Mathematics and Plausible Reasoning: Patterns of plausible inference

Author: George Pólya

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691025100

Category: Mathematics

Page: 240

View: 5354

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A guide to the practical art of plausible reasoning, this book has relevance in every field of intellectual activity. Professor Polya, a world-famous mathematician from Stanford University, uses mathematics to show how hunches and guesses play an important part in even the most rigorously deductive science. He explains how solutions to problems can be guessed at; good guessing is often more important than rigorous deduction in finding correct solutions. Vol. II, on Patterns of Plausible Inference, attempts to develop a logic of plausibility. What makes some evidence stronger and some weaker? How does one seek evidence that will make a suspected truth more probable? These questions involve philosophy and psychology as well as mathematics.
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International Handbook of Research in History, Philosophy and Science Teaching

Author: Michael R. Matthews

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9400776543

Category: Education

Page: 2532

View: 6040

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This inaugural handbook documents the distinctive research field that utilizes history and philosophy in investigation of theoretical, curricular and pedagogical issues in the teaching of science and mathematics. It is contributed to by 130 researchers from 30 countries; it provides a logically structured, fully referenced guide to the ways in which science and mathematics education is, informed by the history and philosophy of these disciplines, as well as by the philosophy of education more generally. The first handbook to cover the field, it lays down a much-needed marker of progress to date and provides a platform for informed and coherent future analysis and research of the subject. The publication comes at a time of heightened worldwide concern over the standard of science and mathematics education, attended by fierce debate over how best to reform curricula and enliven student engagement in the subjects. There is a growing recognition among educators and policy makers that the learning of science must dovetail with learning about science; this handbook is uniquely positioned as a locus for the discussion. The handbook features sections on pedagogical, theoretical, national, and biographical research, setting the literature of each tradition in its historical context. It reminds readers at a crucial juncture that there has been a long and rich tradition of historical and philosophical engagements with science and mathematics teaching, and that lessons can be learnt from these engagements for the resolution of current theoretical, curricular and pedagogical questions that face teachers and administrators. Science educators will be grateful for this unique, encyclopaedic handbook, Gerald Holton, Physics Department, Harvard University This handbook gathers the fruits of over thirty years’ research by a growing international and cosmopolitan community Fabio Bevilacqua, Physics Department, University of Pavia
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Models of Simon

Author: Kumaraswamy Vela Velupillai

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134385455

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 200

View: 7498

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Herbert Simon (1916-2001) is mostly celebrated for the theory of bounded rationality and satisficing. This book of essays on Models of Simon tackles these topics that the he broached in a professional career spanning more than 60 years. Expository material on the fundamental concepts he introduced are re-interpreted in terms of the theory of computability. This volume frames the behavioural issues of concern for economists, such as: hierarchy, causality, near-diagonal linear dynamical systems, discovery, the contrasts between the notion of heuristics, and the Church-Turing Thesis of Computability Theory. There is, consistently, an emphasis on the historical origins of the concepts Simon worked with, in emphasising Human Problem Solving and Decision Making – by rational individuals and institutions (like Organizations). The main feature of the results in the book are its emphasis on the procedural aspects of human problem solving, decision making and the remarkable way Simon harnessed many tools of mathematical logic, mathematics, cognitive sciences, economics and econometrics. This long-awaited volume is an important read for those who study economic theory and philosophy, microeconomics and political economy, as well as those interested in the great Herbert Simon’s work.
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Mathematical Modeling and Optimization

An Essay for the Design of Computer-Based Modeling Tools

Author: Tony Hürlimann

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 147575793X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 313

View: 5319

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Computer-based mathematical modeling - the technique of representing and managing models in machine-readable form - is still in its infancy despite the many powerful mathematical software packages already available which can solve astonishingly complex and large models. On the one hand, using mathematical and logical notation, we can formulate models which cannot be solved by any computer in reasonable time - or which cannot even be solved by any method. On the other hand, we can solve certain classes of much larger models than we can practically handle and manipulate without heavy programming. This is especially true in operations research where it is common to solve models with many thousands of variables. Even today, there are no general modeling tools that accompany the whole modeling process from start to finish, that is to say, from model creation to report writing. This book proposes a framework for computer-based modeling. More precisely, it puts forward a modeling language as a kernel representation for mathematical models. It presents a general specification for modeling tools. The book does not expose any solution methods or algorithms which may be useful in solving models, neither is it a treatise on how to build them. No help is intended here for the modeler by giving practical modeling exercises, although several models will be presented in order to illustrate the framework. Nevertheless, a short introduction to the modeling process is given in order to expound the necessary background for the proposed modeling framework.
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Readings in Knowledge Acquisition and Learning

Automating the Construction and Improvement of Expert Systems

Author: Bruce G. Buchanan,David C. Wilkins

Publisher: Morgan Kaufmann Pub

ISBN: N.A

Category: Reference

Page: 906

View: 2115

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"Readings in Knowledge Acquisition and Learning" collects the best of the artificial intelligence literature from the fields of machine learning and knowledge acquisition. This book brings together for the first time the perspectives on constructing knowledge-based systems from these two historically separate subfields of artificial intelligence. A key criterion for article inclusion is an empirical demonstration that the method described in the paper successfully automates some important aspect of creating and maintaining a knowledge-based system. In addition to the papers, the editors provide an introduction to the field and to each group of papers, discussing their significance and pointing to related work. This book can serve as a text for courses and seminars in artificial intelligence, expert systems, knowledge acquisition, knowledge engineering, and machine learning. It will also provide practical ideas for professionals engaged in the building and maintenance of knowledge-based systems.
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