Methods for Skin Absorption

Methods for Skin Absorption

This state-of-the-art book is an ideal instructional manual for investigators uninitiated in performing percutaneous absorption and metabolism studies.

Author: Barbara W. Kemppainen

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0849346517

Category: Medical

Page: 232

View: 695

This up-to-date volume describes the wide variety of available methods concerning percutaneous absorption of drugs and toxins. It discusses in detail the advantages and disadvantages of each method. This unique publication provides a clear, systematic presentation of each aspect which must be considered when designing and performing skin penetration experiments and when interpreting results. It includes specific information regarding necessary supplies and equipment, along with commercial sources for these items. This state-of-the-art book is an ideal instructional manual for investigators uninitiated in performing percutaneous absorption and metabolism studies. Those involved with investigative dermatology, dermatological research, toxicology, and pharmacology will find this reference interesting and indispensable.
Categories: Medical

Methods for Skin Absorption

Methods for Skin Absorption

Choice of Membranes for In Vitro Uptake Studies and General Experimental Techniques; Penetrant Characteristics Influencing Skin Absorption; Instrumentation and Methodology for In Vitro Skin Diffusion Cells; Preparation of Biological ...

Author: Kemppainen BW Ed

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:985854309

Category:

Page:

View: 226

Choice of Membranes for In Vitro Uptake Studies and General Experimental Techniques; Penetrant Characteristics Influencing Skin Absorption; Instrumentation and Methodology for In Vitro Skin Diffusion Cells; Preparation of Biological Membranes; Methodology for the Execution of In Vitro Skin Penetration Determinations; In Vivo Methods for Determining Percutaneous Absorption and Metabolism of Xenobiotics, Indirect Methods; Physical Resources Needed for In Vivo Animal Studies; Detection Methods; Data Interpretation and Analysis in Percutaneous Absorption Studies; Specialized Techniques, Congenitally Athymic (Nude) Animal Models; Specialized Technique, The Isolated Perfused Porcine Skin Flap (IPPSF); Validity of Skin Absorption and Metabolism Studies.
Categories:

Predictive Methods in Percutaneous Absorption

Predictive Methods in Percutaneous Absorption

This book sheds new light on the development and use of quantitative models to describe the process of skin permeation.

Author: Gary P. Moss

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783662473719

Category: Medical

Page: 199

View: 429

This book sheds new light on the development and use of quantitative models to describe the process of skin permeation. It critically reviews the development of quantitative predictive models of skin absorption and discusses key recommendations for model development. Topics presented include an introduction to skin physiology; the underlying theories of skin absorption; the physical laboratory-based processes used to generate skin absorption data, which is in turn used to construct mathematical models describing the skin permeation process; algorithms of skin permeability including quantitative structure-activity (or permeability) relationships (QSARs or QSPRs); relationships between permeability and molecular properties; the development of formulation-focused approaches to models of skin permeability prediction; the use of artificial membranes, e.g. polydimethylsiloxane as alternatives to mammalian skin; and lastly, the use of novel Machine Learning methods in developing the next generation of predictive skin permeability models. The book will be of interest to all researchers in academia and industry working in pharmaceutical discovery and development, as well as readers from the field of occupational exposure and risk assessment, especially those whose work involves agrochemicals, bulk chemicals and cosmetics.
Categories: Medical

OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals Section 4 Health Effects Test No 428 Skin Absorption In Vitro Method

OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals   Section 4  Health Effects Test No  428  Skin Absorption  In Vitro Method

This Test method has been designed to provide information on absorption of a test substance, (ideally radiolabelled), applied to the surface of a skin sample separating the two chambers (a donor chamber and a receptor chamber) of a ...

Author: OECD

Publisher: OECD Publishing

ISBN: 9789264071087

Category:

Page: 8

View: 555

This Test method has been designed to provide information on absorption of a test substance, (ideally radiolabelled), applied to the surface of a skin sample separating the two chambers (a donor chamber and a receptor chamber) of a diffusion cell ...
Categories:

Percutaneous Penetration Enhancers Drug Penetration Into Through the Skin

Percutaneous Penetration Enhancers Drug Penetration Into Through the Skin

In offering a detailed description of the methods currently in use for penetration enhancement, this book will be of value for researchers, pharmaceutical scientists, practitioners, students and dermatological scientists or ...

Author: Nina Dragicevic

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783662532706

Category: Medical

Page: 414

View: 294

Percutaneous Penetration Enhancers in a mini-series format comprising five volumes, represents the most comprehensive reference on enhancement methods – both well established and recently introduced – in the field of dermal/transdermal drug delivery. In detail the broad range of both chemical and physical methods used to enhance the skin delivery of drugs is described. All aspects of drug delivery and measurement of penetration are covered, and the latest findings are provided on skin structure and function, mathematics in skin permeation, and modern analytical techniques adapted to assess and measure penetration. In offering a detailed description of the methods currently in use for penetration enhancement, this book will be of value for researchers, pharmaceutical scientists, practitioners, students and dermatological scientists or dermatologists​.
Categories: Medical

Predictive Methods in Percutaneous Absorption

Predictive Methods in Percutaneous Absorption

This book sheds new light on the development and use of quantitative models to describe the process of skin permeation.

Author: Gary P. Moss

Publisher:

ISBN: 3662473720

Category:

Page:

View: 852

This book sheds new light on the development and use of quantitative models to describe the process of skin permeation. It critically reviews the development of quantitative predictive models of skin absorption and discusses key recommendations for model development. Topics presented include an introduction to skin physiology; the underlying theories of skin absorption; the physical laboratory-based processes used to generate skin absorption data, which is in turn used to construct mathematical models describing the skin permeation process; algorithms of skin permeability including quantitative structure-activity (or permeability) relationships (QSARs or QSPRs); relationships between permeability and molecular properties; the development of formulation-focused approaches to models of skin permeability prediction; the use of artificial membranes, e.g. polydimethylsiloxane as alternatives to mammalian skin; and lastly, the use of novel Machine Learning methods in developing the next generation of predictive skin permeability models. The book will be of interest to all researchers in academia and industry working in pharmaceutical discovery and development, as well as readers from the field of occupational exposure and risk assessment, especially those whose work involves agrochemicals, bulk chemicals and cosmetics.
Categories:

Percutaneous Absorption

Percutaneous Absorption

Updating and expanding the scope of topics covered in the previous edition, Percutaneous Absorption: Drugs, Cosmetics, Mechanisms, Methods, Fifth Edition supplies new chapters on topics currently impacting the field including cutaneous ...

Author: Nina Dragićević

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780429511561

Category: Medical

Page: 1008

View: 178

Updating and expanding the scope of topics covered in the previous edition, Percutaneous Absorption: Drugs, Cosmetics, Mechanisms, Methods, Fifth Edition supplies new chapters on topics currently impacting the field including cutaneous metabolism, skin contamination, exposure to protein allergens, in vitro absorption methodology and the percutaneous absorption of chemical mixtures. Complete with studies on the role of the skin as a key portal of entry for chemicals into the body, this book serves as a detailed reference source for recent advances in the field, as well as an experimental guide for laboratory personnel. Key Features: Details in vivo and in vitro methods for measuring absorption, dermal decontamination, mechanisms of transdermal delivery, and the relationship of transepidermal water loss to percutaneous absorption Considers a range of mathematical models, the safety evaluation of cosmetic ingredients, the absorption of hair dyes, nanoparticles for drug delivery, and other novel methods of drug delivery Discusses topics including skin metabolism, the skin reservoir, and the effects of desquamation on absorption
Categories: Medical

Topical Absorption of Dermatological Products

Topical Absorption of Dermatological Products

With contributions from world-renowned experts in the field, Topical Absorption of Dermatological Products summarizes novel treatments for fungal nail infections emerging risk assessment procedures for sunscreen products

Author: Robert L. Bronaugh

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780203904015

Category: Medical

Page: 544

View: 578

Contains current methods of analysis for new formulations of cosmetics, perfumes, creams, and lotions! With contributions from world-renowned experts in the field, Topical Absorption of Dermatological Products summarizes novel treatments for fungal nail infections emerging risk assessment procedures for sunscreen products real-time breath analysis and physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling (PBPK) for the examination of chemically exposed tissues the use of micelles, mixed micelles, liposomes, and microemulsions as effective drug delivery systems modern therapeutic devices for the management of acute, subacute, and chronic steroid-responsive dermatoses Providing state-of-the-art strategies for the control of irritation and infection, Topical Absorption of Dermatological Products is an in-depth source for dermatologists, pharmacists, pharmacologists, cosmetic scientists, biochemists, toxicologists, public health officials, manufacturers of cosmetics and toiletries, and upper-level undergraduate and graduate students in these disciplines.
Categories: Medical

Skin Permeation and Disposition of Therapeutic and Cosmeceutical Compounds

Skin Permeation and Disposition of Therapeutic and Cosmeceutical Compounds

This book reviews skin permeation and disposition of chemical compounds. Skin is utilized as an administration site for transdermal drug delivery systems, topical drug formulations, cosmeceuticals, and cosmetics.

Author: Kenji Sugibayashi

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9784431565260

Category: Medical

Page: 428

View: 201

This book reviews skin permeation and disposition of chemical compounds. Skin is utilized as an administration site for transdermal drug delivery systems, topical drug formulations, cosmeceuticals, and cosmetics. Their usefulness is closely related to the permeation and disposition of entrapped active ingredients through and into the skin. Skin permeation, disposition, and metabolism of chemicals are first summarized in the general introduction. Then primary topical formulations are explained in the second part, “Basic Formulations Applied to Skin”. The explanation for the active compounds and formulations are of the most important parts required to fabricate these formulations. Skin absorption of chemicals is generally much lower than oral and the other mucosal absorptions, so that skin-penetration enhancement is a key issue to have good formulations topically applied. Part 3 presents “Skin Penetration Enhancement”. In addition, Part 4, “Selection of Topically Applied Chemical Candidates”, deals with selection methods of topically applied ingredients for transdermal drug delivery systems, topical drug formulations, cosmeceuticals, and cosmetics. Parts 5 and 6, “Safety Assessment of Topically Applied Compounds“ and “Experimental Methods of Skin Permeation“, respectively, show safety issues and experimental methods for topical formulations. The final part consists of comments on therapeutic and cosmetic formulations by medical doctors and pharmacists. Their comments are especially helpful for pharmaceutical and cosmetic researchers who study dermatopharmacokinetics and topical formulations. This volume is particularly useful for those working in R&D, graduate students, and educators in the area of pharmaceutics, cosmetic sciences, dermatological sciences, pharmacology, toxicology, biopharmacy, pharmacokinetics, physical pharmacy, chemical engineering, and related fields.
Categories: Medical

Percutaneous Absorption

Percutaneous Absorption

Percutaneous absorption of 2-butoxyethanolvapourin human subjects. Br. J. Ind.
Med., 48, 788. Kao, J. (1990). Validity of skin absorption and metabolism studies.
In: Methods for Skin Absorption. Eds. Kemppainen, B.W. and Reifenrath, W.G..

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: CORNELL:31924073950341

Category: Chemicals

Page: 80

View: 980

Categories: Chemicals

Skin Permeation and Disposition of Therapeutic and Cosmeceutical Compounds

Skin Permeation and Disposition of Therapeutic and Cosmeceutical Compounds

This book reviews skin permeation and disposition of chemical compounds. Skin is utilized as an administration site for transdermal drug delivery systems, topical drug formulations, cosmeceuticals, and cosmetics.

Author: Kenji Sugibayashi

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 4431568123

Category: Medical

Page: 428

View: 980

This book reviews skin permeation and disposition of chemical compounds. Skin is utilized as an administration site for transdermal drug delivery systems, topical drug formulations, cosmeceuticals, and cosmetics. Their usefulness is closely related to the permeation and disposition of entrapped active ingredients through and into the skin. Skin permeation, disposition, and metabolism of chemicals are first summarized in the general introduction. Then primary topical formulations are explained in the second part, “Basic Formulations Applied to Skin”. The explanation for the active compounds and formulations are of the most important parts required to fabricate these formulations. Skin absorption of chemicals is generally much lower than oral and the other mucosal absorptions, so that skin-penetration enhancement is a key issue to have good formulations topically applied. Part 3 presents “Skin Penetration Enhancement”. In addition, Part 4, “Selection of Topically Applied Chemical Candidates”, deals with selection methods of topically applied ingredients for transdermal drug delivery systems, topical drug formulations, cosmeceuticals, and cosmetics. Parts 5 and 6, “Safety Assessment of Topically Applied Compounds“ and “Experimental Methods of Skin Permeation“, respectively, show safety issues and experimental methods for topical formulations. The final part consists of comments on therapeutic and cosmetic formulations by medical doctors and pharmacists. Their comments are especially helpful for pharmaceutical and cosmetic researchers who study dermatopharmacokinetics and topical formulations. This volume is particularly useful for those working in R&D, graduate students, and educators in the area of pharmaceutics, cosmetic sciences, dermatological sciences, pharmacology, toxicology, biopharmacy, pharmacokinetics, physical pharmacy, chemical engineering, and related fields.
Categories: Medical

Percutaneous Penetration Enhancers

Percutaneous Penetration Enhancers

Percutaneous Penetration Enhancers is the first book to present modern analytical techniques that have been used to assess penetration enhancement. The book also offers future perspectives for enhancers.

Author: Eric Wane Smith

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0849326052

Category: Medical

Page: 512

View: 142

This book is a comprehensive reference on the methods available for the enhancement of percutaneous penetration. It examines a broad scope of chemical enhancers and various physical methods of enhancement. The range of chemicals discussed in this volume is unsurpassed anywhere in the literature. Scientists can find invaluable information in this single source on 95 percent of the enhancers being researched today! Each well-illustrated chapter is written by the world's leading authorities in the field. Introductory chapters outline the concept of penetration enhancement from first principles and provide a comprehensive classification of different types of enhancers.Chapters covering chemical enhancers are clear, concise, and easy to understand, even for novice readers in this field. The latest techniques by which drugs can be forced physically through the skin are also covered in depth. Equipment is detailed, typical drug candidates for the techniques are described, and the success to date is provided. Percutaneous Penetration Enhancers is the first book to present modern analytical techniques that have been used to assess penetration enhancement. The book also offers future perspectives for enhancers. New approaches and current limitations on knowledge and understanding of the topic are suggested. This timely source book is invaluable for clinical reference or for the design of scientific studies.
Categories: Medical

Percutaneous Penetration Enhancers Chemical Methods in Penetration Enhancement

Percutaneous Penetration Enhancers Chemical Methods in Penetration Enhancement

In offering a detailed description of the methods currently in use for penetration enhancement, this book will be of value for researchers, pharmaceutical scientists, practitioners and also students.

Author: Nina Dragicevic

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783662470398

Category: Medical

Page: 411

View: 994

Percutaneous Penetration Enhancers in a mini-series format comprising five volumes, represents the most comprehensive reference on enhancement methods – both well established and recently introduced – in the field of dermal/transdermal drug delivery. In detail the broad range of both chemical and physical methods used to enhance the skin delivery of drugs is described. All aspects of drug delivery and measurement of penetration are covered and the latest findings are provided on skin structure and function, mathematics in skin permeation and modern analytical techniques adapted to assess and measure penetration. In offering a detailed description of the methods currently in use for penetration enhancement, this book will be of value for researchers, pharmaceutical scientists, practitioners and also students.
Categories: Medical

Dermal Absorption and Toxicity Assessment Second Edition

Dermal Absorption and Toxicity Assessment  Second Edition

Written by internationally recognized experts in the field, this Second Edition is a complete revised and updated text, covering the wide range of methods used to assess skin absorption and the various governmental and industrial programs ...

Author: Michael S. Roberts

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: UOM:39015074220701

Category: Medical

Page: 678

View: 638

The source Dermal Absorption and Toxicity Assessment supplies a state-of-the-art overview of the dermal absorption process, and is divided into six well organized sections. Written by internationally recognized experts in the field, this Second Edition is a complete revised and updated text, covering the wide range of methods used to assess skin absorption and the various governmental and industrial programs concerned with skin permeation and toxicity. These include alternative in silico, in vitro, and in vivo strategies to conduct studies for regulatory requirements. To make room for this new expanded content, the editors are publishing a concurrent text entitled: Dermatological and Cosmetic Development with a concentration on subjects concerned with dermatological and cosmetic therapies
Categories: Medical

Assessment of Skin Absorption and Irritation Potential of Arachidonic Acid and Glyceryl Arachidonate Using in Vitro Diffusion Cell Techniques

Assessment of Skin Absorption and Irritation Potential of Arachidonic Acid and Glyceryl Arachidonate Using in Vitro Diffusion Cell Techniques

The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Panels final report on the safety assessment of arachidonic acid (AA) noted its use in cosmetic skin preparations although there is a lack of dermal absorption data.

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:66425918

Category:

Page: 145

View: 771

The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Panels final report on the safety assessment of arachidonic acid (AA) noted its use in cosmetic skin preparations although there is a lack of dermal absorption data. The safety concern of topical applied AA arises upon its metabolism to pro-inflammatory mediators. In vitro percutaneous absorption/metabolism studies were initiated in flow-through diffusion cells. AA, and its glycerin monoester, glyceryl arachidonate (GA), were each applied in an o/w emulsion to simulate cosmetic consumer use conditions. AA was analyzed for absorption/metabolism in viable rat and human skin while GA was tested in cultured (EpiDerm), viable human, and human cadaver skin. Absorption data on both compounds was collected every 6hr over a 24hr period. The highest absorption was observed through EpiDerm (50%) and rat skin (20%). To a lesser extent, AA and GA penetrated human skin about 20%, of which -2% absorbed. A reservoir of AA was observed in cadaver skin during an extended absorption study (72hr), in which absorption increased to 4%. Ester hydrolysis of GA occurred in each of the analyzed tissue samples. Additionally, in vitro methods (as an alternative to the Draize test) were evaluated for their prediction of skin irritation potential in conjunction with flow-through diffusion cell absorption/metabolism measurements. Model compounds, with known irritation potential in vivo, were evaluated in vitro by measuring transepidermal water loss (TEWL), cytokine release (IL-1a), and skin viability (MTT) of rat and cultured skin in flow-through diffusion cells. Irritation potential of the model compounds was less pronounced in the emulsion formulation compared to an aqueous vehicle. No significant irritation from AA in an emulsion vehicle was observed with the alternative methods. As a supplementary assessment, TEWL was analyzed for its relationship to the 3H2O skin barrier integrity test, however no direct correlation was found to exist. Absorption of topically applied AA and GA was observed, indicating a potential for systemic availability. Furthermore, ester hydrolysis of GA occurred during absorption. The in vitro alternative methods for measuring skin irritation in flow-through diffusion cells were able to differentiate between the potency of irritants in an aqueous but not an emulsion formulation.
Categories:

Principles and Practice of Skin Toxicology

Principles and Practice of Skin Toxicology

Written by authorities in the field, this book provides a “bottom up” approach to studying skin toxicology.

Author: Robert Chilcott

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780470773086

Category: Science

Page: 392

View: 302

Written by authorities in the field, this book provides a “bottom up” approach to studying skin toxicology. Principles and Practice of Skin Toxicology clearly outlines basic concepts, cites historical and modern references and contains a dictionary for easy reference. The inclusion of global legislation and regulatory aspects on the topic makes this a comprehensive review for every practitioner, clinical researcher in industry and academia, and MSc and PhD student of toxicology. Different sections cover skin structure and function, principles and measurement of skin absorption, clinical aspects of dermal toxicity and in vitro alternatives. A section on regulatory and legislative aspects includes case studies from the UK that fulfill European Union and US FDA requirements. A glossary provides definitions of technical terms, and the chapters contain an introduction, learning boxes and summary section for ease of use. Includes a chapter on drug delivery through the skin. Addresses risk assessment: a key area for the interpretation of skin absorption data that is rarely covered.
Categories: Science

Percutaneous Absorption

Percutaneous Absorption

Updating and expanding the scope of topics covered in the previous edition, this Fourth Edition supplies new chapters on topics currently impacting the field including cutaneous metabolism, skin contamination, exposure to protein allergens, ...

Author: Robert L. Bronaugh

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1574448692

Category: Medical

Page: 920

View: 683

Updating and expanding the scope of topics covered in the previous edition, this Fourth Edition supplies new chapters on topics currently impacting the field including cutaneous metabolism, skin contamination, exposure to protein allergens, in vitro absorption methodology, the percutaneous absorption of chemical mixtures, the penetration of chemicals through the hair follicles, dermal drug delivery, mechanisms of absorption, nanoparticles and dermal absorption, the absorption of drugs and cosmetic ingredients, nail penetration, and other current research.
Categories: Medical

Dermal Absorption Models in Toxicology and Pharmacology

Dermal Absorption Models in Toxicology and Pharmacology

Many of the books covering this subject are just too comprehensive and serve primarily as reference works. This book takes a different approach.

Author: Jim E. Riviere

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0203020820

Category: Medical

Page: 392

View: 840

Many experimental methods and mathematical modeling approaches rooted in disciplines outside of toxicology can be effectively applied to estimating dermal absorption. Dermal Absorption Models in Toxicology and Pharmacology explores current approaches and techniques that can be used to quantify dermal absorption with endpoints useful in both toxicology and pharmacology. The book begins with a review of basic principles and the in vitro and in vivo experimental approaches available for assessing dermal absorption of drugs and chemicals. This is followed by coverage of mathematical or in silico models for quantitating percutaneous absorption and the applications of these techniques to the risk assessment process. The remainder of the book explores scenarios where the unique properties of the chemicals being studied or the matrix in which they are exposed must be considered and then wraps up with a comparative analysis of chemical permeability in human and animal skin. Many of the books covering this subject are just too comprehensive and serve primarily as reference works. This book takes a different approach. Jim Riviere's editorial guidance ensures that the information is readable, accessible, authoritative, and concise, making it the perfect resource for familiarizing new researchers and students to the field and updating established scientists.
Categories: Medical