Methods for Risk Assessment of Transgenic Plants

II. Pollination, Gene-Transfer and Population Impacts

Author: Gösta Kjellsson,Vibeke Simonsen,Klaus Ammann

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783764356965

Category: Medical

Page: 308

View: 1096

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This book is a compilation of current test methods useful in risk assessment of transgenic plants. It is a continuation of Methods for Risk Assessment of Transgenic Plants I. Competition, Establishment and Ecosystem Effects . The present volume focuses on processes in gene-transfer, incorporation of genes and the effects on populations. It is intended to support researchers with an overview of transgenes in non-transgenic planes. The book may also be used by biologists working with plant population biology, pollination ecology, and genetics. The major processes affecting the fate of genes are covered with emphasis on pollination, gene-transfer, and persistence of genes in populations. Different categories and subcategories are used to select the relevant test methods, using 65 key-subcategory words covering 77 methods in total. Each method is described and evaluated briefly and succinctly with comments on assumptions, restrictions, advantages, applications, and a selection of references. Special chapters are provided on: Genetic engineering techniques, inserted traits and principles for risk assessment of transgenic plants. An extensive bibliography provides entry into the scientific background and cross references and review lists make it possible to find all relevant sources quickly. Contents List of Contributors Preface 1. Introduction 1.1 New Developments 1.2 Main purposes of the book 1.3 How to use the book 2. Glossary of terms and abbreviations 3. Categories and corresponding subcategories 4. List of subcategories with corresponding subcategories 5. List of methods with corresponding subcategories 6. Synopsis of subcategories and recommended methods 6.1 List of subcategories with corresponding references 6.2 List of categories with corresponding reviews 7. List of the methods and their description 7.1 Organization of the description of methods 7.2 List of methods 7.3 Description of methods 8. Genetic engineering techniques 8.1 Methods of DNA transfer 9. Inserted traits for transgenic plants 9.1 Herbicide tolerance 9.2 Pest tolerance 9.3 Pathogen tolerance 9.4 Changed flower characteristics 9.5 Changed metabolic content 9.6 Stress tolerance 9.7 Outlook for the future 10. Principles and procedures for risk assessment 10.1 The theory of ecological risk assessment 10.2 Established and new concepts for ecological risk assessment of GMP 10.3 Risk assessment and the type of environment 10.4 The role of modelling in ecological risk assessment 11. References 12. Subject index
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Methods for Risk Assessment of Transgenic Plants

III. Ecological risks and prospects of transgenic plants, where do we go from here? A dialogue between biotech industry and science

Author: Klaus Ammann,Yolande Jacot,Gösta Kjellsson,Vibeke Simonsen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783764359171

Category: Science

Page: 260

View: 5953

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The Berne Symposium invited leading scientists of risk assessment research with transgenic crops on an international level in order to enhance the discussion regulators and members of the biotech industry. The goal was to determine the status quo and also to make progress in times of a first global spread of transgenes in agrosystems about risk assessment. The dialogue between scientists, regulators and industry representatives also revealed some lacunes of risk assessment research, which will have to be filled in the future: We still lack longterm experience, for which we will have to collect data with scientific precision. The symposium concluded asking for a risk-oriented longterm monitoring system based on critical science and hard data. This volume presents the discussion sessions as well as the scientific contributions and thus mirrors the risk assessment debate, based not on exaggerated negative scenarios but on critical science and hard data.
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Methods for Risk Assessment I of Transgenic Plants.

Competition, Establishment and Ecosystems Effect.

Author: Gösta Kjellsson,Vibeke Simonsen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783764350659

Category: Plant population genetics

Page: 214

View: 9373

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The present book is a compilation of current test methods useful in risk assessment of transgenic plants. It is intended to aid the environmental researcher in finding and comparing relevant methods quickly and easily. It may also be used as a general reference work for field-ecologists, laboratory- biologists and others working in plant population biology and genetics. The major processes affecting the fate of plants are covered with emphasis on invasion, competition and establishment, e.g., seed dispersal, density-dependent competition, and plant growth. Ecosystem effects and genetic structure are also covered. For each process a number of relevant test methods have been selected; in total, 84 methods for field, greenhouse or laboratory research are included, employing 51 key processwords. Each method is described and evaluated briefly and succinctly, and there are comments on assumptions, restrictions, advantages, and applications. An extensive bibliography provides entry into the scientific background, and cross references make it possible quickly to find all relevant sources. Methods to study pollination and gene transfer will be considered in a future volume.
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Environmental Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Organisms

Challenges and Opportunities with Bt Cotton in Vietnam

Author: David Alan Andow,Angelika Hilbeck,Nguyen Van Tuat

Publisher: CABI

ISBN: 1845933907

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 360

View: 8866

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Challenges and Opportunities with GM Crops in Vietnam: the Case of Bt Cotton; Cotton Production in Vietnam; Consideration of Problem Formulation an Option Assessment (PFOA) for Environmental Risk Assessment: Bt Cotton in Vietnam; Transgene Locus Structure and Expression; Non-target and Biological Diversity Risk Assessment; Potential Effect of Transgenic Cotton on Non-target Herbivores in Vietnam; Invertebrate Predators in Bt Cotton in Vietnam: Techniques for Prioritizing Species and Developing Risk Hypotheses for Risk Assessment; Potential Effects of Transgenic Cotton on Non-target Insect Parasitoids in Vietnam; Potential Effects of Transgenic Cotton on Flower Visitors in Vietnam; Potential Effects of Transgenic Cotton on Soil Ecosystem Processes in Vietnam; Environmental Risks Associated with Gene Flow from Transgenic Cotton in Vietnam; Resistance Risk Assessment and Management for Bt Cotton in Vietnam; Challenges and Opportunities with Bt Cotton in Vietnam: Synthesis and Recommendations.
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Ecological Engineering for Pest Management

Advances in Habitat Manipulation for Arthropods

Author: Geoff M Gurr,Steve D Wratten,Miguel A Altieri

Publisher: CSIRO PUBLISHING

ISBN: 0643100075

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 244

View: 977

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Ecological engineering is about manipulating farm habitats, making them less favourable for pests and more attractive to beneficial insects. Though they have received far less research attention and funding, ecological approaches may be safer and more sustainable than their controversial cousin, genetic engineering. This book brings together contributions from international workers leading the fast moving field of habitat manipulation, reviewing the field and paving the way towards the development and application of new pest management approaches. Chapters explore the frontiers of ecological engineering methods including molecular approaches, high tech marking and remote sensing. They also review the theoretical aspects of this field and how ecological engineering may interact with genetic engineering. The technologies presented offer opportunities to reduce crop losses to insects while reducing the use of pesticides and providing potentially valuable habitat for wildlife conservation. With contributions from the USA, UK, Germany, Switzerland, Australia, New Zealand, Kenya and Israel, this book provides comprehensive coverage of international progress towards sustainable pest management.
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Gene Flow from GM Plants

Author: Guy M. Poppy,Michael J. Wilkinson

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 047099410X

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 6673

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Gene flow is not unique to genetically modified (GM) crops, but the possibility of the spread of transgenic DNA to wild and domesticated relatives raises a new set of issues for scientists and policymakers to consider. Unfortunately, we are still too often unable to quantify the risks of ecological damage associated with gene flow. This is due partly to the huge breadth of knowledge required to assemble a comprehensive risk assessment. For example, many scientists active in research on the mechanics of gene flow nevertheless lack a deep understanding of what is required to identify, characterise and assess ecological risk, and many of those who are aware of the risk assessment process and the framework used for legislation have insufficient knowledge of the reproductive biology, agricultural systems, modelling and ecological literature required to compile a balanced risk assessment. This book, set in the context of gene flow in general, considers the assessment, measurement and management of the risks of gene flow from GM plants, combining the expertise of all the various stakeholders. It is directed at researchers and professionals in plant molecular genetics and plant ecology, in both the academic and industrial sectors.
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Genetically Modified Plants

Assessing Safety and Managing Risk

Author: Roger Hull,G. T. Tzotzos,Graham Head

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780080920764

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 2939

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A transgenic organism is a plant, animal, bacterium, or other living organism that has had a foreign gene added to it by means of genetic engineering. Transgenic plants can arise by natural movement of genes between species, by cross-pollination based hybridization between different plant species (which is a common event in flowering plant evolution), or by laboratory manipulations by artificial insertion of genes from another species. Methods used in traditional breeding that generate transgenic plants by non-recombinant methods are widely familiar to professional plant scientists, and serve important roles in securing a sustainable future for agriculture by protecting crops from pest and helping land and water to be used more efficiently. There is worldwide interest in the biosafety issues related to transgenic crops because of issues such as increased pesticide use, increased crop and weed resistance to pesticides, gene flow to related plant species, negative effects on nontarget organisms, and reduced crop and ecosystem diversity. This book is intended to provide the basic information for a wide range of people involved in the release of transgenic crops. These will include scientists and researchers in the initial stage of developing transgenic products, industrialists, and decision makers. It will be of particular interest to plant scientists taking up biotechnological approaches to agricultural improvement for developing nations. * Discusses traditional and future technology for genetic modification * Compares conventional non-GM approaches and genetic modification * Presents a risk assessment methodology for GM techniques * Details mitigation techniques for human and environmental effects
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Environmental Effects of Transgenic Plants

The Scope and Adequacy of Regulation

Author: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources,Committee on Environmental Impacts Associated with Commercialization of Transgenic Plants

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309170178

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 342

View: 9750

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Transgenic crops offer the promise of increased agricultural productivity and better quality foods. But they also raise the specter of harmful environmental effects. In this new book, a panel of experts examines: • Similarities and differences between crops developed by conventional and transgenic methods • Potential for commercialized transgenic crops to change both agricultural and nonagricultural landscapes • How well the U.S. government is regulating transgenic crops to avoid any negative effects. Environmental Effects of Transgenic Plants provides a wealth of information about transgenic processes, previous experience with the introduction of novel crops, principles of risk assessment and management, the science behind current regulatory schemes, issues in monitoring transgenic products already on the market, and more. The book discusses public involvementâ€"and public confidenceâ€"in biotechnology regulation. And it looks to the future, exploring the potential of genetic engineering and the prospects for environmental effects.
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