970s, this book explores the reclaiming of ancestral pasts and notions of a specifically Sámi religion. It connects religion, identity- and nation building, and takes seriously the indigenous turn as well as geographical and generational distinctions. Focal themes include protective activism and case studies from the art and culture domain, both of which are considered vital to the making of indigenous afterlives in indigenous formats. This volume will be of great interest to scholars of Global Indigenous studies, Sámi cultural studies and politics, Ethnicity and emergence of new identities, Anthropology, Studies in religion and folklore studies.
Categories: Religion

Controversial New Religions

Controversial New Religions

This center focuses not on academic studies, but on training programs to promote neoshamanism to the latemodern citizen. ... documenting and analyzing what could be labeled modern Àsatrú (Nordic heathenry) as neoshamanism, in accordance ...

Author: James R. Lewis

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199394364

Category: Religion

Page: 480

View: 312

In terms of public opinion, new religious movements are considered controversial for a variety of reasons. Their social organization often runs counter to popular expectations by experimenting with communal living, alternative leadership roles, unusual economic dispositions, and new political and ethical values. As a result the general public views new religions with a mixture of curiosity, amusement, and anxiety, sustained by lavish media emphasis on oddness and tragedy rather than familiarity and lived experience. This updated and revised second edition of Controversial New Religions offers a scholarly, dispassionate look at those groups that have generated the most attention, including some very well-known classical groups like The Family, Unification Church, Scientology, and Jim Jones's People's Temple; some relative newcomers such as the Kabbalah Centre, the Order of the Solar Temple, Branch Davidians, Heaven's Gate, and the Falun Gong; and some interesting cases like contemporary Satanism, the Raelians, Black nationalism, and various Pagan groups. Each essay combines an overview of the history and beliefs of each organization or movement with original and insightful analysis. By presenting decades of scholarly work on new religious movements written in an accessible form by established scholars as well as younger experts in the field, this book will be an invaluable resource for all those who seek a view of new religions that is deeper than what can be found in sensationalistic media stories.
Categories: Religion

The Occult in Modernist Art Literature and Cinema

The Occult in Modernist Art  Literature  and Cinema

In Nordic Neoshamanism, ed. Trude Fonneland, Siv Ellen Kraft, and James R. Lewis, 89–102. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Selby, John. 2008. Dion Fortune and Her Inner Plane Contacts: Intermediaries in the Western Esoteric Tradition.

Author: Tessel M. Bauduin

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319764993

Category: Religion

Page: 275

View: 916

Many modernist and avant-garde artists and authors were fascinated by the occult movements of their day. This volume explores how Occultism came to shape modernist art, literature, and film. Individual chapters examine the presence and role of Occultism in the work of such modernist luminaries as Rainer Maria Rilke, August Strindberg, W.B. Yeats, Joséphin Péladan and the artist Jan Švankmaier, as well as in avant-garde film, post-war Greek Surrealism, and Scandinavian Retrogardism. Combining the theoretical and methodological foundations of the field of Esotericism Studies with those of Literary Studies, Art History, and Cinema Studies, this volume provides in-depth and nuanced perspectives upon the relationship between Occultism and Modernism in the Western arts from the nineteenth century to the present day.
Categories: Religion

Shamanism

Shamanism

(2015), in Nordic Neoshamanism, eds Siv Ellen Kraft, Trude Fonneland and James R. Lewis, Palgrave MacMillan, London. Jørgensen, O. (1980), Sjæl gør dig smuk, Lobo Agency, Århus. Jung, C.G. (1933/2001), Modern Man in Search of a Soul, ...

Author: Merete Demant Jakobsen

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 9781789202076

Category: Religion

Page: 290

View: 521

Shamanism has always been of great interest to anthropologists. More recently it has been "discovered" by westerners, especially New Age followers. This book breaks new ground byexamining pristine shamanism in Greenland, among people contacted late by Western missionaries and settlers. On the basis of material only available in Danish, and presented herein English for the first time, the author questions Mircea Eliade's well-known definition of the shaman as the master of ecstasy and suggests that his role has to be seen as that of a master of spirits. The ambivalent nature of the shaman and the spirit world in the tough Arctic environment is then contrasted with the more benign attitude to shamanism in the New Age movement. After presenting descriptions of their organizations and accounts by participants, the author critically analyses the role of neo-shamanic courses and concludes that it is doubtful to consider what isoffered as shamanism.
Categories: Religion

Handbook of Nordic New Religions

Handbook of Nordic New Religions

Among the Sami, neoshamanism has gained a certain foothold. Trude Fonneland from Cultural Studies analysed identity construction and value formation in Sami neoshamanism in her doctoral thesis Samisk nysjamanisme: i dialog med (for)tid ...

Author:

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9789004292468

Category: Religion

Page: 532

View: 195

Over the past dozen years or so, an increasingly disproportionate percentage of new religions scholars have arisen in Nordic countries, which now teach at universities in Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden and the Baltic countries. Nordic New Religions, co-edited with Inga B. Tøllefsen, surveys this rich field of study in this area of the world, focusing on the scholarship being produced by scholars in this region of northern Europe.
Categories: Religion