State of biodiversity in the Nordic countries

Author: Bo Normander,Nordic Council of Ministers

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

ISBN: 9289318252


Page: 130

View: 2492


The Nordic countries have agreed on a common target to halt the decline in biodiversity by 2010. This report aims at evaluating the 2010-target by presenting indicators that can describe trends in biodiversity in the Nordic countries. Our results comprise the most comprehensive documentation of land use in the Nordic countries to date. The area of important nature types such as mire, grassland and heathland have decreased significantly over the past one to two decades, whereas the area of constructed habitats, including city areas and transport networks, has grown considerably in all of the Nordic countries. Each of these trends in land use will cause biodiversity to decline. Looking into the quality aspect of biodiversity, our results reveal that two-thirds of the quality indicators presented show declines and the remaining one-third show improvements (or steady-state). Overall, our results indicate that biodiversity has declined in the Nordic countries since 1990. In particular, farmland, mire, grassland and heathland habitats show declines in biodiversity, but also the remaining habitats show negative trends. Therefore, based on the findings from this study, we conclude that it is highly unlikely that the target of halting biodiversity loss by 2010 can be achieved by the Nordic countries. Our results should be perceived as a first attempt to make an overall assessment of biodiversity in the Nordic countries. We believe that if further efforts were directed towards scrutinising existing and historic monitoring programmes and data sources, additional indicators could be calculated and hence a better knowledge base would be achieved.

Nordic Landscape Painting in the Nineteenth Century

Author: Torsten Gunnarsson

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 0300070411

Category: Art

Page: 293

View: 5603


This study identifies and analyzes the different types of landscape painting that dominated the Scandinavian countries in the 19th century. The author shows how the wilderness became a symbol of Nordic strength, as well as a counter-image to industrialization and European urban culture.