Metaphysics and Explanation

Metaphysics and Explanation

This volume offers an unusual variety of topics presented during the fifth annual Oberlin Colloquium in Philosophy.

Author: W. H. Capitan

Publisher: University of Pittsburgh Pre

ISBN: 9780822977247

Category: Philosophy

Page: 112

View: 701

This volume offers an unusual variety of topics presented during the fifth annual Oberlin Colloquium in Philosophy. Essays topics include: a dispute of the standard deductivist account of scientific testability; two definitions of “nonsense” that are closely related and correlate to science's concern with truth and philosophy's concern with concepts; contesting the causes of voluntary actions purported in Hart and Honoré's Causation and the Law; distinguishing two kinds of metaphysical tasks-—taxonomic and evaluative; and discussions of “what a thing is” in terms of its qualities and particulars and the distinction between numerical and conceptual differences, universals and individuation.
Categories: Philosophy

Unity Identity and Explanation in Aristotle s Metaphysics

Unity  Identity  and Explanation in Aristotle s Metaphysics

This volume presents fourteen new essays by leading figures in the fields of ancient philosophy and contemporary metaphysics, discussing Aristotle's theory of the unity of substances.

Author: Theodore Scaltsas

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199244413

Category: Philosophy

Page: 381

View: 450

This volume presents fourteen new essays by leading figures in the fields of ancient philosophy and contemporary metaphysics, discussing Aristotle's theory of the unity of substances. This topic remains at the centre of metaphysical enquiry.The contributors examine the nature of essences, how they differ from other components of substance, and how they are related to these other components. The central questions discussed here are: What does Aristotle mean by 'potentiality' and 'actuality'? How do these concepts explicate matter andform, and how are they related to the actuality of substance? What is the role of matter and form in accounting for the unity, identity, and individuation of substances? These questions are crucial to an understanding of the unity of composite substances and their identity over time.The aim of the volume is both exegetical and philosophical: to address central issues in Aristotle's Metaphysics, and to stimulate further investigation of the problems and controversies that arise from these.
Categories: Philosophy

Causation Explanation and the Metaphysics of Aspect

Causation  Explanation  and the Metaphysics of Aspect

Which kind of causation - causation by events, or causation by things - is more basic? In Causation, Explanation, and the Metaphysics of Aspect, Bradford Skow defends answers to these questions.

Author: Bradford Skow

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780198826965

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 192

View: 773

When you light a match it is the striking of it which causes the lighting; the presence of oxygen in the room is a background condition to the lighting. But in virtue of what is the striking a cause while the presence of oxygen is a background condition? When a fragile glass breaks it manifests a disposition to break when struck; however, not everything that breaks manifests this disposition. So under what conditions does something, in breaking, manifest fragility? After some therapy a man might stop being irascible and he might lose the disposition to become angry at the slightest provocation. If he does then he will have lost the disposition after an "internal" change. Can someone lose, or gain, a disposition merely as a result of a change in its external circumstances? Facts about the structure of society can, it seems, explain other facts. But how do they do it? Are there different kinds of structural explanations? Many things are said to be causes: a rock, when we say that the rock caused the window to break, and an event, when we say that the striking of the window caused its breakage. Which kind of causation - causation by events, or causation by things - is more basic? In Causation, Explanation, and the Metaphysics of Aspect, Bradford Skow defends answers to these questions. His answers rely on a pair of connected distinctions: first is the distinction between acting, or doing something, and not acting; second is the distinction between situations in which an event happens, and situations in which instead something is in some state. The first distinction is used to draw the second: an event happens if and only if something does something.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

The Metaphysics of Explanation

The Metaphysics of Explanation

Dr. Whitaker's book represents a highly important contribution to philosophical scholarship.

Author: Campbell Whitaker

Publisher:

ISBN: 0773464069

Category: Philosophy

Page: 490

View: 800

Dr. Whitaker's book represents a highly important contribution to philosophical scholarship. It is not only a sustained analysis of the metaphysical questions of existence and the world, it is also a thorough analysis of the important theories of explanation over the past century and an overview and generalized theory of the essential nature of all types of rational explanation (including convincing resolutions of traditional problems of induction and free will). It is a thorough analysis of the concept of total explanation and its relation to concepts of sufficient reason, necessary being, axiarchism, explanatory self-subsumption, existence, concept, object, sense, and reference. There are interesting and significant analyses of some of the age-old proofs of the existence of God. There is also a rigorous explication of the philosophical limits of explanation and the incoherencies that result when those limits are ignored. This study also contains a detailed review and analysis of theories of divine creation and their relation to theories of scientific cosmology. There are exhaustive analyses of arguments for the spatial and temporal extent of the world as a whole. There is a caref
Categories: Philosophy

The Problem of Metaphysics and the Meaning of Metaphysical Explanation

The Problem of Metaphysics and the Meaning of Metaphysical Explanation

It is for the furthering of this humbler, but not unessential end, that this essay was written. About the Publisher Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books.

Author: Hartley Burr Alexander

Publisher: Forgotten Books

ISBN: 0484006215

Category: Philosophy

Page: 152

View: 959

Excerpt from The Problem of Metaphysics and the Meaning of Metaphysical Explanation: An Essay in Definitions In this preface it may not be amiss explicitly to state cer tain convictions implied in the thinking here out-wrought. First there is a conviction that metaphysic is not a science of things ultimate in the cosmos, but of things ultimate in human life and destiny and ultimate only for human in sight; that consequently, metaphysical solutions must change as the human outlook changes, and that the way of our thought must develop as our powers of intuition become enlarged. No final metaphysical solution is possible, because so long as human intelligence broadens metaphysical truth must alter. It is not independent nor static, but exists for knowledge alone. That there is need to-day of a new metaphysic, a new vision of man's destiny, a new and virile exaltation of his ideals, - this, too, is a conviction underlying these writings. But the time for the great work is not yet. First must be written. As unmistakably as the century past has written the body's genesis, the genesis and evolution of the mind. To this task the natural sciences and the science of history, the varied branches of anthropology, psychology, philosophy in its manifold fields, all must contribute. And when the task is performed, or even in large part performed, forth shall arise the new synthesis, the new world-vision, and it shall be in evitable in its inspiration. But before that day we who hope for the advent must cleanse and order our house of thought, we must come to an understanding with ourselves and achieve some sane understanding of the metaphysic where with we were born. It is for the furthering of this humbler, but not unessential end, that this essay was written. About the Publisher Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.
Categories: Philosophy

Analysis and Metaphysics

Analysis and Metaphysics

AND BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH This collection of essays in honor of Roderick M. Chisholm is the work of his former students. The book was conceived and the original con tributors invited by Richard Taylor.

Author: Professor of Philosophy Keith Lehrer

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: UCAL:B4410828

Category: Philosophy

Page: 317

View: 790

AND BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH This collection of essays in honor of Roderick M. Chisholm is the work of his former students. The book was conceived and the original con tributors invited by Richard Taylor. We restricted the contributors to former students of Chisholm as a special tribute to his acknowledged as a teacher of philosophy. The profundity of his contributions to genius epistemology and metaphysics are acknowledged throughout the phil osophical world. Those who have been present at his lectures and semi nars, who have been incited to philosophical cerebration by the clarity and precision of his exposition, know that his impact on contemporary philosophy far exceeds the influence of the written word. It is, we think, appropriate that his students should reserve for themselves the privilege of honoring Chisholm in this way as his 60th birthday draws near. The tribute paid to Chisholm in Taylor's essay conveys a personal impression. I shall, consequently, refrain from personal reminiscence here, and instead, mention some of the highlights of an illustrious life. Chisholm was born on November 27, 1916 in North Attleboro, Massachu setts. He married Eleanor F. Parker in 1943 and raised three children with her. He received an A. B. from Brown in 1938, a Ph. D. from Harvard in 1942, and served in the U. S. Army from 1942 to 1946.
Categories: Philosophy

Oxford Studies in Metaphysics Volume 12

Oxford Studies in Metaphysics Volume 12

Much of the most interesting work in philosophy today is metaphysical in character. Oxford Studies in Metaphysics is a forum for the best new work in this flourishing field.

Author: Karen Bennett

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780192645340

Category: Philosophy

Page: 303

View: 817

Much of the most interesting work in philosophy today is metaphysical in character. Oxford Studies in Metaphysics is a forum for the best new work in this flourishing field. OSM offers a broad view of the subject, featuring not only the traditionally central topics such as existence, identity, modality, time, and causation, but also the rich clusters of metaphysical questions in neighbouring fields, such as philsophy of mind and philosophy of science. Besides independent essays, volumes will often contain a critical essay on a recent book, or a symposium that allows participants to respond to one another's criticisms and questions. Anyone who wants to know what's happening in metaphysics can start here.
Categories: Philosophy

Oxford Studies in Metaphysics Volume 12

Oxford Studies in Metaphysics Volume 12

Oxford Studies in Metaphysics is the forum for the best new work in this flourishing field. Much of the most interesting work in philosophy today is metaphysical in character: this series is a much-needed focus for it.

Author: Karen Bennett

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780192893314

Category: Philosophy

Page: 336

View: 252

Oxford Studies in Metaphysics is the forum for the best new work in this flourishing field. Much of the most interesting work in philosophy today is metaphysical in character: this series is a much-needed focus for it.
Categories: Philosophy

Analysis and Metaphysics

Analysis and Metaphysics

Professor Strewson draws on his many years of teaching at Oxford University, during which he refined and developed what he regards as the most productive route to understanding the fundamental structure of human thinking.

Author: P. F. Strawson

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0198751184

Category: Philosophy

Page: 144

View: 170

Professor Strewson draws on his many years of teaching at Oxford University, during which he refined and developed what he regards as the most productive route to understanding the fundamental structure of human thinking.
Categories: Philosophy

The Routledge Handbook of Metaphysical Grounding

The Routledge Handbook of Metaphysical Grounding

The central issues of ground are discussed in 37 chapters, all written exclusively for this volume by a wide range of leading experts. The chapters are organized into the following sections: I. History II. Explanation and Determination III.

Author: Michael J. Raven

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781351258821

Category: Philosophy

Page: 530

View: 107

Some of philosophy’s biggest questions, both historically and today, are in-virtue-of questions: In virtue of what is an action right or wrong? In virtue of what am I the same person my mother bore? In virtue of what is an artwork beautiful? Philosophers attempt to answer many of these types of in-virtue-of questions, but philosophers are also increasingly focusing on what an in-virtue-of question is in the first place. Many assume, at least as a working hypothesis, that in-virtue-of questions involve a distinctively metaphysical kind of determinative explanation called “ground.” This Handbook surveys the state of the art on ground as well as its connections and applications to other topics. The central issues of ground are discussed in 37 chapters, all written exclusively for this volume by a wide range of leading experts. The chapters are organized into the following sections: I. History II. Explanation and Determination III. Logic and Structure IV. Connections V. Applications Introductions at the start of each section provide an overview of the section’s contents, and a list of Related Topics at the end of each chapter points readers to other germane areas throughout the volume. The resulting volume is accessible enough for advanced students and informative enough for researchers. It is essential reading for anyone hoping to get clearer on what the biggest questions of philosophy are really asking.
Categories: Philosophy

Essays in the Metaphysics of Mind

Essays in the Metaphysics of Mind

The first begins with a consideration of Davidson's argument for the claim that there are no strict laws about the mental; the second builds on J.J.C. Smart's observations on biology and its relation to physics; and the third is based on my ...

Author: Jaegwon Kim

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199585878

Category: Philosophy

Page: 317

View: 562

The first begins with a consideration of Davidson's argument for the claim that there are no strict laws about the mental; the second builds on J.J.C. Smart's observations on biology and its relation to physics; and the third is based on my earlier work on multiple realization.
Categories: Philosophy

The Problem of Metaphysics and the Meaning of Metaphysical Explanation

The Problem of Metaphysics and the Meaning of Metaphysical Explanation

This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important, and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it.

Author: Hartley Burr Alexander

Publisher: Palala Press

ISBN: 1341004910

Category:

Page: 136

View: 301

This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important, and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work was reproduced from the original artifact, and remains as true to the original work as possible. Therefore, you will see the original copyright references, library stamps (as most of these works have been housed in our most important libraries around the world), and other notations in the work. This work is in the public domain in the United States of America, and possibly other nations. Within the United States, you may freely copy and distribute this work, as no entity (individual or corporate) has a copyright on the body of the work.As a reproduction of a historical artifact, this work may contain missing or blurred pages, poor pictures, errant marks, etc. Scholars believe, and we concur, that this work is important enough to be preserved, reproduced, and made generally available to the public. We appreciate your support of the preservation process, and thank you for being an important part of keeping this knowledge alive and relevant.
Categories:

The Problem of Metaphysics and the Meaning of Metaphysical Explanation

The Problem of Metaphysics and the Meaning of Metaphysical Explanation

This is a reproduction of a book published before 1923.

Author: Hartley Burr Alexander

Publisher: Nabu Press

ISBN: 1289382115

Category:

Page: 146

View: 350

This is a reproduction of a book published before 1923. This book may have occasional imperfections such as missing or blurred pages, poor pictures, errant marks, etc. that were either part of the original artifact, or were introduced by the scanning process. We believe this work is culturally important, and despite the imperfections, have elected to bring it back into print as part of our continuing commitment to the preservation of printed works worldwide. We appreciate your understanding of the imperfections in the preservation process, and hope you enjoy this valuable book.
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Perspective in Whitehead s Metaphysics

Perspective in Whitehead s Metaphysics

This book addresses key Whiteheadian texts and secondary interpretations of Whitehead.

Author: Stephen David Ross

Publisher: SUNY Press

ISBN: 0873956575

Category: Philosophy

Page: 295

View: 269

Stephen David Ross presents an extensive, detailed, and critical interpretation of Whitehead's mature thought, emphasizing the fundamental role of perspective in Whitehead's cosmology, and tracing the conflicts and difficulties therein to tensions involving perspective in relation to other central features of Whitehead's thought. Ross isolates four principles as having a fundamental role in whitehead's metaphysics: perspective, cosmology, experience, and mechanical analysis. He argues that many of Whitehead's difficulties can be eliminated by raising the principle of perspective to prominence and by revising the other central features of Whitehead's theory accordingly. This book addresses key Whiteheadian texts and secondary interpretations of Whitehead. The discussion ranges over most of Whitehead's theory in Process and Reality, and offers a number of significant and, in some cases, novel views on different aspects of Whitehead's theory: perception, prehension, causation, objective immortality, self-causation, the extensive continuum, natural order, possiblity, concreteness, and God. Ross's concluding suggestions for modifying Whitehead's system promise to occasion much debate among process philosophers, theologians, and anyone concerned with Whitehead's thought.
Categories: Philosophy