Author: Subrahmanyan ChandrasekharPublish On: 1995

It is important to us as a model of all mathematical physics.Representing a decade's work from a distinguished physicist, this is the first comprehensive analysis of Newton's Principia without recourse to secondary sources.

Author: Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198526759

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 593

View: 708

Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica provides a coherent and deductive presentation of his discovery of the universal law of gravitation. It is very much more than a demonstration that 'to us it is enough that gravity really does exist and act according to the laws which we have explained and abundantly serves to account for all the motions of the celestial bodies and the sea'. It is important to us as a model of all mathematical physics. Representing a decade's work from a distinguished physicist, this is the first comprehensive analysis of Newton's Principia without recourse to secondary sources. Professor Chandrasekhar analyses some 150 propositions which form a direct chain leading to Newton's formulation of his universal law of gravitation. In each case, Newton's proofs are arranged in a linear sequence of equations and arguments, avoiding the need to unravel the necessarily convoluted style of Newton's connected prose. In almost every case, a modern version of the proofs is given to bring into sharp focus the beauty, clarity, and breath-taking economy of Newton's methods. Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar is one of the most reknowned scientists of the twentieth century, whose career spanned over 60 years. Born in India, educated at the University of Cambridge in England, he served as Emeritus Morton D. Hull Distinguished Service Professor of Theoretical Astrophysics at the University of Chicago, where he has was based from 1937 until his deathin 1996. His early research into the evolution of stars is now a cornerstone of modern astrophysics, and earned him the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1983. Later work into gravitational interactions between stars, the properties of fluids, magnetic fields, equilibrium ellipsoids, and black holes has earned him awards throughout the world, including the Gold Medal from the Royal Astronomical Society in London (1953), the National Medal of Science in the United States (1966), and the Copley Medal from the Royal Society (1984). His many publications include Radiative transfer (1950), Hydrodynamic and hydromagnetic stability (1961), and The mathematical theory of black holes (1983), each being praised for its breadth and clarity. Newton's Principia for the common reader is the result of Professor Chandrasekhar's profound admiration for a scientist whose work he believed is unsurpassed, and unsurpassable.

Isaac Newton's The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy translated by Andrew Motte and published in two volumes in 1729 remains the first and only translation of Newton's Philosophia naturalis principia mathematica, which was first ...

Author: Isaac Newton

Publisher:

ISBN: OXFORD:N10925052

Category: Celestial mechanics

Page: 320

View: 229

Isaac Newton's The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy translated by Andrew Motte and published in two volumes in 1729 remains the first and only translation of Newton's Philosophia naturalis principia mathematica, which was first published in London in 1687. As the most famous work in the history of the physical sciences there is little need to summarize the contents.--J. Norman, 2006.

The illuminating Guide to the Principia by I. Bernard Cohen, along with his and Anne Whitman's translation, will make this preeminent work truly accessible for today's scientists, scholars, and students.

Author: Isaac Newton

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 9780520935105

Category: Science

Page: 991

View: 255

In his monumental 1687 work Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, known familiarly as the Principia, Isaac Newton laid out in mathematical terms the principles of time, force, and motion that have guided the development of modern physical science. Even after more than three centuries and the revolutions of Einsteinian relativity and quantum mechanics, Newtonian physics continues to account for many of the phenomena of the observed world, and Newtonian celestial dynamics is used to determine the orbits of our space vehicles. This completely new translation, the first in 270 years, is based on the third (1726) edition, the final revised version approved by Newton; it includes extracts from the earlier editions, corrects errors found in earlier versions, and replaces archaic English with contemporary prose and up-to-date mathematical forms. Newton's principles describe acceleration, deceleration, and inertial movement; fluid dynamics; and the motions of the earth, moon, planets, and comets. A great work in itself, the Principia also revolutionized the methods of scientific investigation. It set forth the fundamental three laws of motion and the law of universal gravity, the physical principles that account for the Copernican system of the world as emended by Kepler, thus effectively ending controversy concerning the Copernican planetary system. The illuminating Guide to the Principia by I. Bernard Cohen, along with his and Anne Whitman's translation, will make this preeminent work truly accessible for today's scientists, scholars, and students.

Appearing in 1687 after the pioneering work of Copernicus, Galileo, and Descartes, the 'Principia' represents the culmination of the Scientific Revolution.The symposium focuses on Newton's discoveries and their impact on the modern world in ...

Author: W. A. Kaminski

Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company Incorporated

It is Newton in his own terms. This is a wonderful book. —Richard S. Westfall

Author: Isaac Newton

Publisher:

ISBN: CORNELL:31924099112603

Category: Mathematics

Page: 525

View: 215

Makes the great adventure of Principia available not only to modern scholars of history of science, but also to nonspecialist undergraduate students of humanities. It moves carefully from Newton's definitions and axioms through the essential propositions, as Newton himself identified them, to the establishment of universal gravitation and elliptical orbits. The guidebook unfolds what is implicit in Newton's words as he himself would have filled in the steps and completes the argument in ways that are authentic and not anachronistic, exactly following Newton's thinking rather than substituting tools of modern calculus or the formulations of modern physics. It is Newton in his own terms. This is a wonderful book. —Richard S. Westfall

Author: Niccol- GuicciardiniPublish On: 2003-10-30

The mathematical methods employed by Newton in the Principia stimulated much debate among contemporaries. This book explains how Newton addressed these issues, taking into consideration the values that directed his research.

Author: Niccol- Guicciardini

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521544033

Category: Science

Page: 292

View: 447

The mathematical methods employed by Newton in the Principia stimulated much debate among contemporaries. This book explains how Newton addressed these issues, taking into consideration the values that directed his research. It will be of interest to researchers and students in history and philosophy of science, physics, mathematics and astronomy.

The illuminating Guide to Newton's Principia by I. Bernard Cohen makes this preeminent work truly accessible for today's scientists, scholars, and students.

Author: Sir Isaac Newton

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 9780520964815

Category: Science

Page: 992

View: 151

In his monumental 1687 work, Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, known familiarly as the Principia, Isaac Newton laid out in mathematical terms the principles of time, force, and motion that have guided the development of modern physical science. Even after more than three centuries and the revolutions of Einsteinian relativity and quantum mechanics, Newtonian physics continues to account for many of the phenomena of the observed world, and Newtonian celestial dynamics is used to determine the orbits of our space vehicles. This authoritative, modern translation by I. Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman, the first in more than 285 years, is based on the 1726 edition, the final revised version approved by Newton; it includes extracts from the earlier editions, corrects errors found in earlier versions, and replaces archaic English with contemporary prose and up-to-date mathematical forms. Newton's principles describe acceleration, deceleration, and inertial movement; fluid dynamics; and the motions of the earth, moon, planets, and comets. A great work in itself, the Principia also revolutionized the methods of scientific investigation. It set forth the fundamental three laws of motion and the law of universal gravity, the physical principles that account for the Copernican system of the world as emended by Kepler, thus effectively ending controversy concerning the Copernican planetary system. The illuminating Guide to Newton's Principia by I. Bernard Cohen makes this preeminent work truly accessible for today's scientists, scholars, and students.

If you have always wanted to know more about Newton's achievement but thought it was the exclusive province of experts, this little book will guide you through the essentials of Newton's argument in his own words and using only elementary ...

Author: Isaac Newton

Publisher: Green Cat Books

ISBN: STANFORD:36105114528859

Category: Science

Page: 97

View: 495

Newton's new conception of the laws of the universe challenged centuries of received opinion, and laid a new foundation for our ?common sense? understanding of the physical world. If you have always wanted to know more about Newton's achievement but thought it was the exclusive province of experts, this little book will guide you through the essentials of Newton's argument in his own words and using only elementary mathematics. Traces the basic development of universal gravitation. Newton's text with notes, commentary, questions for discussion, and additional diagrams. Includes Newton's definitions, laws, scholia, Book I propositions 1 and 4, Rules of Philosophizing, Phenomena, Book III Propositions 1 through 4, and General Scholium.

Sir Isaac Newton's Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles) is considered to be among the finest scientific works ever published.

Author: Sir Isaac Newton

Publisher: Prometheus Books

ISBN: 9781616141141

Category: Mathematics

Page: 465

View: 513

Sir Isaac Newton's Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles) is considered to be among the finest scientific works ever published. His grand unifying idea of gravitation, with effects extending throughout the solar system, explains by one principle such diverse phenomena as the tides, the precession of the equinoxes, and the irregularities of the moon's motion. Newton's brilliant and revolutionary contributions to science explained the workings of a large part of inanimate nature mathematically and suggested that the remainder might be understood in a similar fashion. By taking known facts, forming a theory that explained them in mathematical terms, deducing consequences from the theory, and comparing the results with observed and experimental facts, Newton united, for the first time, the explication of physical phenomena with the means of prediction. By beginning with the physical axioms of the laws of motion and gravitation, he converted physics from a mere science of explanation into a general mathematical system.

In celebration of the tercentenary of the first publication of Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, Cambridge presents this facsimile edition of the manuscripts Newton wrote in preparing this great work.

Author: Isaac Newton

Publisher:

ISBN: 0521334993

Category: Science

Page: 246

View: 285

In celebration of the tercentenary of the first publication of Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, Cambridge presents this facsimile edition of the manuscripts Newton wrote in preparing this great work. In the Principia, Newton presented to the world a complete account of his theories of the construction & operation of the universe. The impact of his minutely argued discourse was immediate, & the work has exerted a profound effect on the course of natural science ever since. The introductions, written by Dr. D.T. Whiteside, provide a fascinating insight into the creation of one of the great books of intellectual history.

The Principia is considered one of the most important works in the history of science.

Author: Isaac Newton

Publisher:

ISBN: 6257959764

Category: Science

Page: 712

View: 969

Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Latin for Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy), often referred to as simply the Principia, is a work in three books by Isaac Newton, in Latin, first published 5 July 1687. After annotating and correcting his personal copy of the first edition, Newton published two further editions, in 1713 and 1726. The Principia states Newton's laws of motion, forming the foundation of classical mechanics; Newton's law of universal gravitation; and a derivation of Kepler's laws of planetary motion (which Kepler first obtained empirically). The Principia is considered one of the most important works in the history of science. The French mathematical physicist Alexis Clairaut assessed it in 1747: "The famous book of Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy marked the epoch of a great revolution in physics. The method followed by its illustrious author Sir Newton ... spread the light of mathematics on a science which up to then had remained in the darkness of conjectures and hypotheses." A more recent assessment has been that while acceptance of Newton's theories was not immediate, by the end of the century after publication in 1687, "no one could deny that" (out of the Principia) "a science had emerged that, at least in certain respects, so far exceeded anything that had ever gone before that it stood alone as the ultimate exemplar of science generally". In formulating his physical theories, Newton developed and used mathematical methods now included in the field of Calculus. But the language of calculus as we know it was largely absent from the Principia; Newton gave many of his proofs in a geometric form of infinitesimal calculus, based on limits of ratios of vanishing small geometric quantities. In a revised conclusion to the Principia (see General Scholium), Newton used his expression that became famous. The Principia deals primarily with massive bodies in motion, initially under a variety of conditions and hypothetical laws of force in both non-resisting and resisting media, thus offering criteria to decide, by observations, which laws of force are operating in phenomena that may be observed. It attempts to cover hypothetical or possible motions both of celestial bodies and of terrestrial projectiles. It explores difficult problems of motions perturbed by multiple attractive forces. Its third and final book deals with the interpretation of observations about the movements of planets and their satellites. It shows: - How astronomical observations prove the inverse square law of gravitation (to an accuracy that was high by the standards of Newton's time); - Offers estimates of relative masses for the known giant planets and for the Earth and the Sun; - Defines the very slow motion of the Sun relative to the solar-system barycenter; - Shows how the theory of gravity can account for irregularities in the motion of the Moon; - Identifies the oblateness of the figure of the Earth; - Accounts approximately for marine tides including phenomena of spring and neap tides by the perturbing (and varying) gravitational attractions of the Sun and Moon on the Earth's waters; - Explains the precession of the equinoxes as an effect of the gravitational attraction of the Moon on the Earth's equatorial bulge; and - Gives theoretical basis for numerous phenomena about comets and their elongated, near-parabolic orbits.