Metagenomics of the Microbial Nitrogen Cycle

Metagenomics of the Microbial Nitrogen Cycle

This book - written by renowned researchers who are specialized in the most relevant and emerging topics in the field - provides comprehensive information on the new theoretical, methodological, and applied aspects of metagenomics and other ...

Author: Diana Marco

Publisher:

ISBN: 1908230487

Category: Nature

Page: 288

View: 113

The nitrogen (N) cycle is one of the most important nutrient cycles on the planet, and many of its steps are performed by microbial organisms. During the cycling process, greenhouse gases are formed, including nitrous oxide and methane. In addition, the use of nitrogen fertilizers increases freshwater nitrate levels, causing pollution and human health problems. A greater knowledge of the microbial communities involved in nitrogen transformations is necessary to understand and counteract nitrogen pollution. This book - written by renowned researchers who are specialized in the most relevant and emerging topics in the field - provides comprehensive information on the new theoretical, methodological, and applied aspects of metagenomics and other 'omics' approaches used to study the microbial N cycle. The book provides a thorough account of the contributions of metagenomics to microbial N cycle background theory. It also reviews state-of-the-art investigative methods and explores new applications in water treatment, agricultural practices, climate change, among others. The book is recommended for microbiologists, environmental scientists, and anyone interested in microbial communities, metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, and metaproteomics of the microbial N cycle.
Categories: Nature

Microbial Nitrogen Cycling Dynamics in Coastal Systems

Microbial Nitrogen Cycling Dynamics in Coastal Systems

Continued cultivation and genomic sequencing of AOA will allow for in-depth studies on the physiological and metabolic potential of this novel group of organisms that will ultimately advance our understanding of the global carbon and ...

Author:

Publisher: Stanford University

ISBN: STANFORD:wt558td2044

Category:

Page:

View: 661

Human influence on the global nitrogen cycle (e.g., through fertilizer and wastewater runoff) has caused a suite of environmental problems including acidification, loss of biodiversity, increased concentrations of greenhouse gases, and eutrophication. These environmental risks can be lessened by microbial transformations of nitrogen; nitrification converts ammonia to nitrite and nitrate, which can then be lost to the atmosphere as N2 gas via denitrification or anammox. Microbial processes thus determine the fate of excess nitrogen and yet recent discoveries suggest that our understanding of these organisms is deficient. This dissertation focuses on microbial transformations of nitrogen in marine and estuarine systems through laboratory and field studies, using techniques from genomics, microbial ecology, and microbiology. Recent studies revealed that many archaea can oxidize ammonia (AOA; ammonia-oxidizing archaea), in addition to the well-described ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). Considering that these archaea are among the most abundant organisms on Earth, these findings have necessitated a reevaluation of nitrification to determine the relative contribution of AOA and AOB to overall rates and to determine if previous models of global nitrogen cycling require adjustment to include the AOA. I examined the distribution, diversity, and abundance of AOA and AOB in the San Francisco Bay estuary and found that the region of the estuary with low-salinity and high C:N ratios contained a group of AOA that were both abundant and phylogenetically distinct. In most of the estuary where salinity was high and C:N ratios were low, AOB were more abundant than AOA—despite the fact that AOA outnumber AOB in soils and the ocean, the two end members of an estuary. This study suggested that a combination of environmental factors including carbon, nitrogen, and salinity determine the niche distribution of the two groups of ammonia-oxidizers. In order to gain insight into the genetic basis for ammonia oxidation by estuarine AOA, we sequenced the genome of a new genus of AOA from San Francisco Bay using single cell genomics. The genome data revealed that the AOA have genes for both autotrophic and heterotrophic carbon metabolism, unlike the autotrophic AOB. These AOA may be chemotactic and motile based on numerous chemotaxis and motility-associated genes in the genome and electron microscopy evidence of flagella. Physiological studies showed that the AOA grow aerobically but they also oxidize ammonia at low oxygen concentrations and may produce the potent greenhouse gas N2O. Continued cultivation and genomic sequencing of AOA will allow for in-depth studies on the physiological and metabolic potential of this novel group of organisms that will ultimately advance our understanding of the global carbon and nitrogen cycles. Denitrifying bacteria are widespread in coastal and estuarine environments and account for a significant reduction of external nitrogen inputs, thereby diminishing the amount of bioavailable nitrogen and curtailing the harmful effects of nitrogen pollution. I determined the abundance, community structure, biogeochemical activity, and ecology of denitrifiers over space and time in the San Francisco Bay estuary. Salinity, carbon, nitrogen and some metals were important factors for denitrification rates, abundance, and community structure. Overall, this study provided valuable new insights into the microbial ecology of estuarine denitrifying communities and suggested that denitrifiers likely play an important role in nitrogen removal in San Francisco Bay, particularly at high salinity sites.
Categories:

Assessing the Impacts of Native Freshwater Mussels on Nitrogen Cycling Microbial Communities Using Metagenomics

Assessing the Impacts of Native Freshwater Mussels on Nitrogen Cycling Microbial Communities Using Metagenomics

The Upper Mississippi River (UMR) basin contributes over 50,000 metric tons of nitrogen (N) to the Gulf of Mexico each year, resulting in a "dead zone" inhospitable to aquatic life.

Author: Ellen Marie Black

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:1055414407

Category: Freshwater mussels

Page: 170

View: 863

The Upper Mississippi River (UMR) basin contributes over 50,000 metric tons of nitrogen (N) to the Gulf of Mexico each year, resulting in a "dead zone" inhospitable to aquatic life. Land-applied N (fertilizer) in the corn-belt is attributed with a majority of the N-load reaching the Gulf and is difficult to treat as run-off is considered a non-point source of pollution (i.e. not from a pipe). One solution to this "grand challenge" of intercepting N pollution is utilizing filter-feeding organisms native to the UMR. Freshwater mussel (order Unionidae) assemblages collectively filter over 14 billion gallons of water, remove tons of biomass from overlying water, and sequester tons of N each day. Our previous research showed mussel excretions increased the sediment porewater concentrations of ammonium by 160%, and indirectly increased nitrate and nitrite by 40%, presumably from microbial degradation of ammonium. In response, the goal of this research was to characterize how mussels influenced microbial communities (microbiome) to determine the fate of N in UMR sediment. First, we used qPCR and non-targeted amplicon sequencing within sediment layers to identify the N-cycling microbiome and characterized microbial community changes attributable to freshwater mussels. qPCR identified that anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria were increased by a factor of 2.2 at 3 cm below the water-sediment interface when mussels were present. Amplicon sequencing of sediment at depths relevant to mussel burrowing (3 and 5 cm) showed that mussel presence reduced microbial species richness and diversity and indicated that sediment below mussels harbored distinct microbial communities.
Categories: Freshwater mussels

Microbial Ecology of the Oceans

Microbial Ecology of the Oceans

The book starts out with a general introduction to the changes in the field, as well as looking at the prospects for the coming years. Chapters cover ecology, diversity, and function of microbes, and of microbial genes in the ocean.

Author: Josep M. Gasol

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781119107187

Category: Science

Page: 528

View: 704

The newly revised and updated third edition of the bestselling book on microbial ecology in the oceans The third edition of Microbial Ecology of the Oceans features new topics, as well as different approaches to subjects dealt with in previous editions. The book starts out with a general introduction to the changes in the field, as well as looking at the prospects for the coming years. Chapters cover ecology, diversity, and function of microbes, and of microbial genes in the ocean. The biology and ecology of some model organisms, and how we can model the whole of the marine microbes, are dealt with, and some of the trophic roles that have changed in the last years are discussed. Finally, the role of microbes in the oceanic P cycle are presented. Microbial Ecology of the Oceans, Third Edition offers chapters on The Evolution of Microbial Ecology of the Ocean; Marine Microbial Diversity as Seen by High Throughput Sequencing; Ecological Significance of Microbial Trophic Mixing in the Oligotrophic Ocean; Metatranscritomics and Metaproteomics; Advances in Microbial Ecology from Model Marine Bacteria; Marine Microbes and Nonliving Organic Matter; Microbial Ecology and Biogeochemistry of Oxygen-Deficient Water Columns; The Ocean’s Microscale; Ecological Genomics of Marine Viruses; Microbial Physiological Ecology of The Marine Phosphorus Cycle; Phytoplankton Functional Types; and more. A new and updated edition of a key book in aquatic microbial ecology Includes widely used methodological approaches Fully describes the structure of the microbial ecosystem, discussing in particular the sources of carbon for microbial growth Offers theoretical interpretations of subtropical plankton biogeography Microbial Ecology of the Oceans is an ideal text for advanced undergraduates, beginning graduate students, and colleagues from other fields wishing to learn about microbes and the processes they mediate in marine systems.
Categories: Science

Characterization of Soil Denitrifier Diversity

Characterization of Soil Denitrifier Diversity

The work in this thesis was undertaken to gain a greater understanding of the ecology of denitrifying microorganisms.

Author: Constance A. Roco

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:932120712

Category:

Page: 314

View: 612

Denitrification is a part of the global nitrogen cycle in which reactive nitrogen in the biosphere is returned to the atmosphere, and is mediated by diverse communities of microorganisms. The work in this thesis was undertaken to gain a greater understanding of the ecology of denitrifying microorganisms. A combination of bioinformatic analysis of denitrification genes in pure cultures and environmental samples, as well as experimental work with denitrifying bacterial cultures and soil microcosms was performed to understand the relationship between genes and ecosystems in denitrification. First, we examined the diversity of denitrifiers in soil through genome sequencing of microbial isolates coupled to denitrification gas kinetic measurements. The results suggest that partial denitrifiers are common among soil bacteria and it was demonstrated that nitrogen oxide production could not always be predicted by the genetic potential of the isolates. This reveals there are different regulatory effects on each step of the denitrification pathway, which dictate the accumulation of denitrification products. Secondly, the prevalence of dissimilatory reduction of nitrate under aerobic conditions in soil was assessed. Bacteria capable of aerobic nitrate reduction were easily isolated and found to reduce nitrate at oxygen concentrations greater than levels associated with the onset of nitrite reduction and the genomic analysis of the nitrate reductase genes revealed a wide diversity of physiological controls. Finally, a soil microcosm study was performed to determine the influence of oxygen on denitrification gas kinetics and denitrifier community structure. Comparison of soils exposed to oxic, short anoxic and long anoxic conditions revealed the oxic soils had fastest denitrification rates, indicating denitrifiers were not hindered by oxic conditions. The genetic community structure, characterized through metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analysis, was shown to be an important factor in determining denitrification rates and end product ratios. In conclusion, denitrification is a complex pathway of ecological importance that is controlled by the interaction between genes and environmental factors. In order to develop useful tools to mitigate reactive nitrogen and other climate-forcing nitrogen species, a comprehensive understanding of the regulatory network of denitrification with respect to microbial physiology and environmental interactions is needed.
Categories:

Soil Nitrogen Ecology

Soil Nitrogen Ecology

This book highlights the latest discoveries about the nitrogen cycle in the soil.

Author: Cristina Cruz

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783030712068

Category:

Page:

View: 920

Categories:

Marine Microbiology

Marine Microbiology

The Second Edition takes into account many new discoveries in the field including the role of microbes in ocean processes and nutrient cycles, the importance of viruses, the beneficial role of marine microbes in biotechnology, biofuels, ...

Author: Colin Munn

Publisher: Garland Science

ISBN: 9781136667527

Category: Science

Page: 320

View: 799

Marine Microbiology brings together microbial biology and ecology to create an integrated approach that addresses environmental management, human health, and economic concerns. The Second Edition takes into account many new discoveries in the field including the role of microbes in ocean processes and nutrient cycles, the importance of viruses, the beneficial role of marine microbes in biotechnology, biofuels, metagenomics and synthetic biology, and new research on the impact of climate change and ocean acidification. The first three sections review the main features of the marine environment and key aspects of marine microbial life; the second section examines the role of marine microorganisms in ecology; and the final section considers some of the applications of this knowledge in areas such as disease and biodegradation. Marine Microbiology is ideally suited for upper level undergraduate and graduate students, and researchers.
Categories: Science

Research on Nitrification and Related Processes

Research on Nitrification and Related Processes

Research on Nitrification and Related Processes, Part B provides state-of-the-art updates on methods and protocols dealing with the detection, isolation and characterization of macromolecules and their hosting organisms that facilitate ...

Author:

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0123864909

Category: Science

Page: 576

View: 521

The global nitrogen cycle is the one most impacted by mankind. The past decade has changed our view on many aspects of the microbial biogeochemical cycles, including the global nitrogen cycle, which is mainly due to tremendous advances in methods, techniques and approaches. Many novel processes and the molecular inventory and organisms that facilitate them have been discovered only within the last 5 to 10 years, and the process is in progress. Research on Nitrification and Related Processes, Part B provides state-of-the-art updates on methods and protocols dealing with the detection, isolation and characterization of macromolecules and their hosting organisms that facilitate nitrification and related processes in the nitrogen cycle as well as the challenges of doing so in very diverse environments. Provides state-of-the-art update on methods and protocols Deals with the detection, isolation and characterization of macromolecules and their hosting organisms Deals with the challenges of very diverse environments
Categories: Science

Understanding Terrestrial Microbial Communities

Understanding Terrestrial Microbial Communities

This book presents a summary of terrestrial microbial processes, which are a key factor in supporting healthy life on our planet.

Author: Christon J. Hurst

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783030107772

Category: Science

Page: 405

View: 699

This book presents a summary of terrestrial microbial processes, which are a key factor in supporting healthy life on our planet. The authors explain how microorganisms maintain the soil ecosystem through recycling carbon and nitrogen and then provide insights into how soil microbiology processes integrate into ecosystem science, helping to achieve successful bioremediation as well as safe and effective operation of landfills, and enabling the design of composting processes that reduce the amount of waste that is placed in landfills. The book also explores the effect of human land use, including restoration on soil microbial communities and the response of wetland microbial communities to anthropogenic pollutants. Lastly it discusses the role of fungi in causing damaging, and often lethal, infectious diseases in plants and animals.
Categories: Science

Research on Nitrification and Related Processes

Research on Nitrification and Related Processes

State-of-the-art update on methods and protocols dealing with the detection, isolation and characterization of macromolecules and their hosting organisms that facilitate nitrification and related processes in the nitrogen cycle as well as ...

Author: Martin G. Klotz

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780123812940

Category: Science

Page: 548

View: 239

State-of-the-art update on methods and protocols dealing with the detection, isolation and characterization of macromolecules and their hosting organisms that facilitate nitrification and related processes in the nitrogen cycle as well as the challenges of doing so in very diverse environments. Provides state-of-the-art update on methods and protocols Deals with the detection, isolation and characterization of macromolecules and their hosting organisms Deals with the challenges of very diverse environments
Categories: Science

Rhizosphere Microbes

Rhizosphere Microbes

Microbes Environ 30(1):44–50 Jeanette MN, Joshua PS (2011) Nitrogen ... In: Metagenomics of the microbial nitrogen cycle: theory, methods and applications.

Author: Sushil Kumar Sharma

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9789811591549

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 682

View: 631

Plants create a dynamic micro-biosphere in the soil, around the roots, called as ‘rhizosphere’, which harbors diverse number of microorganisms for sustaining their growth and development. A soil with diverse and multi-traits microbial communities is considered healthy to enhance crop productivity. In the last decades, rhizosphere biology has gained attention due to unraveling of new mechanisms, processes and molecules in the rhizosphere that contributes towards the promotion of plant productivity. The rhizospheric microbes and associated processes are being utilized for harnessing potential of soils in effective and sustainable functioning in the agro-ecosystems. Broadly, the book discusses rhizospheric microbes and their role in modulating functions of soil and crop plant. Specifically, it highlights conventional and modern aspects of rhizosphere microbes such as – microbiome in the rhizosphere, microbes as an indicator and promoter of soil health, rhizosphere microbes as biofertilizer, biostimulator and biofortifyer, microbial signaling in the rhizosphere, recent tools in deciphering rhizobiome, and regulatory mechanisms for commercialization of biofertilizer, biopesticide and biostimulator. The book is useful for agriculture scientist, biotechnologist, plant pathologist, mycologist, and microbiologist, farming community, scientist of R&D organization, as well as teaching community, researcher and student and policy maker.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Agricultural Nitrogen Management Affects Microbial Communities Enzyme Activities and Functional Genes for Nitrification and Nitrogen Mineralization

Agricultural Nitrogen Management Affects Microbial Communities  Enzyme Activities  and Functional Genes for Nitrification and Nitrogen Mineralization

The transformations of organic nitrogen to ammonium and nitrate are central processes in the internal soil nitrogen cycle.

Author: Yang Ouyang

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:970182540

Category:

Page:

View: 709

The transformations of organic nitrogen to ammonium and nitrate are central processes in the internal soil nitrogen cycle. In most agricultural soils, ammonium is rapidly oxidized to nitrate in the process known as nitrification; often leading to loss of nitrate from the system. Nitrification is mediated by ammonia oxidizing bacteria or archaea, and nitrite oxidizing bacteria. Understanding links between process rates, enzyme activities and the communities of microbes that cycle nitrogen may contribute to sustainable management. Our main objective was to determine the impacts of contrasting nitrogen management on soil microbial communities, enzyme activities, and functional genes for nitrification and nitrogen mineralization in a Utah agricultural system. Process rates and activities were measured in laboratory potential assays and 15N isotope pool dilution experiments. The abundance and diversity of genes involved in nitrification and nitrogen mineralization were examined using quantitative real-time PCR, pyrosequencing, clone libraries, and metagenomics. Key enzymes and their relevant marker genes included ammonia monooxygenase (amoA), nitrite oxidoreductase (nxrB), protease (npr and sub), chitinase (chiA), and urease (ureC). The overall soil microbial community composition was assessed targeting ribosomal genes. Ammonia oxidizing bacteria were more responsive than archaea to ammonium fertilizers while the archaea were competitive under low ammonium levels. The relative contribution of ammonia oxidizing archaea to nitrification increased with increasing temperature and their activity had a higher temperature optimum than bacteria. The abundance of ammonia oxidizers in the organic farming system increased with organic nitrogen fertilizers and their activity was higher in manure than in compost treated soil. Nitrogen fertilizers strongly stimulated the rates of potential nitrite oxidation. Nitrospira was the only known nitrite oxidizer genus recovered from any soil sample. The application of organic nitrogen fertilizers, but not inorganic, increased the diversity of the prokaryotic community and the activities of soil enzymes. In the organic farming system, abundances of functional genes for mineralization were increased by organic nitrogen fertilizer and these abundances were significantly correlated with corresponding enzyme activity. Understanding the link between microbial communities and the biogeochemical functions of nitrification and mineralization may allow ecosystem models to incorporate microorganisms as dynamic components driving nitrogen flux.
Categories:

Advances in Applied Microbiology

Advances in Applied Microbiology

The series contains comprehensive reviews of the most current research in applied microbiology, and includes recent research on the roles of fungal communities in soil nutrient recycling, the microbial nitrogen cycle in soil, and the inter ...

Author:

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780128052181

Category: Medical

Page: 240

View: 744

The Advances in Applied Microbiology series, first published in 1959, continues to be one of the most widely read and authoritative review sources in microbiology. The series contains comprehensive reviews of the most current research in applied microbiology, and includes recent research on the roles of fungal communities in soil nutrient recycling, the microbial nitrogen cycle in soil, and the inter-kingdom associations between soil bacteria, fungi, and mycorrhizal fungi. Contains contributions from leading authorities in the field of applied microbiology Informs and updates on all the latest developments in the field Includes new information on the role of fungal communities in soil nutrient recycling, the microbial nitrogen cycle in soil, and the inter-kingdom associations between soil bacteria, fungi, and mycorrhizal fungi
Categories: Medical

LINKING MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES

LINKING MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES

This dissertation, "Linking Microbial Communities, Environmental Factors and Performance of Biological Treatment Reactors Using Metagenomics" by Feng, Ju, 鞠峰, was obtained from The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong) and is ...

Author: Feng Ju

Publisher: Open Dissertation Press

ISBN: 136101329X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 360

View: 872

This dissertation, "Linking Microbial Communities, Environmental Factors and Performance of Biological Treatment Reactors Using Metagenomics" by Feng, Ju, 鞠峰, was obtained from The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong) and is being sold pursuant to Creative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License. The content of this dissertation has not been altered in any way. We have altered the formatting in order to facilitate the ease of printing and reading of the dissertation. All rights not granted by the above license are retained by the author. Abstract: The thesis was conducted to reveal the associations among microbial communities, environmental factors (i.e., operational and physicochemical conditions) and performance of biological treatment reactors of activated sludge (AS) and anaerobic digestion (AD) using metagenomics. Moreover, environmental and biological factors that govern microbiome assembly and population dynamics were examined with emphasis on core, functional and uncultured microorganisms. Additionally, occurrence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and human bacterial pathogens (HBPs) in digested sludge and their removal and dissemination during AD were evaluated. Full-scale AS reactors in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were extensively investigated both spatially (50 grab samples, 27 reactors, 17 cities) and temporally (58 monthly samples, 1 reactor, Hong Kong). Metagenomics and network analysis of spatio-temporal data show that AS bacterial communities are nonrandomly assembled by taxonomic relatedness, which is induced by multiple deterministic processes, including habitat filtering and competition. Moreover, bacterial communities in full-scale municipal AS reactor follow no apparent seasonal succession over five years and biological interactions dominate over environmental conditions (mainly sludge retention time (SRT) and inorganic nitrogen) in determining bacterial assembly and population dynamics. Additionally, a core set of cosmopolitan functional microorganisms (e.g., nitrogen-cycling-related bacteria) widely occur in globally distributed AS reactors. Besides AS systems in WWTPs, performance of downstream AD reactors that receive primary and/or secondary sludge is also related with biological and environmental factors. First, multivariate, correlation and network analyses of three-year data of two full-scale municipal AD reactors show that methane production and percentage are significantly correlated (P-values Last, comparative genomics of 23 prokaryotic genomes reconstructed from phenol-degrading methanogenic reactors reveals that temperature difference induced colonization of sulfate/sulfite/sulfur (20oC) or nitrate/nitrite-respiring (37℃) sub-communities as competitors of methanogens, which differentiates methanogenesis from phenol. The discovery of interspecific competition justifies attempts towards biological manipulation for maximizing methanogenesis in anaerobic reactors. Combined, this thesis presents a large-scale meta
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Metagenomic Analysis of Permafrost Microbial Community Response to Thaw

Metagenomic Analysis of Permafrost Microbial Community Response to Thaw

Methane previously accumulated in permafrost was released during thaw and subsequently consumed by methanotrophic bacteria. Together these data point towards the importance of rapid cycling of methane and nitrogen in thawing permafrost.

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:953409474

Category:

Page:

View: 452

We employed deep metagenomic sequencing to determine the impact of thaw on microbial phylogenetic and functional genes and related this data to measurements of methane emissions. Metagenomics, the direct sequencing of DNA from the environment, allows for the examination of whole biochemical pathways and associated processes, as opposed to individual pieces of the metabolic puzzle. Our metagenome analyses revealed that during transition from a frozen to a thawed state there were rapid shifts in many microbial, phylogenetic and functional gene abundances and pathways. After one week of incubation at 5°C, permafrost metagenomes converged to be more similar to each other than while they were frozen. We found that multiple genes involved in cycling of C and nitrogen shifted rapidly during thaw. We also constructed the first draft genome from a complex soil metagenome, which corresponded to a novel methanogen. Methane previously accumulated in permafrost was released during thaw and subsequently consumed by methanotrophic bacteria. Together these data point towards the importance of rapid cycling of methane and nitrogen in thawing permafrost.
Categories:

Microbial Biomass A Paradigm Shift In Terrestrial Biogeochemistry

Microbial Biomass  A Paradigm Shift In Terrestrial Biogeochemistry

ISME J. 7, 2214–2228. Bodelier, P. L. E. and Steenbergh, A. K. (2014a). Metagenomics of the microbial nitrogen cycle: theory, methods and applications.

Author: Tate Kevin Russel

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9781786341327

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 348

View: 586

Microbial Biomass informs readers of the ongoing global revolution in understanding soil and ecosystem microbial processes. The first paper on the subject was written by David Jenkinson in 1966, and here new insights and expansions are given on the fascinating world of soil microbial processes. In terms of contemporary issues, it also serves to support urgent efforts to sustainably manage land to feed a growing world population without compromising the environment. It presents new methods of investigation which are leading to more sustainable management of ecosystems, and improved understanding of ecosystem changes in an increasingly warmer world. The book approaches the topic by looking at the emergence of our understanding of soil biological processes, and begins by tracing the conception and first measurement of soil microbial biomass. Following this, changes in ecosystems, and in natural ecosystem processes are discussed in relation to land management issues and global change. Microbial biomass and its diversity are recognized as key factors in finding solutions for more sustainable land and ecosystem management, aided by new molecular and other tools. Information from the use of these tools is now being incorporated into emerging microbial-explicit predictive models, to help us study changes in earth system processes. Perfect for use in research and practice, this book is written for undergraduate and graduate students, researchers and professionals of agronomy, chemistry, geology, physical geography, ecology, biology, microbiology, silviculture and soil science.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Geomicrobiology Molecular and Environmental Perspective

Geomicrobiology  Molecular and Environmental Perspective

A major component of this book addresses molecular techniques to evaluate microbial evolution and assess relationships of microbes in complex, natural c- munities.

Author: Alexander Loy

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9048192048

Category: Science

Page: 437

View: 223

The interaction of microorganisms with geological activities results in processes influencing development of the Earth’s geo- and biospheres. In assessing these microbial functions, scientists have explored short- and longterm geological changes attributed to microorganisms and developed new approaches to evaluate the physiology of microbes including microbial interaction with the geological environment. As the field of geomicrobiology developed, it has become highly interdisciplinary and this book provides a review of the recent developments in a cross section of topics including origin of life, microbial-mineral interactions and microbial processes functioning in marine as well as terrestrial environments. A major component of this book addresses molecular techniques to evaluate microbial evolution and assess relationships of microbes in complex, natural c- munities. Recent developments in so-called ‘omics’ technologies, including (meta) genomics and (meta)proteomics, and isotope labeling methods allow new insights into the function of microbial community members and their possible geological impact. While this book summarizes current knowledge in various areas, it also reveals unresolved questions that require future investigations. Information in these chapters enhances our fundamental knowledge of geomicrobiology that contributes to the exploitation of microbial functions in mineral and environmental biotechn- ogy applications. It is our hope that this book will stimulate interest in the general field of geomicrobiology and encourage others to explore microbial processes as applied to the Earth.
Categories: Science

Mining of Microbial Wealth and MetaGenomics

Mining of Microbial Wealth and MetaGenomics

Table 9.2 (continued) Metabolic function Bacteria References Iron metabolism ... 9.6 Nitrogen Cycle Nitrogen metabolism can provide insights about the ...

Author: Vipin Chandra Kalia

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9789811057083

Category: Medical

Page: 461

View: 888

The existence of living organisms in diverse ecosystems has been the focus of interest to human beings, primarily to obtain insights into the diversity and dynamics of the communities. This book discusses how the advent of novel molecular biology techniques, the latest being the next-generation sequencing technologies, helps to elucidate the identity of novel organisms, including those that are rare. The book highlights the fact that oceans, marine environments, rivers, mountains and the gut are ecosystems with great potential for obtaining bioactive molecules, which can be used in areas such as agriculture, food, medicine, water supplies and bioremediation. It then describes the latest research in metagenomics, a field that allows elucidation of the maximum biodiversity within an ecosystem, without the need to actually grow and culture the organisms. Further, it describes how human-associated microbes are directly responsible for our health and overall wellbeing.“/p>
Categories: Medical

Microbial Probiotics for Agricultural Systems

Microbial Probiotics for Agricultural Systems

Quantification of functional microbial nitrogen cycle genes in environmental samples. In D. E. Marco (Ed.), Metagenomics of the microbial nitrogen cycle: ...

Author: Doris Zúñiga-Dávila

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783030175979

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 690

The book is a comprehensive compilation of the most recent advances in the practical approach of the use of microbial probiotics for agriculture. Unlike the rest of the publications about biofertilizers, this book bridges the gap between the lab studies (molecular, physiological, omics, etc.) and the agronomic application.
Categories: Science