Modality Across Syntactic Categories

Author: María Luisa Rivero,Andrés Salanova

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198718209

Category:

Page: 368

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This volume explores the linguistic expression of modality in natural language from a cross-linguistic perspective. Modal expressions provide the basic tools that allow us to dissociate what we say from what is actually going on, allowing us to talk about what might happen or might have happened, as well as what is required, desirable, or permitted. Chapters in the book demonstrate that modality involves many more syntactic categories and levels of syntactic structure than traditionally assumed. The volume distinguishes between three types of modality: 'low modality', which concerns modal interpretations associated with the verbal and nominal cartographies in syntax; 'middle modality', or modal interpretation associated to the syntactic cartography internal to the clause; and 'high modality', relating to the left periphery. It combines cross-linguistic discussions of the more widely-studied sources of modality with analyses of novel or unexpected sources, and shows how the meanings associated with the three types of modality are realized across a wide range of languages.
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Applied Linguistics for Teachers of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Learners

Author: Erdogan, Nabat,Wei, Michael

Publisher: IGI Global

ISBN: 1522584684

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 504

View: 2054

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Irrespective of the language (first, second, or foreign) taught, knowledge of linguistics and its application is a must for language teachers. However, most TESOL programs use general linguistics textbooks that deal with the science of linguistics (as theory), disregarding its implications (practice) for teaching English language learners. Applied Linguistics for Teachers of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Learners is an essential scholarly publication that seeks to contribute to TESOL and language teacher education programs in order to assist educators to apply their knowledge to help linguistically and culturally diverse learners succeed in school and life. Highlighting an array of topics such as bilingualism, morphology, and sociolinguistics, this book is ideal for educators, educational programs, professionals, academicians, professors, linguists, and students.
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Edges in Syntax

Scrambling and Cyclic Linearization

Author: Heejeong Ko

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199660263

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 258

View: 9539

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This book examines how word order variations in language can be regulated by various factors in cyclic syntax. In particular, it offers a valuable contribution to the current debate concerning the effect of cyclic Spell-out on the (re-)ordering of elements in scrambling. Heejeong Ko provides in-depth discussion of the interaction of the syntax-phonology interface with operations at the syntax proper, as well as examining how the semantic meaning of a structure can be correlated with certain types of orderings in cyclic edges of the syntax. The author's proposal accounts for a wide range of scrambling data in East Asian languages such as Korean and Japanese, with particular focus on the consequences of cyclic linearization for (sub-)scrambling, types of quantifier floating, variations in predicate fronting, and types of argument structure and secondary predicates. The book will be of interest to syntacticians from graduate level upwards, particularly those interested in the syntax-phonology and syntax-semantics interfaces. The range of novel data presented will make it a valuable resource for linguists studying Korean, Japanese, and scrambling languages in general.
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The Syntax of Roots and the Roots of Syntax

Author: Artemis Alexiadou,Hagit Borer,Florian Schäfer

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199665265

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 333

View: 7517

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This book investigates the nature and properties of roots, the core elements of word meaning. In particular, chapters examine the interaction of roots with syntactic structure, and the role of their semantic and morpho-phonological properties in that interaction. Issues addressed in the book include the semantics and phonology of roots in isolation and in context; the categorial specification of roots; and the role of phases in word formation. Internationally recognized scholars approach these topics from a variety of theoretical backgrounds, drawing on data from languages including German, Hebrew, and Modern Greek. The book will be of interest to linguistics students and researchers of all theoretical persuasions from graduate level upwards.
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Modality and Theory of Mind Elements across Languages

Author: Werner Abraham,Elisabeth Leiss

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110271079

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 470

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Modality is the way a speaker modifies her declaratives and other speech acts to optimally assess the common ground of knowledge and belief of the addressee with the aim to optimally achieve understanding and an assessment of relevant information exchange. In languages such as German (and other Germanic languages outside of English), this may happen in covert terms. Main categories used for this purpose are modal adverbials ("modal particles") and modal verbs. Epistemic uses of modal verbs (like German sollen) cover evidential (reportative) information simultaneously providing the source of the information. Methodologically, description and explanation rest on Karl Bühler's concept of Origo as well as Roman Jakobson's concept of shifter. Typologically, East Asian languages such as Japanese pursue these semasiological fundaments far more closely than the European languages. In particular, Japanese has to mark the source of a statement in the declarative mode such that the reliability may be assessed by the hearer. The contributions in this collection provide insight into these modal techniques.
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Introduction to English Syntax

Author: Rolf Kreyer

Publisher: Peter Lang

ISBN: 9783631559611

Category: Foreign Language Study

Page: 258

View: 1548

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This book provides an overview of basic syntactic categories, analytical methods and theoretical frameworks that are needed for a comprehensive and systematic description and analysis of the syntax of English as it is spoken and written today. It is therefore useful for students of the English language but also for teachers who are looking for an overview of traditional syntactic analysis. In addition, the book explores various related aspects, such as syntactic variation, the relation between syntax and semantics, and psycholinguistic approaches to syntax. One focus throughout is to introduce the reader to the 'art' or science of syntactic argumentation. Almost all of the examples that are found in this book are drawn from language corpora - each syntactic concept, therefore, is exemplified by authentic language data.
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Foundations of Generative Syntax

Author: Robert Freidin

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262061445

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 368

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This is the first entry-level introduction to generative syntax to develop afoundational approach that rationally reconstructs syntactic theory from the perspective of currentresearch. It shows how basic grammatical concepts are incorporated into general principles thatanswer some of the fundamental questions of syntactic analysis, including the relationships betweenlexical and phrasal categories, the integration of transformations, the restricted distribution ofNPs; (lexical and nonlexical), and levels of syntactic representation.The book introduces andmotivates the basic components of Chomsky's principles-and-parameters theory with an extensiveanalysis of English and also data from a variety of other languages Beginning with simple conceptsof phrase structure analysis, the text progresses systematically through the subtheories of Case,bounding, government, and predicate-argument structure (T-theory) to the more complicatedconcepts in binding theory and the analysis of empty categories. It also contains detaileddiscussions of overlapping conditions, a full discussion of the Principle of Lexical Satisfaction,as well as substantial material on parametric variation in bounding, Case, and binding. Many pointsof analysis refine the standard view. Numerous exercises reinforce and extend the concepts andanalyses.Robert Freidin is Associate Professor and Director of the Program in Linguistics atPrinceton University. He is editor of Principles and Parameters in Comparative Grammar.
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The Syntax of American Sign Language

Functional Categories and Hierarchical Structure

Author: Carol Jan Neidle,Judy Kegl,Benjamin Bahan,Dawn MacLaughlin,Robert G. Lee

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262140676

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 229

View: 3085

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Recent research on the syntax of signed languages has revealed that, apart from some modality-specific differences, signed languages are organized according to the same underlying principles as spoken languages. This book addresses the organization and distribution of functional categories in American Sign Language (ASL), focusing on tense, agreement, and wh-constructions. Signed languages provide illuminating evidence about functional projections of a kind unavailable in the study of spoken languages. Along with manual signing, crucial information is expressed by specific movements of the face and upper body. The authors argue that such nonmanual markings are often direct expressions of abstract syntactic features. The distribution and intensity of these markings provide information about the location of functional heads and the boundaries of functional projections. The authors show how evidence from ASL is useful for evaluating a number of recent theoretical proposals on, among other things, the status of syntactic agreement projections and constraints on phrase structure and the directionality of movement.
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Semantics

An Introduction to Non-lexical Aspects of Meaning

Author: Paul Bennett

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Semantics

Page: 204

View: 8881

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This is an intermediate-level textbook on semantics. It assumes some prior acquaintance with linguistics, i.e. a basic knowledge of grammatical terminology and previous introductory study of syntax and semantics, but does not presuppose any particular theoretical orientation, or any prior knowledge of the topics it covers. It is aimed at intermediate and advanced undergraduates and beginning postgraduates in general linguistics, as well as those interested in the grammar of particular languages. It will also be relevant to students of computational linguistics and artificial intelligence. An introductory chapter deals with useful background notions such as grammaticalization and prototype theory. The remaining chapters each cover a single topic: links between syntactic and semantic categories, proposition types, deixis, tense, aspect, modality, negation and determination. The basic approach taken is to examine each phenomenon in English before setting up a more general framework and then looking at a number of other languages (including material on French and German, and on non-standard varieties of English, and presenting some - but not masses of - data from 'exotic' languages). Each chapter concludes with copious suggestions for further reading. Paul Bennett received his PhD from the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. He is Senior Lecturer in Linguistics at UMIST, Manchester. Previous publications include Multilingual Aspects of Information Technology (co-author, 1986), Linguistic Theory and Computer Applications (co-editor, 1987) and A Course in Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar (1995). --- Product Description.
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