Merchants of Doubt

How a Handful of Scientists Obscured the Truth on Issues from Tobacco Smoke to Global Warming

Author: Naomi Oreskes,Erik M. Conway

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 1408828774

Category: Science

Page: 368

View: 2320

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The U.S. scientific community has long led the world in research on such areas as public health, environmental science, and issues affecting quality of life. These scientists have produced landmark studies on the dangers of DDT, tobacco smoke, acid rain, and global warming. But at the same time, a small yet potent subset of this community leads the world in vehement denial of these dangers. Merchants of Doubt tells the story of how a loose-knit group of high-level scientists and scientific advisers, with deep connections in politics and industry, ran effective campaigns to mislead the public and deny well-established scientific knowledge over four decades. Remarkably, the same individuals surface repeatedly-some of the same figures who have claimed that the science of global warming is "not settled" denied the truth of studies linking smoking to lung cancer, coal smoke to acid rain, and CFCs to the ozone hole. "Doubt is our product," wrote one tobacco executive. These "experts" supplied it. Naomi Oreskes and Erik M. Conway, historians of science, roll back the rug on this dark corner of the American scientific community, showing how ideology and corporate interests, aided by a too-compliant media, have skewed public understanding of some of the most pressing issues of our era.
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Merchants of Doubt

How a Handful of Scientists Obscured the Truth on Issues from Tobacco Smoke to Global Warming

Author: Naomi Oreskes,Erik M. Conway

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1408824833

Category: Science

Page: 368

View: 5531

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'Merchants of Doubt should finally put to rest the question of whether the science of climate change is settled. It is, and we ignore this message at our peril.'-Elizabeth Kolbert
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Merchants of Doubt

How a Handful of Scientists Obscured the Truth on Issues from Tobacco Smoke to Global Warming

Author: Naomi Oreskes,Erik M. Conway

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing USA

ISBN: 1596916109

Category: Science

Page: 355

View: 6637

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Documents the troubling influence of a small group of scientists who the author contends misrepresent scientific facts to advance key political and economic agendas, revealing the interests behind their detractions on findings about acid rain, DDT and other hazards.
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Summary: Merchants of Doubt

Review and Analysis of Naomi Oreskes and Erik Conway's Book

Author: BusinessNews Publishing

Publisher: Primento

ISBN: 251100125X

Category: Political Science

Page: 44

View: 6968

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The must-read summary of Naomi Oreskes and Erik Conway’s book: “Merchants of Doubt: How a Handful of Scientists Obscured the Truth on Issues from Tobacco Smoke to Global Warming”. This complete summary of “Merchants of Doubt” by Naomi Oreskes and Erik Conway, two prominent science historians, presents their account of how a group of top scientists ran campaigns in order to confuse the public over the validity of scientific discoveries on issues such as global warming, the dangers of smoking and acid rain. In their book, the authors reveal the actions of this scientific community and how they have prevented the understanding of some of the most important global issues. Added-value of this summary: • Save time • Understand how politics can cause a conflict of interest with scientific facts and research • Expand your knowledge of politics and science To learn more, read “Merchants of Doubt” and discover the truth that scientists have been trying to hide.
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Environment and Politics

Author: Timothy Doyle,Doug McEachern,Sherilyn MacGregor

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135963258

Category: Political Science

Page: 306

View: 2476

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Environment and Politics 4th Edition is a concise introduction to this ever-expanding interdisciplinary field, explaining and illustrating how concepts, conflicts, movements, political systems and the practices of policy-making can be analysed in a systematic way. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the key themes that shape the field, and examines a diverse range of environmental problems and policy solutions found in different countries and cultures. The new edition has been extensively revised to include up-to-date explanation of green political theories and traditions and the debates that shape action on the ground. It contains an expanded discussion of environmental movements that work in the Global North, the Global South and transnationally. Greater attention has been given to the roles of corporations, non-governmental organizations, the media, consumers and citizens in order to reflect the changing nature of environmental governance. The text also focuses throughout on debates surrounding the concepts of environmental security, environmental justice and environmental citizenship. The authors examine the institutional responses of parliaments, administrative, legal and electoral systems; the more informal politics of social movements; and the politics of markets and the corporate sector as they respond to (or resist) the greening of societies. This engaging text has been fully updated to offer readers a greater understanding of international, national and local environmental politics as well as expected future developments at all levels. Environment and Politics continues to use illustrative examples of conflicts, people and events spanning North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa and Australia, giving it global perspective and relevance. Each chapter includes questions for debate as well as a list of key words and resources for independent research. This successful textbook remains a key resource for undergraduate and postgraduate studies across politics, environmental studies, development studies and human geography courses.
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An Essay on the Early History of the Law Merchant

Being the Yorke Prize Essay for the Year 1903

Author: William Mitchell

Publisher: The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd.

ISBN: 1584776331

Category: Law

Page: 176

View: 2949

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With an appendix of source materials. The winner of the prestigious Yorke Prize, this essay is still cited in the literature of commercial and international law. "Mr. Mitchell has satisfactorily risen to the occasion, and has given us an interesting study of the early history of that system of universal practical law which the traders of the Middle Ages recognised as binding upon them in their international dealings. Customary in its origin and principles, summary in its jurisdiction and equitable in its spirit, the Law Merchant has been a potent factor in the development of the modern commercial law of all the countries of Europe, and Mr. Mitchell's account of its beginnings is full of suggestion.": Juridical Review 16 (1904) 446.
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Endangered Economies

How the Neglect of Nature Threatens Our Prosperity

Author: Geoffrey Heal

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 023154328X

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 240

View: 3768

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In the decades since Geoffrey Heal began his field-defining work in environmental economics, one central question has animated his research: "Can we save our environment and grow our economy?" This issue has become only more urgent in recent years with the threat of climate change, the accelerating loss of ecosystems, and the rapid industrialization of the developing world. Reflecting on a lifetime of experience not only as a leading voice in the field, but as a green entrepreneur, activist, and advisor to governments and global organizations, Heal clearly and passionately demonstrates that the only way to achieve long-term economic growth is to protect our environment. Writing both to those conversant in economics and to those encountering these ideas for the first time, Heal begins with familiar concepts, like the tragedy of the commons and unregulated pollution, to demonstrate the underlying tensions that have compromised our planet, damaging and in many cases devastating our natural world. Such destruction has dire consequences not only for us and the environment but also for businesses, which often vastly underestimate their reliance on unpriced natural benefits like pollination, the water cycle, marine and forest ecosystems, and more. After painting a stark and unsettling picture of our current quandary, Heal outlines simple solutions that have already proven effective in conserving nature and boosting economic growth. In order to ensure a prosperous future for humanity, we must understand how environment and economy interact and how they can work in harmony—lest we permanently harm both.
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The Rough Guide to Climate Change

Author: Robert Henson

Publisher: Rough Guides UK

ISBN: 140538865X

Category: Science

Page: 416

View: 8236

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The Rough Guide to Climate Change gives the complete picture of the single biggest issue facing the planet. Cutting a swathe through scientific research and political debate, this completely updated 3rd edition lays out the facts and assesses the options-global and personal-for dealing with the threat of a warming world. The guide looks at the evolution of our atmosphere over the last 4.5 billion years and what computer simulations of climate change reveal about our past, present and future. This updated edition includes scientific findings that have emerged since the 2007 report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), as well as background on recent controversies and an updated politics section that reflects post-Copenhagen developments. Discover how rising temperatures and sea levels, plus changes to extreme weather patterns, are already affecting life around the world. The Rough Guide to Climate Change unravels how governments, scientists and engineers plan to tackle the problem and includes information on what you can do to help.
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Pollution and the Atmosphere

Designs for Reduced Emissions

Author: Marco Ragazzi

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1315341441

Category: Nature

Page: 320

View: 6516

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This title includes a number of Open Access chapters. This new compendium volume examines the significant impact of air quality on human health. Assessing air pollution in complex morphologies has become an important issue in order to implement mitigation measures and limit emissions from the most relevant sources, such as waste incineration, traffic emissions, emissions from fuel and electricity production, and household emissions. These pollutants result in adverse health effects, material damage, damage to ecosystems, and global climate change. The book looks at these issues and is divided into several sections, covering air pollution and where we came from and where we’re headed waste incineration and its impact on air quality air pollution vehicle and transportation emissions emissions from fuel and electricity production The chapters in Pollution and the Atmosphere: Designs for Reduced Emissions contain recent research looking at the two major components of air pollution: air pollution control and air-quality engineering. Air pollution control focuses on the fundamentals of air pollutant formation in process technologies and the identification of options for mitigating or preventing air pollutant emissions. Air quality engineering deals with large-scale, multi-source control strategies, with focus on the physics and chemistry of pollutant interactions in the atmosphere.
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