Motivation and Cognitive Control

Motivation and Cognitive Control

This volume provides an up-to-date snapshot of the state of research in this exciting, expanding area. The contributors to the volume are internationally-renowned researchers that lead the field in conducting groundbreaking studies.

Author: Todd S. Braver

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781317326366

Category: Psychology

Page: 388

View: 831

Individuals do not always perform to their full capability on cognitive tasks. When this occurs, the usual explanation is that the individual was not properly motivated. But this begs the important question: How and why does motivation interact with and influence cognitive processing and the control processes that regulate it? What are the underlying mechanisms that govern such interactions? Motivation has been an important component of psychology and neuroscience throughout the history of the field, but has recently been rejuvenated by rapidly accelerating research interest in the nature of motivation-cognition interactions, particularly as they impact control processes and goal-directed behavior. This volume provides an up-to-date snapshot of the state of research in this exciting, expanding area. The contributors to the volume are internationally-renowned researchers that lead the field in conducting groundbreaking studies. Moreover, they represent a variety of research perspectives and traditions: cognitive psychology and neuroscience, animal learning, social, affective, and personality psychology, and development, lifespan, and aging studies. This book summarizes our current state of understanding of the relationship between motivation and cognitive control, and serves as an essential reference for both students and researchers.
Categories: Psychology

The Drive to Control

The Drive to Control

Author: Hendrik Steenbergen

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:768735963

Category:

Page: 193

View: 631

Categories:

Cognitive Views of Human Motivation

Cognitive Views of Human Motivation

This is followed by separate chapters on cognitive and coping processes in emotion, cognitive appraisals and transformations in self-control, an attributional model of achievement motivation, and cognitive control of action.

Author: Bernard Weiner

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9781483270166

Category: Psychology

Page: 118

View: 735

Cognitive Views of Human Motivation contains papers that were first presented during a symposium at the annual convention of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), held in San Francisco in February 1974. The book has five chapters and opens with a discussion of historical trends in cognition and motivation. This is followed by separate chapters on cognitive and coping processes in emotion, cognitive appraisals and transformations in self-control, an attributional model of achievement motivation, and cognitive control of action. The audiences for this book are psychologists and advanced undergraduate and graduate students interested in the areas of clinical, cognitive, motivation, and personality psychology. The book can serve as a main source of readings in courses on cognitive or motivational psychology and as a supplementary source for courses in clinical and personality psychology.
Categories: Psychology

Neural Basis of Motivational and Cognitive Control

Neural Basis of Motivational and Cognitive Control

Remedial effects of motivational incentive on declining cognitive control in healthy aging and Parkinson's disease. Front Aging Neurosci 2: 144. 41. Harsay HA, Cohen MX, Oosterhof NN, Forstmann BU, Mars RB, Ridderinkhof KR ...

Author: Rogier B. Mars

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262016438

Category: Medical

Page: 449

View: 411

A multidisciplinary overview of key approaches in the study of cognitive control and decision making.
Categories: Medical

Emotion Versus Motivation

Emotion Versus Motivation

It is becoming increasingly appreciated that affective influences can contribute strongly to goal-oriented cognition and behaviour.

Author: Kimberly Sarah Chiew

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:871042367

Category: Electronic dissertations

Page: 155

View: 310

It is becoming increasingly appreciated that affective influences can contribute strongly to goal-oriented cognition and behaviour. However, much work is still needed to properly characterize these influences and the mechanisms by which they contribute to cognitive processing. An important question concerns the nature of emotional manipulations (i.e., direct induction of affectively valenced subjective experience) versus motivational manipulations (e.g., delivery of performance-contingent rewards and punishments) and their impact on cognitive control. Given previous empirical evidence suggesting that positive emotion may enhance cognitive flexibility and reactive control, while performance-contingent rewards may enhance goal maintenance and proactive control, we sought to directly compare the effects of positive emotion and reward manipulations on cognitive control in a single group of subjects, using the AX-Continuous Performance Task (AX-CPT) paradigm, which allows measurement of the relative balance between proactive and reactive cognitive control. Pupil dilation during task performance was measured using high-resolution pupillometry as a secondary, high temporal-resolution measure of cognitive dynamics, and individual difference measures (both personality and cognition-related) were collected to examine whether the effects of emotional and motivational manipulations on cognition were mediated by such measures. We observed expected increases in proactive control and pupil dilation under reward incentive, at both sustained (block-based) and transient (trial-based) timescales. Effects under positive emotion were more complex: while performance and pupil activity were also suggestive of a mild shift towards pr oactive control, this effect was much weaker than under reward incentive. Surprisingly, reward-related individual differences did not predict changes in cognitive performance or pupil dilation under incentive. These findings provide evidence that positive emotion and reward may be dissociable constructs. Further, they replicate previous findings that reward may enhance goal representation and proactive control, but attest to the complexity and heterogeneity of possible positive emotion effects. Experimental limitations and future directions are discussed as possible strategies to address these findings and extend their observations, towards the goal of building a more comprehensive science of affect-cognition interactions.
Categories: Electronic dissertations

Neural Mechanisms of Motivational Incentive Integration and Cognitive Control

Neural Mechanisms of Motivational Incentive Integration and Cognitive Control

This is the first study, to our knowledge, that investigates the neural mechanisms underlying whether and how value integration of primary/consummatory and secondary/abstract incentives in a cognitive control context guide goal-directed ...

Author: Debbie Yee

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:1141203370

Category: Electronic dissertations

Page: 145

View: 736

Motivational incentives play a central role in human decision-making and the pursuit of behavioral and cognitive task goals [1,2]. Moreover, the ability to integrate diverse incentives to modulate goal pursuit is essential for healthy cognitive function. A potential mechanism of motivational influence may be via cognitive control, the set of processes that coordinate and regulate cognition and action based on currently maintained goals [3,4]. However, it is currently unknown whether and how different types of incentives are combined in the brain to modulate cognitive control, and how this putative integrated value signal influences goal-directed behavior. In the current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we utilized an innovative incentive integration task paradigm that establishes dissociable and additive effects of liquid (e.g., juice, neutral, saltwater) and monetary incentives on cognitive task performance, and applied innovative fMRI analysis approaches to elucidate the neural mechanisms that underlie the interaction between motivational and cognitive control process. First, we applied univariate parcel-based approaches to test whether a priori regions of interest (e.g., ventromedial prefrontal cortex, striatum, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex) represented the integrated value of the 'bundled incentives', and whether these regions were also associated with variability in cognitive task performance (Aim 1). Second, we applied representational similarity analysis - an innovative multivariate approach - to test whether and how the combined values from diverse motivational incentives are represented in the similarity of neural patterns in fMRI BOLD activity (Aim 2). Moreover, we aimed to examine whether such multivariate approaches were more sensitive to motivational incentive effects compared to univariate approaches, or alternatively provided complementary information to the univariate results in motivational incentive effects. This is the first study, to our knowledge, that investigates the neural mechanisms underlying whether and how value integration of primary/consummatory and secondary/abstract incentives in a cognitive control context guide goal-directed behavior. Importantly, these results provide critical knowledge into the basic neural mechanisms underlying interactions between motivational incentive integration and cognitive control, which can inform subsequent hypotheses about neuromodulatory influences (e.g., dopamine) in such interactions, as well as inform key predictions about targeted neural mechanisms in age-related changes in motivation-cognition interactions as well as maladaptive motivational processes in psychopathology (e.g., depression, addiction).
Categories: Electronic dissertations

Control Motivation and Social Cognition

Control Motivation and Social Cognition

Over the past two decades theorists and researchers have given increasing attention to the effects, both beneficial and harmful, of various control related motivations and beliefs.

Author: Gifford Weary

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461383093

Category: Psychology

Page: 344

View: 497

Over the past two decades theorists and researchers have given increasing attention to the effects, both beneficial and harmful, of various control related motivations and beliefs. People's notions of how much personal control they have or desire to have over important events in their lives have been used to explain a host of performance and adaptational outcomes, including motivational and performance deficits associated with learned helplessness (Abramson, Seligman, & Teasdale, 1978) and depression (Abramson, Metalsky, & Alloy, 1989), adaptation to aging (Baltes & Baltes, 1986; Rodin, 1986), cardiovascular disease (Matthews, 1982), cancer (Sklar & Anisman, 1979), increased reports of physical symptoms (Pennebaker, 1982), enhanced learning (Savage, Perlmutter, & Monty, 1979), achievement-related behaviors (Dweck & Licht, 1980; Ryckman, 1979), and post abortion adjustment (Mueller & Major, 1989). The notion that control motivation plays a fundamental role in a variety of basic, social psychological processes also has a long historical tradition. A number of theorists (Heider, 1958; Jones & Davis, 1965; Kelley, 1967), for example, have suggested that causal inferences arise from a desire to render the social world predictable and controllable. Similarly, control has been implicated as an important mediator of cognitive dissonance (Wicklund & Brehm, 1976) and attitude phenomena (Brehm & Brehm, 1981; Kiesler, Collins, & Miller, 1969). Despite the apparent centrality of control motivation to a variety of social psychological phenomena, until recently there has been relatively little research explicitly concerned with the effects of control motivation on the cognitive processes underlying such phenomena (cf.
Categories: Psychology

Personal Control in Action

Personal Control in Action

Each chapter examines the subject at a different level of analysis to foster a complete understanding. Brief synopses of each chapter are provided as introductions to the three major sections of the book.

Author: Miroslaw Kofta

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781475729016

Category: Psychology

Page: 460

View: 101

This new study presents exciting international research developments on personal control and self-regulation. Each chapter examines the subject at a different level of analysis to foster a complete understanding. Brief synopses of each chapter are provided as introductions to the three major sections of the book. These sections cover the person as an agent of control, affective and cognitive mechanisms of executive agency, and reactions to threatened control.
Categories: Psychology

Cognitive and affective control

Cognitive and affective control

Positive affect versus reward: emotional and motivational influences on cognitive control It is becoming increasingly appreciated that affective influences can contribute strongly to goal-oriented cognition and behavior.

Author: Gilles Pourtois

Publisher: Frontiers E-books

ISBN: 9782889190928

Category:

Page:

View: 764

Traditionally, cognition and emotion are seen as separate domains that are independent at best and in competition at worst. The French scientist and philosopher Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) famously said “Le coeur a ses raisons que la raison ne connaît point” (The heart has its reasons that reason does not know). Over the last century, however, psychologists and neuroscientists have increasingly appreciated their very strong reciprocal connections and interactions. Initially this was demonstrated in cognitive functions such as attention, learning and memory, and decision making. For instance, an emotional stimulus captures attention (e.g., Anderson & Phelps, 2001). Likewise, emotional stimuli are better learned and remembered than neutral ones (e.g., McGaugh, 1990) and they can provide strong incentives to bias decision making (Bechara et al., 1997). In more recent years, cognitive control has also been found to be intimately intertwined with emotion. This is consistent with an approach that considers cognitive control as an adaptive learning process (Braver & Cohen, 1999), reinforcement learning in particular (Holroyd & Coles, 2002; Verguts & Notebaert, 2009). From this perspective, cognitive control is not a cool encapsulated executive function, but instead involves rapidly calculating the value of situational, contextual, and action cues (Rushworth & Behrens, 2008) for the purpose of adapting the cognitive system toward future optimal performance. A wide array of research has shed light on cognitive control and its interactions with affect or motivation. Behaviorally, important phenomena include how people respond to difficult stimuli (e.g., incongruent stimuli, task switches), negative feedback, or errors and how this influences subsequent task processing. Neurally, an important target structure has been the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and its connections to traditional “emotional” (e.g., amygdala) and “cognitive” areas (e.g., (pre)motor cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex). ACC seems to play a predominant role in integrating distant effects from remote cognitive and emotion systems in order to guide and optimize behavior. The current special issue focuses on the bi-directional link between emotion and cognitive control. We invite studies that investigate the influence from emotion on cognitive control, or vice versa, the influence of cognitive control on emotion. Contributions can be of different types: We welcome empirical contributions (behavioral or neuroscientific) but also computational modeling, theory, or review papers. By bringing together researchers from the traditionally separated domains, we hope to further stimulate the crosstalk between emotion and cognitive control, and thus to deepen our understanding of both.
Categories:

The Role of Reinforcement on Cognitive Control and the Differences Between Adults and Children

The Role of Reinforcement on Cognitive Control and the Differences Between Adults and Children

The purpose of this study was to examine the way in which motivation affects cognitive control in both children and adults.

Author: Jacquelyn Helen Dziadosz

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:893689002

Category: Adaptability (Psychology)

Page: 200

View: 424

The purpose of this study was to examine the way in which motivation affects cognitive control in both children and adults. Cognitive control has been defined as the ability to represent and maintain goal information. Cognitive control involves basic processing abilities such as working memory, inhibition, attention, and cognitive flexibility.
Categories: Adaptability (Psychology)

The Wiley Handbook of Cognitive Control

The Wiley Handbook of Cognitive Control

Positive affect versus reward: Emotional versus motivational influences on cognitive control. Frontiers in Psychology, 2(279). Chiew, K. S., & Braver, T. S. (2013). Temporal dynamics of motivationcognitive control interactions revealed ...

Author: Tobias Egner

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781118920480

Category: Science

Page: 656

View: 763

Covering basic theory, new research, and intersections with adjacent fields, this is the first comprehensive reference work on cognitive control – our ability to use internal goals to guide thought and behavior. Draws together expert perspectives from a range of disciplines, including cognitive psychology, neuropsychology, neuroscience, cognitive science, and neurology Covers behavioral phenomena of cognitive control, neuroanatomical and computational models of frontal lobe function, and the interface between cognitive control and other mental processes Explores the ways in which cognitive control research can inform and enhance our understanding of brain development and neurological and psychiatric conditions
Categories: Science