Survey of the emergence and use of naturally occurring materials

Survey of the emergence and use of naturally occurring materials

Do you have excavated soil or other naturally occurring material that can be used on site? YES, Onsite use is possible Is the site in an urban area? NO Rural areas are typically outside classified areas. Excavated soil in rural areas ...

Author: Oberender, Anke

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

ISBN: 9789289371094

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 126

View: 428

Available online: https://pub.norden.org/temanord2021-535/ Naturally occurring materials, such as soil, mineral masses and rock masses from construction projects and infrastructure projects represent a high resource potential and potential for CO2-savings if used more efficiently. Large amounts of these materials are managed on an annual basis in the Nordic countries, but to enable a more resource efficient management of naturally occurring materials, several regulatory as well as practical challenges must be solved. Existing legislation in the Nordic countries is not a direct barrier that prevents optimal utilization of resources, but there are several untapped opportunities in regulation as well as problem areas that appear as barriers in practice. Efficient utilization of naturally occurring materials in the Nordic countries faces also a wide range of challenges in practice and from different angles.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Naturally Produced Organohalogens

Naturally Produced Organohalogens

naturally. produced. and. man-made. organohalogens. in. water. and. sediments. A. Grimvall Department of Water and Environmental Studies, Linköping University, S-58183 Linköping, Sweden Introduction Halogenated organic compounds have ...

Author: Anders Grimvall

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401100618

Category: Science

Page: 437

View: 496

Should the production and use of chlorine and all chlorinated organic compounds be halted, in view of their adverse effects on the environment and human health? Those in favour argue that certain chlorinated compounds (PCBs, DDT, CFCs, etc.) have large negative environmental effects. The use of chlorine in disinfectants leads to the production of chloroform, while bulk products (PVC) contribute to the production of chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans when they are burned. Those against argue that chlorine and many chlorinated compounds are essential in the control of human health (the prevention of disease transmitted through drinking water that has not been disinfected), and that chlorinated compounds are indispensable intermediates in many production processes, representing a vast economic value. But such discussions often ignore the fact that Nature contributes significantly to the production of chlorinated organic compounds. More than 1000 such compounds are known, and their contribution to the biogeochemical cycling of chlorine is underestimated. Chlorine is organically bound in large quantities to humic materials, and natural production mechanisms are known for low molecular weight compounds (methyl chloride, chloroform, chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans). The role of these compounds in the environment is largely unknown. Naturally-Produced Organohalogens gives a complete overview of the present state of knowledge on the subject, giving a much needed balance to the argument sketched out above.
Categories: Science

Evaluation of Guidelines for Exposures to Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials

Evaluation of Guidelines for Exposures to Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials

Committee on Evaluation of EPA Guidelines for Exposure to Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials, ... form of natural background which should be treated separately from human-made sources for purposes of radiation protection.

Author: Committee on Evaluation of EPA Guidelines for Exposure to Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309580700

Category: Science

Page: 267

View: 464

Naturally occurring radionuclides are found throughout the earth's crust, and they form part of the natural background of radiation to which all humans are exposed. Many human activities-such as mining and milling of ores, extraction of petroleum products, use of groundwater for domestic purposes, and living in houses-alter the natural background of radiation either by moving naturally occurring radionuclides from inaccessible locations to locations where humans are present or by concentrating the radionuclides in the exposure environment. Such alterations of the natural environment can increase, sometimes substantially, radiation exposures of the public. Exposures of the public to naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) that result from human activities that alter the natural environment can be subjected to regulatory control, at least to some degree. The regulation of public exposures to such technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM) by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other regulatory and advisory organizations is the subject of this study by the National Research Council's Committee on the Evaluation of EPA Guidelines for Exposures to Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials.
Categories: Science

Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials

Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials

Of these , 92 are naturally occurring . The remainder can only be produced on earth by artificial means and are therefore referred to as " man - made . " Each of these types of atoms represents a different element .

Author: T.Rick Irvin

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781351429115

Category: Science

Page: 160

View: 546

Management of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials - known in the industry as NORM -has become an important part of the regular training required for workers in oil and gas production, refinery and petrochemical manufacturing, and in certain types of mining. Proper handling of NORM-contaminated wastes and use of appropriate radiation detection and protective equipment are now understood to be important components of good worker safety programs. Until now, no practical, easy-to-read, book was available to supplement worker training courses on NORM management. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials: Principles and Practices fills this void by providing, in a single publication, an ideal reference for industry managers, supervisors and line personnel. The book stresses the proper handling and management of NORM contaminated wastes and provides a firm understanding of the chemical properties of radioactive agents, their toxicological effects, and the appropriate containerization and disposal methods for these materials.
Categories: Science

Using Naturally Occurring Data in Qualitative Health Research

Using Naturally Occurring Data in Qualitative Health Research

Providing an audit trail affords the reader to 'track and verify' the process that you undertook in doing your project (Sandelowski, 1993). When using naturally occurring data, part of the audit process would be to clearly demonstrate, ...

Author: Nikki Kiyimba

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319948393

Category: Medical

Page: 348

View: 288

This highly practical resource brings new dimensions to the utility of qualitative data in health research by focusing on naturally occurring data. It examines how naturally occurring data complement interviews and other sources of researcher-generated health data, and takes readers through the steps of identifying, collecting, analyzing, and disseminating these findings in ethical research with real-world relevance. The authors acknowledge the critical importance of evidence-based practice in today’s healthcare landscape and argue for naturally occurring data as a form of practice-based evidence making valued contributions to the field. And chapters evaluate frequently overlooked avenues for naturally occurring data, including media and social media sources, health policy and forensic health contexts, and digital communications. Included in the coverage: · Exploring the benefits and limitations of using naturally occurring data in health research · Considering qualitative approaches that may benefit from using naturally occurring data · Utilizing computer-mediated communications and social media in health · Using naturally occurring data to research vulnerable groups · Reviewing empirical examples of health research using naturally occurring data Using Naturally Occurring Data in Qualitative Health Research makes concepts, methods, and rationales accessible and applicable for readers in the health and mental health fields, among them health administrators, professionals in research methodology, psychology researchers, and practicing and trainee clinicians.
Categories: Medical

Handbook of Naturally Occurring Food Toxicants

Handbook of Naturally Occurring Food Toxicants

Other than some brief work reported by Nishihara et al.,” no systematic attempt has been made to isolate or identify the toxin. Quite a number of similarly intriguing areas of potential research interest could be cited.

Author: Miloslav Rechcigl

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781351081399

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 352

View: 582

In the last decade an increased concern has been voiced against various environmental hazards, particularly chemicals that may cause harm to humans or animals. Numerous studies which have dealt with this subject invariably have focused on chemical contaminants of some component of a food chain. In contrast, much less attention has been paid to the potentially harmful substances that may occur in foodstuffs naturally. The purpose of this Handbook is to sensitize the reader to this problem and to provide a systematic overview of the most important naturally occurring food toxicants. The Handbook should be of interest to anybody who is concerned with nutritive and health aspects of food. Inasmuch as many of the discussed toxicants can be removed or destroyed by a suitable method of food rpocessing it should be of special value to food technologists.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Naturally Occurring Quinones IV

Naturally Occurring Quinones IV

A more reliable assignment of the methoxyl positions could have been made by comparing the ... 2.59 dd (15.9, 6.6) 2.90 dd (15.9, 5.8) (312) 5.16 ddq ".. MeO-OH (54.24, 1.5) (7.2,0.6,0.3) 1.78 dd (7.2,. 86 NATURALLY OCCURRING QUINONES IV.

Author: R.H. Thomson

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400915510

Category: Science

Page: 746

View: 366

The earlier volumes of this series have long been regarded by chemists as classics of their type, providing accurate and reliable information compiled by one of the world's leading figures in the field. Detailed and authoritative reviews of the chemistry and characterisation of the naturally occuring quinones reported during the last 10 years are provided in this fourth volume which describes more than 900 new compounds.
Categories: Science

Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Construction

Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Construction

On the basis of the activity concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides in red mud calculations can be made regarding the resulting activity concentration index of the concrete. Especially the production of alkali-activated ...

Author: Wouter Schroeyers

Publisher: Woodhead Publishing

ISBN: 9780081020081

Category: Science

Page: 336

View: 414

Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Construction (COST Action NORM4Building) discusses the depletion of energy resources and raw materials and its huge impact not only on the building market, but also in the development of new synthetic building materials, whereby the reuse of various (waste) residue streams becomes a necessity. It is based on the outcome of COST Action TU 1301, where scientists, regulators, and representatives from industry have come together to present new findings, sharing knowledge, experiences, and technologies to stimulate research on the reuse of residues containing enhanced concentrates of natural radionuclides (NORM) in tailor-made building materials. Chapters address legislative issues, measurement, and assessment of building materials, physical and chemical aspects, from raw materials, to residues with enhanced concentrations of natural radionuclides (NORM), processes, building products containing NORM, and end-of-life and reuse requirements. Presents a holistic approach in developing new reuse pathways involving experts on different (technical, chemical, physical, ecological, economical and radiological) aspects of materials Provides practical guidance that address questions and comments regarding the EU-BSS standards linked to the processing of NORM in building materials Investigates realistic legislative scenarios Primarily aimed at industry and actors linked to the industry, but also researchers Contains a strong international network of expert authors and internal reviewers for each chapter
Categories: Science

Naturally Occurring Bioactive Compounds

Naturally Occurring Bioactive Compounds

By creating a test system free of air and its associated interfaces, the container ceiling is effectively made identical to ... The significance of our findings are twofold: First, they challenge Naturally occurring bioactive compounds 72.

Author:

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080464920

Category: Science

Page: 514

View: 934

This timely book provides an overview of natural products/botanicals used for the management of insect-pest and diseases. It will help readers to update and widen their knowledge about natural products and their bio-activities against plant pathogens. The volume explores activity, chemistry, toxicity and geographic distribution of plants. Discussions concerning the methodology used for the detection of active principles, their mode of action and commercial prospects are of utmost importance and worthy of note. Focuses on recent achievements in natural bio-actives Global coverage of natural products / plants Targets the most important issues of natural botanicals/ biocides Includes innovative ideas with lucid explanations Contains specialized chapters, such as, natural control of multi-drug resistant organisms, anti-salmonella agents, natural house-dust-mite control agents, and naturally occurring anti-insect proteins, etc. Covers research on bioactives: From Lab to Field and Field to Market Includes eco-friendly and economically viable herbal technology
Categories: Science

Chemical Composition of Naturally Occurring Fluids in Relation to Mercury Deposits in Part of North central California

Chemical Composition of Naturally Occurring Fluids in Relation to Mercury Deposits in Part of North central California

CONTRIBUTIONS TO ECONOMIC GEOLOGY CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF NATURALLY OCCURRING FLUIDS IN RELATION TO MERCURY DEPOSITS IN PART OF NORTH - CENTRAL CALIFORNIA By IVAN BARNES , M. E. HINKLE , J. B. RAPP , Chris HEROPOULOS , and W. W. VAUGHN ...

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: IND:30000140605324

Category: Groundwater

Page: 19

View: 787

Categories: Groundwater

Naturally Occurring Retirement Communities

Naturally Occurring Retirement Communities

... One Hundred Ninth Congress, Second Session, on Examining Naturally Occurring Ret United States, United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. Subcommittee on Retirement Security and Aging.

Author: United States

Publisher:

ISBN: PSU:000058937143

Category: Electronic government information

Page: 41

View: 430

Categories: Electronic government information

Naturally Occurring Phorbol Esters

Naturally Occurring Phorbol Esters

Assessments of erythema were made at 4 and 24 hr after application because in some species of plants the difference ... to their toxicity Table 9 PRO - INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF EUPHORBIA LATICES173 0.2 18 Naturally occurring Phorbol Esters.

Author: Evans

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781351083393

Category: Science

Page: 320

View: 167

This book discusses the topic of naturally occurring phorbol esters. Chapters include; environmental hazards of diterpene esters from plants, multi-stage carcinogenesis and the biological effects of tumor promoters, review of the family euphorbiaceae, biosynthetic and chemosystematic aspects of the euphorbiacea and thymelaeaceae, non-diterpenoid constituents of euphorbiacea, macrocyclic diterpenes of the family euphorbiacea, phorbol: its esters and derivatives, the daphnane polyol esters, the ingenane polyol esters, and the biochemical mechanism of action of phorbol ester.
Categories: Science

A Compilation of the Non radioactive Nuclear Properties of the Naturally Occurring Isotopes

A Compilation of the Non radioactive Nuclear Properties of the Naturally Occurring Isotopes

UCRL - 290 Page 3 A COLPILATION OF THE NON - RADIOACTIVE NUCLEAR PROPERTIES OF ME NATURALLY OCCURRING ISOTOPES ... A very few artificially produced isotopes have been included in this compilation for the sake of completeness and because ...

Author: Elwin H. Covey

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:39015086436576

Category: Isotopes

Page: 31

View: 777

Categories: Isotopes

Chemistry and Pharmacology of Naturally Occurring Bioactive Compounds

Chemistry and Pharmacology of Naturally Occurring Bioactive Compounds

20.7.2 metaBoliC engineering Metabolic engineering at a plant cell level to enhance secondary metabolite accumulation is today an appealing strategy by which important progress has been made in the past decade.

Author: Goutam Brahmachari

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439891674

Category: Medical

Page: 584

View: 255

Natural products play crucial roles in modern drug development, and constitute a prolific source of novel lead compounds or pharmacophores for ongoing drug discovery programs. Chemistry and Pharmacology of Naturally Occurring Bioactive Compounds presents cutting-edge research in the chemistry of bioactive natural products and demonstrates how natural product research continues to make significant contributions in the discovery and development of new medicinal entities. In 21 chapters, this book highlights chemistry and pharmaceutical potential of natural products in modern drug discovery processes, and covers the synthesis and semi-synthesis of potentially bioactive natural products. Written for phytochemists, synthetic chemists, combinatorial chemists, as well as other practitioners and students in related fields, the book features chemical advances in naturally occurring organic compounds and describes their chemical transformations and structure–activity relationships.
Categories: Medical

Naturally Occurring Antitumourigens

Naturally Occurring Antitumourigens

... are mostly formed by chromoplasts , which , ontogenically , are closely related to the chloroplast . ... it is now thought that these are rarely naturally occurring , but are most often artifacts of isolation ( Goodwin , 1980a ) .

Author: Michael Strube

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

ISBN: 9289303425

Category: Cancer

Page: 166

View: 405

Categories: Cancer

Naturally Occurring Antioxidants

Naturally Occurring Antioxidants

Library of Congress Cataloging - in - Publication Data Larson , Richard A. Naturally occurring antioxidants / Richard A. Larson . p . cm . Includes bibliographical references and index . ISBN 0-87371-957-3 ( alk . paper ) 1.

Author: Richard A. Larson

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0873719573

Category: Science

Page: 208

View: 729

This text describes the roles of naturally occuring antioxidants in living cells. It focuses on stoichiometric antioxidants - small molecules that the cell can rapidly produce and transport into regions of oxidative stress. Naturally Occurring Antioxidants reflects the growing interest in these compounds among the scientific community. This book explores how quantitative measures can provide a more complete understanding of important substances and their reactions, allowing us to address some crucial environmental and health questions. Environmental chemists and toxicologists, general organic and inorganic chemists, life and environmental scientists, environmental and chemical engineers, nutritionists, and students of environmental chemistry will all find Naturally Occurring Antioxidants to contain thought-provoking topics for further study.
Categories: Science

Handbook of Naturally Occurring Compounds

Handbook of Naturally Occurring Compounds

A large number of the compounds isolated as “naturally occurring” are probably artifacts derived by hydrolysis during extraction of a parent glycoside. Many of the plant steroids and triterpenes occur as glycosides and are isolated as ...

Author: T.K. Devon

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780323143820

Category: Science

Page: 656

View: 181

Handbook of Naturally Occurring Compounds, Volume I: Acetogenins, Shikimates, and Carbohydrates contains most of the known naturally occurring compounds and their corresponding structures, classified into acetogenins, shikimates, and carbohydrates. Each structure includes the molecular formula, molecular weight, optical rotation, melting point, literature reference, and classification number. This handbook is comprised of nine chapters and begins with an introduction to the primary classes of naturally occurring compounds to be discussed in the following chapters, namely shikimate aromatics, acetate/shikimate aromatics, acetate/malonate aromatics, acyclic and heterocyclic acetogenins, carbohydrates, and complex classes. The shikimic acid pathway is described, along with the oxygenation patterns of shikimate-derived aromatics. Compounds such as lignans, terphenyls, macrolides, and miscellaneous phenols are considered. Oxyheterocyclics related to the linear acetogenins/phenylpolyynes are also analyzed. The final chapter provides three indices in addition to the structural guides, namely, Molecular Weight Index, Molecular Formula Index, and Alphabetical Index. This volume will be a useful resource for chemists and chemistry students.
Categories: Science

Naturally Occurring Chemicals against Alzheimer s Disease

Naturally Occurring Chemicals against Alzheimer   s Disease

Three animal groups were made in which rats were divided as per the treatment they received. One group of animals were subjected to ... Dar et al. conducted 396 Naturally Occurring Chemicals against Alzheimer's Disease Toxicologic studies.

Author: Tarun Belwal

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780128192139

Category: Medical

Page: 534

View: 450

Naturally Occurring Chemicals against Alzheimer’s Disease offers a detailed discussion on the roles, molecular mechanisms, structural activity relationships, toxicology and clinical data on phytochemicals in relation to Alzheimer’s disease. The book examines the available phytochemicals and plants that are potentially effective, also determining the role and molecular targets of these phytochemicals in combating AD. This comprehensive resource will be helpful to researchers who are working on herbal drugs on AD, phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, clinical trials, neuroscience and advancement in formulations. Provides information on phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, clinical trials, and advancement in formulations specific to Alzheimer’s Disease in a single source Explores natural compounds, which can be more affordable to the majority of Alzheimer’s Disease patients, who will increasingly be in developing countries Covers a wide array of specific chemical compounds
Categories: Medical

The Handbook of Naturally Occurring Insecticidal Toxins

The Handbook of Naturally Occurring Insecticidal Toxins

Are any such commercial products available and, if so, how far have they made an impact in the conventional chemical ... This volume of The Handbook of Naturally Occurring Insecticidal Toxins will also supplement my earlier volume of ...

Author: Opender Koul

Publisher: CABI

ISBN: 9781780642703

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 862

View: 482

Naturally occurring toxins are among the most complicated and lethal in existence. Plant species, microorganisms and marine flora and fauna produce hundreds of toxic compounds for defence and to promote their chances of survival, and these can be isolated and appropriated for our own use. Many of these toxins have yet to be thoroughly described, despite being studied for years. Focusing on the natural toxins that are purely toxic to insects, this book contains over 500 chemical structures. It discusses the concepts and mechanisms involved in toxicity, bioassay procedures for evaluation, structure-activity relationships, and the potential for future commercialization of these compounds. A comprehensive review of the subject, this book forms an important source of information for researchers and students of crop protection, pest control, phytochemistry and those dealing in insect-plant interactions.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Naturally Occurring Benzodiazepines Endozepines and their Receptors

Naturally Occurring Benzodiazepines  Endozepines  and their Receptors

Benzodiazepines are not naturally occurring compounds. In fact, these compounds were developed in a serendipitous way. In the early 1950s, a research group based at Hoffmann-La Roche in New Jersey was tasked with the discovery of ...

Author: Robert B. Raffa

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781000421255

Category: Medical

Page: 214

View: 461

Understanding and addressing the current opioid crisis requires knowledge of endogenous opioids (endorphins and enkephalins), but there is now evidence for a benzodiazepine crisis. Are there endogenous benzodiazepine-like substances—and what do they do? How do they affect antianxiety drugs and their adverse effects? Do they explain enigmatic prolonged benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome? This book raises important questions about the clinical consequences of ignoring the existence of or understanding the potential influence of endogenous benzodiazepines on the therapeutic effect of benzodiazepines, their adverse effects, and the problems of withdrawal from them and other benzodiazepine receptor agonists. FEATURES Discusses endogenous benzodiazepine-like substances—what do they do, and do they affect antianxiety drugs and their adverse effects? Presents information on enigmatic prolonged benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome Describes the compounds acting at the BDZ binding sites, both exogenous (classical BDZ drugs and BDZ from food and plants) and endogenous (endozepines) Assesses the putative interactions in physiology, pathology, and pharmacology of the compounds acting at the BDZ binding sites Dr. Raffa is Adjunct Professor at the University of Arizona College of Pharmacy and Professor Emeritus at Temple University School of Pharmacy. He has co-authored or edited several books on pharmacology and thermodynamics, is a co-editor of two journals, is a past president of the Mid-Atlantic Pharmacology Society, and is the recipient of research and teaching awards. Dr. Amantea is Associate Professor of Pharmacology at the Department of Pharmacy, Health and Nutritional Sciences of the University of Calabria (Italy), where she is the leader of the Stroke Research Unit at the Section of Preclinical and Translational Pharmacology operating in the frame of the Italian Stroke Organization (ISO) Basic Science. She is a member of the Editorial Board and the Guest Editor of the 2016 Neuroscience section of Current Opinion in Pharmacology (Elsevier), and the founder and the editor of the CRC Press Frontiers in Neurotherapeutics series.
Categories: Medical