Method Model and Matter

Method  Model and Matter

This collection of essays deals with three clusters of problems in the philo sophy of science: scientific method, conceptual models, and ontological underpinnings.

Author: M. Bunge

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401025195

Category: Science

Page: 204

View: 612

This collection of essays deals with three clusters of problems in the philo sophy of science: scientific method, conceptual models, and ontological underpinnings. The disjointedness of topics is more apparent than real, since the whole book is concerned with the scientific knowledge of fact. Now, the aim of factual knowledge is the conceptual grasping of being, and this understanding is provided by theories of whatever there may be. If the theories are testable and specific, such as a theory of a particular chemical reaction, then they are often called 'theoretical models' and clas sed as scientific. If the theories are extremely general, like a theory of syn thesis and dissociation without any reference to a particular kind of stuff, then they may be called 'metaphysical' - as well as 'scientific' if they are consonant with science. Between these two extremes there is a whole gamut of kinds of factual theories. Thus the entire spectrum should be dominated by the scientific method, quite irrespective of the subject matter. This is the leitmotiv of the present book. The introductory chapter, on method in the philosophy of science, tackles the question 'Why don't scientists listen to their philosophers?'.
Categories: Science

Philosophical Papers Volume 1 Mathematics Matter and Method

Philosophical Papers  Volume 1  Mathematics  Matter and Method

The latter supposition is tantamount to the supposition that there exists a
standard model for Principia in some ... (Although mathematical induction may be
viewed either as an “extra-logical” method of proof, or as a 'logical' method in a
richer ...

Author: Hilary Putnam

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521295505

Category: Mathematics

Page: 364

View: 890

This volume deals with the philosophy of mathematics and of science and the nature of philosophical and scientific enquiry.
Categories: Mathematics

Body Mind and Method

Body  Mind  and Method

Patrick Suppes, Studies in the Methodology and Foundations of Science.
Selected Papers from 1911 to 1969. 1969. Jaakko Hintikka, Models for Modalities
. Selected Essays. ... 1972. . Mario Bunge, Method, Model and Matter 1973. 45.
46.

Author: Donald F. Gustafson

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400994799

Category: Philosophy

Page: 314

View: 676

Simple seeing. Plain talking. Language in use and persons in action. These are among the themes of Virgil Aldrich's writings, from the 1930's onward. Throughout these years, he has been an explorer of conceptual geography: not as a foreign visitor studying an alien land, but close up 'in the language in which we live, move, and have our being'. This is his work. It is clear to those who know him best that he also has fun at it. Yet, in the terms of his oft-cited distinction, it is equally clear that he is to be counted not among the funsters of philosophy, but among its most committed workers. Funsters are those who attempt to do epistemology, metaphysics, or analysis by appealing to examples which are purely imaginary, totally fictional, as unrealistic as you like, 'completely unheard of'. Such imaginative wilfullness takes philosophers away from, not nearer to, 'the rough ground' (Wittgenstein) where our concepts have their origin and working place. In the funsters' imagined, 'barely possible' (but actually impossible) world, simple seeing becomes transformed into the sensing of sense-data; plain talk is rejected as imprecise, vague, and misleading; and per sons in action show up as ensouled physical objects in motion. Then the fly is in the bottle, buzzing out its tedious tunes: the problem of perception of the external world; the problem of meaning and what it is; the mind-body problem. Image-mongering has got the best of image-management.
Categories: Philosophy

The Monte Carlo Method in Condensed Matter Physics

The Monte Carlo Method in Condensed Matter Physics

Techniques. and. Models. For the sake of completeness various polymer models
and Monte Carlo algorithms are summarised. Further details are presented in [
9.2](and references therein), and in particular concerning algorithms, the ...

Author: Kurt Binder

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783662028551

Category: Science

Page: 393

View: 754

The Monte Carlo method is now widely used and commonly accepted as an important and useful tool in solid state physics and related fields. It is broadly recognized that the technique of "computer simulation" is complementary to both analytical theory and experiment, and can significantly contribute to ad vancing the understanding of various scientific problems. Widespread applications of the Monte Carlo method to various fields of the statistical mechanics of condensed matter physics have already been reviewed in two previously published books, namely Monte Carlo Methods in Statistical Physics (Topics Curro Phys. , Vol. 7, 1st edn. 1979, 2ndedn. 1986) and Applications of the Monte Carlo Method in Statistical Physics (Topics Curro Phys. , Vol. 36, 1st edn. 1984, 2nd edn. 1987). Meanwhile the field has continued its rapid growth and expansion, and applications to new fields have appeared that were not treated at all in the above two books (e. g. studies of irreversible growth phenomena, cellular automata, interfaces, and quantum problems on lattices). Also, new methodic aspects have emerged, such as aspects of efficient use of vector com puters or parallel computers, more efficient analysis of simulated systems con figurations, and methods to reduce critical slowing down at i>hase transitions. Taken together with the extensive activity in certain traditional areas of research (simulation of classical and quantum fluids, of macromolecular materials, of spin glasses and quadrupolar glasses, etc.
Categories: Science

Inference Method and Decision

Inference  Method and Decision

Mario Bunge, Method, Model and Matter. 1973, VII + 196 pp. Mario Bunge,
Philosophy of Physics. 1973, IX + 248 pp. A. A. Zinov'ev, Foundations of the
Logical Theory of Scientific Knowledge (Complex Logic), Boston Studies in the
Philosophy ...

Author: R.D. Rosenkrantz

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401012379

Category: Science

Page: 270

View: 940

This book grew out of previously published papers of mine composed over a period of years; they have been reworked (sometimes beyond recognition) so as to form a reasonably coherent whole. Part One treats of informative inference. I argue (Chapter 2) that the traditional principle of induction in its clearest formulation (that laws are confirmed by their positive cases) is clearly false. Other formulations in terms of the 'uniformity of nature' or the 'resemblance of the future to the past' seem to me hopelessly unclear. From a Bayesian point of view, 'learning from experience' goes by conditionalization (Bayes' rule). The traditional stum bling block for Bayesians has been to fmd objective probability inputs to conditionalize upon. Subjective Bayesians allow any probability inputs that do not violate the usual axioms of probability. Many subjectivists grant that this liberality seems prodigal but own themselves unable to think of additional constraints that might plausibly be imposed. To be sure, if we could agree on the correct probabilistic representation of 'ignorance' (or absence of pertinent data), then all probabilities obtained by applying Bayes' rule to an 'informationless' prior would be objective. But familiar contra dictions, like the Bertrand paradox, are thought to vitiate all attempts to objectify 'ignorance'. BuUding on the earlier work of Sir Harold Jeffreys, E. T. Jaynes, and the more recent work ofG. E. P. Box and G. E. Tiao, I have elected to bite this bullet. In Chapter 3, I develop and defend an objectivist Bayesian approach.
Categories: Science

Quantum Monte Carlo Methods in Condensed Matter Physics

Quantum Monte Carlo Methods in Condensed Matter Physics

Recent applications of the fermion Monte Carlo method to other fermion models
with degenerate orbitals such as the d - p model are also ... In this paper , we
discuss recent trends in fermion simulations in condensed - matter physics1 , 2 ) .

Author: Masuo Suzuki

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9810236832

Category: Science

Page: 368

View: 415

This book reviews recent developments of quantum Monte Carlo methods and some remarkable applications to interacting quantum spin systems and strongly correlated electron systems. It contains twenty-two papers by thirty authors. Some of the features are as follows. The first paper gives the foundations of the standard quantum Monte Carlo method, including some recent results on higher-order decompositions of exponential operators and ordered exponentials. The second paper presents a general review of quantum Monte Carlo methods used in the present book. One of the most challenging problems in the field of quantum Monte Carlo techniques, the negative-sign problem, is also discussed and new methods proposed to partially overcome it. In addition, low-dimensional quantum spin systems are studied. Some interesting applications of quantum Monte Carlo methods to fermion systems are also presented to investigate the role of strong correlations and fluctuations of electrons and to clarify the mechanism of high-c superconductivity. Not only thermal properties but also quantum-mechanical ground-state properties have been studied by the projection technique using auxiliary fields. Further, the Haldane gap is confirmed by numerical calculations. Active researchers in the forefront of condensed matter physics as well as young graduate students who want to start learning the quantum Monte Carlo methods will find this book useful.
Categories: Science

Methods Matter

Methods Matter

That is, why can't we specify a multilevel model that contains an intercept
parameter for each school? In fitting the model to the data from the SFA
evaluation, there would be 41 such intercepts, one for each of the 41 schools in
the sample.

Author: Richard J. Murnane

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199890156

Category: Psychology

Page: 416

View: 368

Educational policy-makers around the world constantly make decisions about how to use scarce resources to improve the education of children. Unfortunately, their decisions are rarely informed by evidence on the consequences of these initiatives in other settings. Nor are decisions typically accompanied by well-formulated plans to evaluate their causal impacts. As a result, knowledge about what works in different situations has been very slow to accumulate. Over the last several decades, advances in research methodology, administrative record keeping, and statistical software have dramatically increased the potential for researchers to conduct compelling evaluations of the causal impacts of educational interventions, and the number of well-designed studies is growing. Written in clear, concise prose, Methods Matter: Improving Causal Inference in Educational and Social Science Research offers essential guidance for those who evaluate educational policies. Using numerous examples of high-quality studies that have evaluated the causal impacts of important educational interventions, the authors go beyond the simple presentation of new analytical methods to discuss the controversies surrounding each study, and provide heuristic explanations that are also broadly accessible. Murnane and Willett offer strong methodological insights on causal inference, while also examining the consequences of a wide variety of educational policies implemented in the U.S. and abroad. Representing a unique contribution to the literature surrounding educational research, this landmark text will be invaluable for students and researchers in education and public policy, as well as those interested in social science.
Categories: Psychology

Mathematical Ideas and Sociological Theory

Mathematical Ideas and Sociological Theory

Bartholomew , D. J. ( 1967 ) Stochastic Models of Social Processes . New York ...
Berkowitz , S . D. ( 1982 ) An Introduction to Structural Analysis : The Network
Approach to Social Research . ... Bunge , M. ( 1973 ) Method , Model and Matter .

Author: Thomas J. Fararo

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 0677166354

Category: Social Science

Page: 185

View: 710

First Published in 1984. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
Categories: Social Science

Computational Methods in Condensed Matter Electronic Structure

Computational Methods in Condensed Matter  Electronic Structure

Hence, empirical or model pseudopotentials are most commonly used. In the
empirical pseudopotential method the Fourier components of the
pseudopotential are selected so that the calculation results for a certain
characteristic of a metal are ...

Author: A.A. Katsnelson

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0883188651

Category: Science

Page: 205

View: 411

"Blurb & Contents" This current and comprehensive treatment of the physics of small- amplitude waves in hot magnetized plasmas provides a thorough update of the author's classic Theory of Plasma Waves. New topics include quasi-linear theory, inhomogeneous plasmas, collisions, absolute and convective instability, and mode conversion. Valuable for graduates and advanced undergraduates and an indispensable reference work for researchers in plasmas, controlled fusion, and space science.
Categories: Science

Novel Methods in Soft Matter Simulations

Novel Methods in Soft Matter Simulations

Mesoscopic Multi - particle Collision Model for Fluid Flow and Molecular
Dynamics Anatoly Malevanets and Raymond Kapral ? Flow Software ... The
algorithmic implementation of the method is described and its theoretical basis is
justified .

Author: Mikko Karttunen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540209166

Category: Science

Page: 393

View: 984

Soft matter and biological systems pose many challenges for theoretical, experimental and computational research. From the computational point of view, these many-body sytems cover variations in relevant time and length scales over many orders of magnitude. Indeed, the macroscopic properties of materials and complex fluids are ultimately to be deduced from the dynamics of the microsopic, molecular level. In these lectures, internationally renowned experts offer a tutorial presentation of novel approaches for bridging these space and time scales in realistic simulations. This volume addresses graduate students and nonspecialist researchers from related areas seeking a high-level but accessible introduction to the state of the art in soft matter simulations.
Categories: Science

Mathematical Models of Granular Matter

Mathematical Models of Granular Matter

Methods. A granular medium is a physical system composed by distinct basic
units (grains) of a macroscopic size (typically ... it is possible, however, to solve
numerically the evolution of the grains once a valid model has been established.

Author: Gianfranco Capriz

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540782766

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 216

View: 965

Granular matter displays a variety of peculiarities that distinguish it from other appearances studied in condensed matter physics and renders its overall mathematical modelling somewhat arduous. Prominent directions in the modelling granular flows are analyzed from various points of view. Foundational issues, numerical schemes and experimental results are discussed. The volume furnishes a rather complete overview of the current research trends in the mechanics of granular matter. Various chapters introduce the reader to different points of view and related techniques. New models describing granular bodies as complex bodies are presented. Results on the analysis of the inelastic Boltzmann equations are collected in different chapters. Gallavotti-Cohen symmetry is also discussed.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Risk Assessment Methods

Risk Assessment Methods

Thus , some of the methods listed in Table 3 focus on modeling and statistical
analysis while others focus on data ... the risk assessment process and according
to whether the method relates more to models or to data is a matter of judgment .

Author: V.T. Covello

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0306443821

Category: Medical

Page: 319

View: 255

This volume fills the need for a comprehensive guidebook and reference for risk assessment techniques. Within a generalized conceptual framework the authors clarify and integrate basic concepts; critique current methodologies; and teach the selection and application of a specific method and the interpretation of its results. The work makes these seemingly bewildering techniques accessible to readers from all disciplines.
Categories: Medical

A Companion to Latin American Philosophy

A Companion to Latin American Philosophy

Two selections of papers that appeared in the following decade were published
in 1973 under the titles Method, Model, and Matter and Philosophy of Physics.
The latter appeared also in French, Italian, Portuguese, Russian, and Spanish ...

Author: Susana Nuccetelli

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781118610565

Category: Philosophy

Page: 576

View: 856

This comprehensive collection of original essays written by an international group of scholars addresses the central themes in Latin American philosophy. Represents the most comprehensive survey of historical and contemporary Latin American philosophy available today Comprises a specially commissioned collection of essays, many of them written by Latin American authors Examines the history of Latin American philosophy and its current issues, traces the development of the discipline, and offers biographical sketches of key Latin American thinkers Showcases the diversity of approaches, issues, and styles that characterize the field
Categories: Philosophy

Reductionism and Systems Theory in the Life Sciences

Reductionism and Systems Theory in the Life Sciences

Brillouin, L. Science and information theory. New York: Academic Press, 1962
Bunge, M. The metaphysics, epistemology and methodology of levels. In: Method
, model and matter. Dordrecht: Reidel, 1973 pp. 160–168. Bunge, M. Is chemistry
a ...

Author: Paul Hoyningen-Huene

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400910034

Category: Science

Page: 190

View: 788

The present volume aims at giving a discussion ot the problems ot reductionism in contemporary life sciences. It contains six papers which deals with reduction/reductionism in different fields ot biological research. Also, the holistic perspective, 1. e. the systems view, is discussed in some ot the papers. The message ot this discussion Is that - whereas reductionism is indeed an important strategy - the systems approach is needed. It is argued by some ot the authors that organisms are complex systems and not just heaps of molecules, 50 that the analytical method does not suffice. Recent developments in systems theory offer the possibility to install a more comprehensive view ot living systems what can be seen particularly in the field ot evolutionary biology. It is true that any organismic activity is molecular, this is to say that it is based on molecular mechanisms. But it is also true that the whole organism displays certain patterns ot behavior which are not just molecular. Any organism can be described as a system ot different levels ot organization different levels ot order and complexity - and it is important, theretore, to study all ot the organizational levels and to see their peculiarities. It should be obvious, however, that there is not one problem ot reduction/reductionism, but that there are many problems linked together and that these problems appear at different levels ot biological research and bio philosophical reflections.
Categories: Science

Modeling of Soft Matter

Modeling of Soft Matter

We will briefly review the literature, present the governing equations and discuss
a suitable numerical schemes, such as spectral methods. The second objective is
to elucidate the subtleties of the model that' need to be handled properly for ...

Author: Maria-Carme T. Calderer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387321535

Category: Mathematics

Page: 250

View: 844

This IMA Volume in Mathematics and its Applications MODELING OF SOFT MATTER contains papers presented at a very successful workshop with the same ti tle. The event, which was held on September 27-October 1, 2004, was an integral part of the 2004-2005 IMA Thematic Year on "Mathematics of Ma terials and Macromolecules: Multiple Scales, Disorder, and Singularities. " We would like to thank Maria-Carme T. Calderer (School of Mathematics, University of Minnesota) and Eugene M. Terentjev (Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge) for their superb role as workshop organizers and editors of the proceedings. We take this opportunity to thank the National Science Foundation for its support of the IMA. Series Editors Douglas N. Arnold, Director of the IMA Arnd Scheel, Deputy Director of the IMA PREFACE The physics of soft matter in particular, focusing on such materials as complex fluids, liquid crystals, elastomers, soft ferroelectrics, foams, gels and particulate systems is an area of intense interest and contemporary study. Soft matter plays a role in a wide variety of important processes and application, as well as in living systems. For example, gel swelling is an essential part of many biological processes such as motility mecha nisms in bacteria and the transport and absorption of drugs. Ferroelectrics, liquid crystals, and elastomers are being used to design ever faster switch ing devices. Experiments of the last decade have provided a great deal of detailed information on structures and properties of soft matter.
Categories: Mathematics

Philosophical Problems of Space and Time

Philosophical Problems of Space and Time

Monographs on Epistemology, Logic, Methodology, Philosophy of Science,
Sociology of Science and of Knowledge, and on the Mathematical Methods of
Social and Behavioral Sciences Editors: ... MARIO BUNGE, Method, Model and
Matter.

Author: Adolf Grünbaum

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401026222

Category: Science

Page: 884

View: 164

It is ten years since Adolf Griinbaum published the first edition of this book. It was promptly recognized to be one of the few major works in the philosophy of the natural sciences of this generation. In part, this is so because Griinbaum has chosen a problem basic both to philosophy and to the natural sciences - the nature of space and time; and in part, this is so because he so admirably exemplifies that Aristotelian devotion to the intimate and mutual dependence of actual science and philosophical understanding. More than this, however, the quality of his work derives from his achievement in combining detail with scope. The problems of space and time have been among the most difficult in contemporary and classical thought, and Griinbaum has been responsible to the full depth and complexity of these difficulties. This revised and enlarged second edition is a work in progress, in the tradition of reflective analysis of modern science of such figures as Ehrenfest and Reichenbach. In publishing this work among the Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science, we hope to contribute to and encourage that broad tradition of natural philosophy which is marked by the close collaboration of philoso phers and scientists. To this end, we have published the proceedings of our Colloquia, of meetings and conferences here and abroad, as well as the works of single authors.
Categories: Science

Inverse Methods in Global Biogeochemical Cycles

Inverse Methods in Global Biogeochemical Cycles

Method. for. Biogeochemical. Modeling: Export. of. Particulate. Organic. Matter. in
. the. World. Ocean. Reiner Schlitzer Alfred ... Here, a global ocean circulation
model is presented that exploits the existing large sets of hydrographic, oxygen, ...

Author: American Geophysical Union

Publisher: American Geophysical Union

ISBN: 9780875900971

Category: Mathematics

Page: 324

View: 339

The CD-ROM contains the code and data files for the Exercises outlined in the paper by Rayner, et at., (p. 81-106).
Categories: Mathematics

Communication and Meaning

Communication and Meaning

Patrick Suppes, Studies in the Methodology and Foundations of Science.
Selected Papers from 1911 to 1969. 1969. Jaakko Hintikka, Models for Modalities
. Selected Essays. ... Mario Bunge, Method, Model and Matter. 1973, Mario
Bunge ...

Author: A.J Jones

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400970694

Category: Philosophy

Page: 167

View: 936

This essay contains material which will hopefully be of interest not only to philosophers, but also to those social scientists whose research concerns the analysis of communication, verbal or non-verbal. Although most of the topics taken up here are central to issues in the philosophy of language, they are, in my opinion, indistinguishable from topics in descriptive social psychology. The essay aims to provide a conceptual framework within which various key aspects of communication can be described, and it presents a formal language, using techniques from modern modal logic, in which such descriptions can themselves be formulated. It is my hope that this framework, or parts of it, might also turn out to be of value in future empirical work. There are, therefore, essentially two sides to this essay: the development of a framework of concepts, and the construction of a formal language rich enough to express the elements of which that framework is composed. The first of these two takes its point of departure in the statement quoted from Lewis (1972) on the page preceding this introduction. The distinction drawn there by Lewis is accepted as a working hypothesis, and in one sense this essay may be seen as an attempt to explore some of the consequences of that hypothesis.
Categories: Philosophy

Culture and Cultural Entities

Culture and Cultural Entities

Patrick Suppes, Studies in the Methodology and Foundations of Science.
Selected Papers from 1911 to 1969. 1969. Jaakko Hintikka, Models for Modalities
. Selected Essays. ... Mario Bunge, Method, Model and Matter. 1973. Mario
Bunge ...

Author: Joseph Margolis

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401576949

Category: Science

Page: 177

View: 268

viii choice and these include efforts to provide logical frameworks within which wecan make senseof these notions. This series will attempt to bring together work from allof these approaches to the history and philosophy of science and technology in the belief that each has something to add to our understanding. The volumes of this series have emerged either from lectures given by an author while serving as an honorary visiting professor at The City Collegeof New York or from a conference sponsored by that institution. The City College Program in the History and Philosophy of Science and Technology oversees and directs these lectures and conferences with the financial aid of the Association for Philosophy ofScience, Psychotherapy, and Ethics. MARTIN TAMNY RAPHAEL STERN TABLE OF CONTENTS EDITO RS' PR EFACE vii PR EFACE xi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS xiii I. NATUR E, CULTUR E, AND PERSONS 2. THE CONCEPT OF CONSCIOUSNESS 20 3. ANIMAL AND HUMAN MINDS 42 4 . ACTION AND CAUSALITY 64 5. PUZZLES ABOUT TH E CAUSAL EXPLANATION OF HUMAN ACTIONS 83 6. COGNITIVISM AND THE PROBLEM OF EXPLAINING HUMAN INTELLIGENCE 101 7. WITTGENSTEIN AND NATURAL LANGUAGES : AN ALTERNATIV E TO RATIONALIST AND EMPIRICIST THEO RIE S 133 INDEX 163 PREFACE I have tried to make a fresh beginning on the theory of cultural phenomena, largely from the perspectives of Anglo-American analytic philosophy.
Categories: Science