Modeling Atmospheric and Oceanic Flows

Insights from Laboratory Experiments and Numerical Simulations

Author: Thomas von Larcher,Paul D. Williams

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118855930

Category: Science

Page: 368

View: 7290

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Modeling Atmospheric and Oceanic Flows: Insights from Laboratory Experiments and Numerical Simulations provides a broad overview of recent progress in using laboratory experiments and numerical simulations to model atmospheric and oceanic fluid motions. This volume not only surveys novel research topics in laboratory experimentation, but also highlights recent developments in the corresponding computational simulations. As computing power grows exponentially and better numerical codes are developed, the interplay between numerical simulations and laboratory experiments is gaining paramount importance within the scientific community. The lessons learnt from the laboratory–model comparisons in this volume will act as a source of inspiration for the next generation of experiments and simulations. Volume highlights include: Topics pertaining to atmospheric science, climate physics, physical oceanography, marine geology and geophysics Overview of the most advanced experimental and computational research in geophysics Recent developments in numerical simulations of atmospheric and oceanic fluid motion Unique comparative analysis of the experimental and numerical approaches to modeling fluid flow Modeling Atmospheric and Oceanic Flows will be a valuable resource for graduate students, researchers, and professionals in the fields of geophysics, atmospheric sciences, oceanography, climate science, hydrology, and experimental geosciences.
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Recent Research Advances in the Fluid Mechanics of Turbulent Jets and Plumes

Author: P.A. Davies,M.J. Valente Neves

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401109184

Category: Science

Page: 514

View: 9720

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Challenging problems involvrllg jet and plume phenomena are common to many areas of fundamental and applied scientific research, and an understanding of plume and jet behaviour is essential in many geophysical and industrial contexts. For example, in the field of meteorology, where pollutant dispersal takes place by means of atmospheric jets and plumes formed either naturally under conditions of convectively-driven flow in the atmospheric boundary layer, or anthropogenically by the release of pollutants from tall chimneys. In other fields of geophysics, buoyant plumes and jets are known to play important roles in oceanic mixing processes, both at the relatively large scale (as in deep water formation by convective sinking) and at the relatively small scale (as with plume formation beneath ice leads, for example). In the industrial context, the performances of many engineering systems are determined primarily by the behaviour of buoyant plumes and jets. For example, (i) in sea outfalls, where either sewage or thermal effluents are discharged into marine and/or freshwater environments, (ii) in solar ponds, where buoyant jets are released under density interfaces, (iii) in buildings, where thermally-generated plumes affect the air quality and ventilation properties of architectural environments, (iv) in rotating machinery where fluid jet~ are used for cooling purposes, and (v) in long road and rail tunnels, where safety and ventilation prcedures rely upon an understanding of the behaviour of buoyant jets. In many other engineering and oceanographic contexts, the properties of jets and plumes are of great importance.
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Turbulent Flow Computation

Author: D. Drikakis,Bernard Geurts

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0306484218

Category: Science

Page: 376

View: 4551

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In various branches of fluid mechanics, our understanding is inhibited by the presence of turbulence. Although many experimental and theoretical studies have significantly helped to increase our physical understanding, a comp- hensive and predictive theory of turbulent flows has not yet been established. Therefore, the prediction of turbulent flow relies heavily on simulation stra- gies. The development of reliable methods for turbulent flow computation will have a significant impact on a variety of technological advancements. These range from aircraft and car design, to turbomachinery, combustors, and process engineering. Moreover, simulation approaches are important in materials - sign, prediction of biologically relevant flows, and also significantly contribute to the understanding of environmental processes including weather and climate forecasting. The material that is compiled in this book presents a coherent account of contemporary computational approaches for turbulent flows. It aims to p- vide the reader with information about the current state of the art as well as to stimulate directions for future research and development. The book puts part- ular emphasis on computational methods for incompressible and compressible turbulent flows as well as on methods for analysing and quantifying nume- cal errors in turbulent flow computations. In addition, it presents turbulence modelling approaches in the context of large eddy simulation, and unfolds the challenges in the field of simulations for multiphase flows and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) of engineering flows in complex geometries. Apart from reviewing main research developments, new material is also included in many of the chapters.
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Active Global Seismology

Neotectonics and Earthquake Potential of the Eastern Mediterranean Region

Author: Ibrahim Cemen,Yucel Yilmaz

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118944984

Category: Nature

Page: 306

View: 6119

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Neotectonics involves the study of the motions and deformations of the Earth's crust that are current or recent in geologic time. The Mediterranean region is one of the most important regions for neotectonics and related natural hazards. This volume focuses on the neotectonics of the Eastern Mediterranean region, which has experienced many major extensive earthquakes, including the devastating Izmit, Turkey earthquake on August 17, 1999. The event lasted for 37 seconds, killing around 17,000 people, injuring 44,000 people, and leaving approximately half a million people homeless. Since then, several North American, European, and Turkish research groups have studied the neotectonics and earthquake potential of the region using different geological and geophysical methods, including GPS studies, geodesy, and passive source seismology. Some results from their studies were presented in major North American and European geological meetings. This volume highlights the work involving the Eastern Mediterranean region, which has one of the world's longest and best studied active strike-slip (horizontal motion) faults: the east-west trending North Anatolian fault zone, which is very similar to the San Andreas fault in California. This volume features discussions of: Widespread applications in measuring plate motion that have strong implications in predicting natural disasters like earthquakes, both on a regional and a global scale Recent motions, particularly those produced by earthquakes, that provide insights on the physics of earthquake recurrence, the growth of mountains, orogenic movements, and seismic hazards Unique methodical approaches in collecting tectonophysical data, including field, seismic, experimental, computer-based, and theoretical approaches. Active Global Seismology is a valuable resource for geoscientists, particularly in the field of tectonophysics, geophysics, geodynamics, seismology, structural geology, environmental geology, and geoengineering. Read an interview with the editors to find out more: https://eos.org/editors-vox/neotectonics-and-earthquake-forecasting
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Computer Modelling in Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences

Building Knowledge

Author: Peter K. Müller,Hans von Storch

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540203537

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 6433

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This is a comprehensive reference to the use of quasi-realistic models in atmospheric and oceanic sciences. Understanding the basis and limitations of these models is important since far reaching decisions about the environment are based on them. The authors go beyond technical discussion of quasi-realistic models to emphasize their role and utility in generating new useful knowledge about the system.
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Phase Transition Dynamics

Author: Tian Ma,Shouhong Wang

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461489636

Category: Mathematics

Page: 555

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This book is an introduction to a comprehensive and unified dynamic transition theory for dissipative systems and to applications of the theory to a range of problems in the nonlinear sciences. The main objectives of this book are to introduce a general principle of dynamic transitions for dissipative systems, to establish a systematic dynamic transition theory, and to explore the physical implications of applications of the theory to a range of problems in the nonlinear sciences. The basic philosophy of the theory is to search for a complete set of transition states, and the general principle states that dynamic transitions of all dissipative systems can be classified into three categories: continuous, catastrophic and random. The audience for this book includes advanced graduate students and researchers in mathematics and physics as well as in other related fields.
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Large-Scale Atmosphere-Ocean Dynamics: Volume 1

Analytical Methods and Numerical Models

Author: John Norbury,Ian Roulstone

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521806817

Category: Mathematics

Page: 402

View: 9525

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The lectures in this 2002 book cover numerical weather prediction, chaotic atmospheric dynamics and atmospheric modelling.
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Introduction to Geophysical Fluid Dynamics

Physical and Numerical Aspects

Author: Benoit Cushman-Roisin,Jean-Marie Beckers

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0080916783

Category: Science

Page: 875

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This book provides an introductory-level exploration of geophysical fluid dynamics (GFD), the principles governing air and water flows on large terrestrial scales. Physical principles are illustrated with the aid of the simplest existing models, and the computer methods are shown in juxtaposition with the equations to which they apply. It explores contemporary topics of climate dynamics and equatorial dynamics, including the Greenhouse Effect, global warming, and the El Nino Southern Oscillation. Combines both physical and numerical aspects of geophysical fluid dynamics into a single affordable volume Explores contemporary topics such as the Greenhouse Effect, global warming and the El Nino Southern Oscillation Biographical and historical notes at the ends of chapters trace the intellectual development of the field Recipient of the 2010 Wernaers Prize, awarded each year by the National Fund for Scientific Research of Belgium (FNR-FNRS).
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Research Trends in Fluid Dynamics

Report from the United States National Committee on Theoretical and Applied Mechanics

Author: John Leask Lumley,U.S. National Committee on Theoretical and Applied Mechanics

Publisher: Amer Inst of Physics

ISBN: 9781563964596

Category: Science

Page: 328

View: 4540

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This is a report of a meeting sponsored by the National Science Foundation to determine research trends and consequent funding/research needs in fluid dynamics. The book covers major industries, technologies, and environmental issues affected by fluid mechanics, as well as the future research directions that should be undertaken in the field. The text does not only cover research gaps, but the areas touched upon are crucial to the resolution of serious global and regional environmental problems, and will enable important technological and economical developments in the US.
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IUTAM Symposium on Turbulence in the Atmosphere and Oceans

Proceedings of the IUTAM Symposium on Turbulence in the Atmosphere and Oceans, Cambridge, UK, December 8 ─ 12, 2008

Author: David Dritschel

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400703605

Category: Science

Page: 298

View: 4430

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The text of the Persian poet Rum ̄ ̄ ?, written some eight centuries ago, and reproduced at the beginning of this book is still relevant to many of our pursuits of knowledge, not least of turbulence. The text illustrates the inability people have in seeing the whole thing, the ‘big picture’. Everybody looks into the problem from his/her vi- point, and that leads to disagreement and controversy. If we could see the whole thing, our understanding would become complete and there would be no cont- versy. The turbulent motion of the atmosphere and oceans, at the heart of the observed general circulation, is undoubtedly very complex and dif?cult to understand in its entirety. Even ‘bare’ turbulence, without rotation and strati?cation whose effects are paramount in the atmosphere and oceans, still poses great fundamental ch- lenges for understanding after a century of research. Rotating strati?ed turbulence is a relatively new research topic. It is also far richer, exhibiting a host of distinct wave types interacting in a complicated and often subtle way with long-lived - herent structures such as jets or currents and vortices. All of this is tied together by basic ?uid-dynamical nonlinearity, and this gives rise to a multitude of phen- ena: spontaneous wave emission, wave-induced transport, both direct and inverse energy scale cascades, lateral and vertical anisotropy, fronts and transport barriers, anomalous transport in coherent vortices, and a very wide range of dynamical and thermodynamical instabilities.
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