Modality Across Syntactic Categories

Author: María Luisa Rivero,Andrés Salanova

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198718209


Page: 368

View: 9141


This volume explores the linguistic expression of modality in natural language from a cross-linguistic perspective. Modal expressions provide the basic tools that allow us to dissociate what we say from what is actually going on, allowing us to talk about what might happen or might have happened, as well as what is required, desirable, or permitted. Chapters in the book demonstrate that modality involves many more syntactic categories and levels of syntactic structure than traditionally assumed. The volume distinguishes between three types of modality: 'low modality', which concerns modal interpretations associated with the verbal and nominal cartographies in syntax; 'middle modality', or modal interpretation associated to the syntactic cartography internal to the clause; and 'high modality', relating to the left periphery. It combines cross-linguistic discussions of the more widely-studied sources of modality with analyses of novel or unexpected sources, and shows how the meanings associated with the three types of modality are realized across a wide range of languages.

Applied Linguistics for Teachers of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Learners

Author: Erdogan, Nabat,Wei, Michael

Publisher: IGI Global

ISBN: 1522584684

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 504

View: 1906


Irrespective of the language (first, second, or foreign) taught, knowledge of linguistics and its application is a must for language teachers. However, most TESOL programs use general linguistics textbooks that deal with the science of linguistics (as theory), disregarding its implications (practice) for teaching English language learners. Applied Linguistics for Teachers of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Learners is an essential scholarly publication that seeks to contribute to TESOL and language teacher education programs in order to assist educators to apply their knowledge to help linguistically and culturally diverse learners succeed in school and life. Highlighting an array of topics such as bilingualism, morphology, and sociolinguistics, this book is ideal for educators, educational programs, professionals, academicians, professors, linguists, and students.

Verb Classes and Aspect

Author: Elisa Barrajón López,José Luis Cifuentes Honrubia,Susana Rodríguez Rosique

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing Company

ISBN: 9027267855

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 446

View: 810


This volume offers a variety of perspectives on two of the main topics situated at the crossroads between lexical semantics and syntax, namely: (a) aspect and its correspondence with syntactic structure; and (b) the delimitation of syntactic structures from verb classes. Almost from Aristotle’s Metaphysics, it has been assumed that verbs invoke a mental image about the way in which eventualities are distributed over time. When it comes to determining time schemata, the lexical class to which the verb belongs represents a first step. Speaking about verb classes does not exclusively mean a semantic similarity; rather, verb classes exhibit a bundle of common features and thus show a set of recursive behavior patterns. Beyond the meaning of the verb, both semantic and syntactic factors, together with pragmatic ones, play a decisive role when establishing the aspectual classification of an eventuality. The contributions collected in this book approach the aforementioned lines, either analyzing the relationships between aspect and syntactic structure or traversing the path from a verb class to its syntactic manifestation. Some of them stress diachronic filiations, while others include processes of word formation in the debate; some of them focus on certain classes, such as movement verbs or psychological verbs, while others examine specific constructions. A number of chapters also discuss relevant theoretical issues concerning the analysis of aspect. In sum, the kaleidoscopic view provided by this book allows the reader to delve deeper into one of the most controversial – as well as exciting – topics within current linguistics.

The Morphosyntax of Gender

Author: Ruth Kramer

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199679932

Category: Amharic language

Page: 320

View: 4194


This book presents a new cross-linguistic analysis of gender and its effects on morphosyntax. It addresses questions including the syntactic location of gender features; the role of natural gender; and the relationship between syntactic gender features and the morphological realization of gender. Ruth Kramer argues that gender features are syntactically located on the n head ('little n'), which serves to nominalize category-neutral roots. Those gender features are either interpretable, as in the case of natural gender, or uninterpretable, like the gender of an inanimate noun in Spanish. Adopting Distributed Morphology, the book lays out how the gender features on n map onto the gender features relevant for morphological exponence. The analysis is supported by an in-depth case study of Amharic, which poses challenges for previous gender analyses and provides clear support for gender on n. The proposals generate a typology of two- and three-gender systems, with the various types illustrated using data from a genetically diverse set of languages. Finally, further evidence for gender being on n is provided from case studies of Somali and Romanian, as well as from the relationship between gender and other linguistic phenomena including derived nouns and declension class. Overall, the book provides one of the first large-scale, cross-linguistically-oriented, theoretical approaches to the morphosyntax of gender.

Modality and Theory of Mind Elements across Languages

Author: Werner Abraham,Elisabeth Leiss

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110271079

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 470

View: 7057


Modality is the way a speaker modifies her declaratives and other speech acts to optimally assess the common ground of knowledge and belief of the addressee with the aim to optimally achieve understanding and an assessment of relevant information exchange. In languages such as German (and other Germanic languages outside of English), this may happen in covert terms. Main categories used for this purpose are modal adverbials ("modal particles") and modal verbs. Epistemic uses of modal verbs (like German sollen) cover evidential (reportative) information simultaneously providing the source of the information. Methodologically, description and explanation rest on Karl Bühler's concept of Origo as well as Roman Jakobson's concept of shifter. Typologically, East Asian languages such as Japanese pursue these semasiological fundaments far more closely than the European languages. In particular, Japanese has to mark the source of a statement in the declarative mode such that the reliability may be assessed by the hearer. The contributions in this collection provide insight into these modal techniques.

Modality in Grammar and Discourse

Author: Joan L. Bybee,Suzanne Fleischman

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9027229252

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 575

View: 7079


This volume brings together a collection of 18 papers that look into the expression of modality in the grammars of natural languages, with an emphasis on its manifestations in naturally occurring discourse. Though the individual contributions reflect a diversity of languages, of synchronic and diachronic foci, and of theoretical orientations — all within the broad domain of functional linguistics — they nonetheless converge around a number of key issues: the relationship between 'mood' and 'modality'; the delineation of modal categories and their nomenclature; the grounding of modality in interactive discourse; the elusive category 'irrealis'; and the relationship of modal notions and categories to other categories of grammar.

Time and Modality

Author: Jacqueline Guéron,Jacqueline Lecarme

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402083548

Category: Philosophy

Page: 296

View: 4285


Here is a unique work of reference. Not only does it unite studies which explore the syntax and semantics of tense or modality, but it is the first book of its kind to embrace the interaction of tense and modality within a coherent generative model.