Mount Etna

The Anatomy of a Volcano

Author: David K. Chester

Publisher: Stanford University Press

ISBN: 9780804713085

Category: Nature

Page: 404

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Mount Etna

The anatomy of a volcano

Author: D.K. Chester,A.M. Duncan,J.E. Guest,C. Kilburn

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400940793

Category: Science

Page: 300

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Since the Second World War interest in the active by Italian geophysicists; studies of ground deform volcano Mount Etna, in Sicily, has been steadily ation by British and Italian groups; measurements increasing. This interest has not been restricted of microgravity changes particularly by a British to Italy, and scientists from Belgium, France, group; endeavours to improve analytical tech Germany, the United States and the United King niques for gases and sublimates by French and also dom have played a part in volcanological studies. Italian and British workers; pioneering work on In 1972 much of this work was drawn together at a rheology of lavas and growth of lava fields by discussion meeting convened by the Royal Society British scientists; and greatly improved surveil of London and attended by representatives of most lance of activity, notably that occurring in the summit region. of the projects that were being conducted on Etna. The meeting served to draw together current It is a principal aim of this book to synthesize the knowledge of Etna, especially information derived results of these many different studies into a more during the 1971 flank eruption, and also to point complete understanding of the volcano. Inevitably out deficiencies in knowledge and methods of the coverage is somewhat uneven; some fields of approach to investigating the volcano. In his study have been researched more thoroughly than opening statement to the meeting Professor A. others.
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Modeling Volcanic Processes

The Physics and Mathematics of Volcanism

Author: Sarah A. Fagents,Tracy K. P. Gregg,Rosaly M. C. Lopes

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139619225

Category: Science

Page: N.A

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Understanding the physical behavior of volcanoes is key to mitigating the hazards active volcanoes pose to the ever-increasing populations living nearby. The processes involved in volcanic eruptions are driven by a series of interlinked physical phenomena, and to fully understand these, volcanologists must employ various physics subdisciplines. This book provides the first advanced-level, one-stop resource examining the physics of volcanic behavior and reviewing the state-of-the-art in modeling volcanic processes. Each chapter begins by explaining simple modeling formulations and progresses to present cutting-edge research illustrated by case studies. Individual chapters cover subsurface magmatic processes through to eruption in various environments and conclude with the application of modeling to understanding the other volcanic planets of our Solar System. Providing an accessible and practical text for graduate students of physical volcanology, this book is also an important resource for researchers and professionals in the fields of volcanology, geophysics, geochemistry, petrology and natural hazards.
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Landscapes and Societies

Selected Cases

Author: I. Peter Martini,Ward Chesworth

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789048194131

Category: Science

Page: 478

View: 5007

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This book contains case histories intended to show how societies and landscapes interact. The range of interest stretches from the small groups of the earliest Neolithic, through Bronze and Iron Age civilizations, to modern nation states. The coexistence is, of its very nature reciprocal, resulting in changes in both society and landscape. In some instances the adaptations may be judged successful in terms of human needs, but failure is common and even the successful cases are ephemeral when judged in the light of history. Comparisons and contrasts between the various cases can be made at various scales from global through inter-regional, to regional and smaller scales. At the global scale, all societies deal with major problems of climate change, sea-level rise, and with ubiquitous problems such as soil erosion and landscape degradation. Inter-regional differences bring out significant detail with one region suffering from drought when another suffers from widespread flooding. For example, desertification in North Africa and the Near East contrasts with the temperate countries of southern Europe where the landscape-effects of deforestation are more obvious. And China and Japan offer an interesting comparison from the standpoint of geological hazards to society - large, unpredictable and massively erosive rivers in the former case, volcanoes and accompanying earthquakes in the latter. Within the North African region localized climatic changes led to abandonment of some desertified areas with successful adjustments in others, with the ultimate evolution into the formative civilization of Egypt, the "Gift of the Nile". At a smaller scale it is instructive to compare the city-states of the Medieval and early Renaissance times that developed in the watershed of a single river, the Arno in Tuscany, and how Pisa, Siena and Florence developed and reached their golden periods at different times depending on their location with regard to proximity to the sea, to the main trunk of the river, or in the adjacent hills. Also noteworthy is the role of technology in opening up opportunities for a society. Consider the Netherlands and how its history has been formed by the technical problem of a populous society dealing with too much water, as an inexorably rising sea threatens their landscape; or the case of communities in Colorado trying to deal with too little water for farmers and domestic users, by bringing their supply over a mountain chain. These and others cases included in the book, provide evidence of the successes, near misses and outright failures that mark our ongoing relationship with landscape throughout the history of Homo sapiens. The hope is that compilations such as this will lead to a better understanding of the issue and provide us with knowledge valuable in planning a sustainable modus vivendi between humanity and landscape for as long as possible. Audience: The book will interest geomorphologists, geologists, geographers, archaeologists, anthropologists, ecologists, environmentalists, historians and others in the academic world. Practically, planners and managers interested in landscape/environmental conditions will find interest in these pages, and more generally the increasingly large body of opinion in the general public, with concerns about Planet Earth, will find much to inform their opinions. Extra material: The color plate section is available at http://extras.springer.com
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Magmas, Rocks and Planetary Development

A Survey of Magma/Igneous Rock Systems

Author: Eric A. K. Middlemost

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317892631

Category: Science

Page: 324

View: 4331

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The variety of volcanic activity in the Solar System is widely recognised, yet the majestic sequences of magmatic processes that operate within an active planet are much less well known. Providing an exposition of igneous rocks, magmas and volcanic erupsions, this book brings together magnetic and volcanic data from different tectonic settings, and planets, with explanations of how they fit together. It systematically examines composition, origin and evolution of common igneous rocks, yet also examines a variety of rare magnetic rocks that play a crucial role in the global magma/igneous rock system.
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Magma Transport and Storage

Author: Michael P. Ryan

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Incorporated

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 420

View: 3214

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Based on the Symposium on Magma Transport and Storage from Source to Eruption Site, held at the 28th International Geological Congress, in Washington DC, July 9-19, 1989. The symposium brought together scientists working from a broad range of perspectives to explore the processes, pathways and mechanics of magmatic movement, combining their individual focuses into a unified theme. Combines treatments of the current research on magma movement in the earth's mantle, oceanic and continental crusts and volcanic centers based on approaches from continuum mechanics, fluid dynamics, heat transfer, experimental high-pressure geophysics, seismology and seismic tomography, observational volcanology and geodesy, field and structural geology. Chapters blend review material with new research results to promote accessibility and provide a measure of self-containment.
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Lyell

The Past is the Key to the Present

Author: Derek John Blundell,Andrew C. Scott

Publisher: Geological Society of America

ISBN: 9781862390188

Category: Science

Page: 376

View: 5791

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