The first three volumes of a new mainland edition of this work have been published under the title Li Hungchang ch uanchi (Shanghai, 1985, 1986, 1987).
Author: Samuel C. Chu
Category: Social Science
This is a study of Li Hung-chang which represents a collaboration of Li experts among Chinese and Western scholars. The biography examines the beginnings of China's modernisation; the Confucian as a patriot and pragmatist; his formative years, 1823-1866; and other aspects of his life.
... Liu (eds), Li Hungchang and China's Early Modernization (New York, 1994). ... Li Hung-chang and the Huai Army: A Study in Nineteenth-Century Chinese ...
Author: Paul Bailey
Category: Social Science
Ma Jianzhong was a close adviser to the powerful Qing government official, Li Hong-zhang, and wrote several essays between 1878 and 1890 outlining his plans for economic and administrative reform. He was the first Chinese to advocate the creation of a specialized and professional diplomatic corps. His contribution to the late nineteenth-century Chinese discourse on the state and the economy has hitherto been neglected. Paul Bailey's translation of his essays will contribute to a wider understanding of the origins and circulation of reform ideas in the late Qing.
Li Hung-chang and China's Early Modernization (Armonk NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1994), 119. 2 Kwang-ching Liu, “Li Hung-chang in Chihli: The Emergence of a Policy, ...
Author: Peter Harmsen
Publisher: Lindhardt og Ringhof
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Laurits Andersen was a Danish tobacco entrepreneur and prominent businessman in China from the 1880s until his death in 1928. He was the manager of the American trading firm Mustard & Co. in Shanghai, introducing machine-produced cigarettes to the Chinese market in the late 1800s, at a time when cigarettes were gaining enormous popularity elsewhere in the world. He attained late fame in his native Denmark when shortly before his death he donated a large sum of money to the National Museum, which he had visited frequently as a boy. Laurits Andersen was born in a small village near Elsinore, Denmark, in 1849, and grew up in Copenhagen where he worked as an apprentice at a machine works. From 1870, he lived in East Asia, experiencing wars and revolutions and forming close bonds with the political elite in Imperial China. Laurits Andersen is a role model for later generations, displaying the courage to seek ones fortunes overseas, and showing that with drive, diligence, and willpower, and a preparedness to venture down untrodden paths, one can achieve ambitious goals.
Smith, Robert Hart and China's Early Modernization, p. 283. ... in Chu, Samuel C. and Kwang-ching Liu (eds), Li Hung-chang and China's Early Modernization, ...
Author: Bill Hayton
Publisher: Yale University Press
"[A] smart take on modern Chinese nationalism" (Foreign Policy), this provocative account shows that "China"--and its 5,000 years of unified history--is a national myth, created only a century ago with a political agenda that persists to this day China's current leadership lays claim to a 5,000-year-old civilization, but "China" as a unified country and people, Bill Hayton argues, was created far more recently by a small group of intellectuals. In this compelling account, Hayton shows how China's present-day geopolitical problems--the fates of Hong Kong, Taiwan, Tibet, Xinjiang, and the South China Sea--were born in the struggle to create a modern nation-state. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, reformers and revolutionaries adopted foreign ideas to "invent' a new vision of China. By asserting a particular, politicized version of the past the government bolstered its claim to a vast territory stretching from the Pacific to Central Asia. Ranging across history, nationhood, language, and territory, Hayton shows how the Republic's reworking of its past not only helped it to justify its right to rule a century ago--but continues to motivate and direct policy today.
... and Kwang-Ching Liu, “The Beginnings of Modernization,” in Li Hung-chang and China's Early Modernization, ed. Samuel C. Chu and Kwang-Ching Liu (Armonk: ...
Author: Jeff Hornibrook
Publisher: SUNY Press
Explores the social disruption resulting from industrialization in a Chinese coalmining community at the turn of the twentieth century. Jeff Hornibrook provides a unique, microcosmic look at the process of industrialization in one Chinese community at the turn of the twentieth century. Industrialization came late to China, but was ultimately embraced and hastened to aid the state’s strategic and military interests. In Pingxiang County in the highlands of Jiangxi Province, coalmining was seasonal work; peasants rented mines from lineage leaders to work after the harvest. These traditions changed in 1896 when the court decided that the county’s mines were essential for industrialization. Foreign engineers and Chinese officials arrived to establish the new social and economic order required for mechanized mining, one that would change things for people from all levels of society. The outsiders constructed a Westernized factory town that sat uneasily within the existing community. Mistreatment of the local population, including the forced purchase of gentry-held properties and the integration of peasants into factory-style labor schemes, sparked a series of rebellions that wounded the empire and tore at the fabric of the community. Using stories found in memoirs of elite Chinese and foreign engineers, correspondence between gentry and powerful officials, travelogues of American missionaries and engineers, as well as other sources, Hornibrook offers a fascinating history of the social and political effects of industrialization in Pingxiang County.
“Li Hung-chang and the Liu-ch'iu (Ryukyu) Controversy, 1871–1881.” In Samuel C. Chu and Kwang-Ching Liu, eds., Li Hung-chang and China's Early Modernization ...
Author: David M. Pletcher
Publisher: University of Missouri Press
Category: Business & Economics
Annotation Like its predecessor, this important new work is focused on the connection between trade and investment on the one hand and U.S. foreign policy on the other. David Pletcher describes the trade of the United States with the Far East, the islands of the Pacific, and the northwest coast of North America from 1784 (the year of the first American trading expedition to China) to 1844 (the year of the first trade treaty with China, followed immediately by the U.S. acquisition of Oregon and California). He then traces the growth of trade and investment in Alaska, Hawaii, and the South Pacific from 1844 to 1890 and proceeds to do the same for China, Japan, and Korea. In the ensuing chapters, Pletcher covers the 1890s, including the annexation of Hawaii, the Sino-Japanese War, the acquisition of the Philippines, and the Open Door policy in China. He concludes that the American expansion across the Pacific and into the Far East was not a deliberate, consistent drive for economic hegemony but a halting, experimental, improvised movement, carried out against determined opposition and indifference and dotted with setbacks and failures. Providing his own judgments about the wisdom and effectiveness of America's new endeavors, Pletcher summarizes the problems and handicaps involved, demonstrating that errors of the twentieth century were at least partly the result of poor preparation in the 1880s and 1890s. Touching on every place where Americans undertook significant economic activity, The Diplomacy of Involvementwill be an important aid for seasoned scholars, as well as an excellent introduction for the novice
“Li Hung-chang in Chihli: The Emergence of a Policy, 1870–1875.” In Samuel C. Chu and Kwang-Ching Liu, eds. Li Hung-chang and China's Early Modernization ...
Author: June Teufel Dreyer
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Japan and China have been rivals for more than a millennium. In more recent times, China was the more powerful until the late nineteenth century, while Japan took the upper hand in the twentieth. Now, China's resurgence has emboldened it even as Japan perceives itself falling behind, exacerbating long-standing historical frictions. June Teufel Dreyer's Middle Kingdom and Empire of the Rising Sun provides a highly accessible overview of one of the world's great civilizational rivalries. Dreyer, a senior scholar of East Asia, begins in the seventh century in order to provide a historical background for the main story: by the mid-nineteenth century, the shrinking distances afforded by advances in technology and the intrusion of Western powers brought the two into closer proximity in ways that alternately united and divided them. In the aftermath of multiple wars between them, including a long and brutal conflict in World War II, Japan developed into an economic power but rejected any concomitant military capabilities. China's journey toward modernization was hindered by ideological and leadership struggles that lasted until the death of revolutionary leader Mao Zedong in 1976. Bringing the narrative up to the present day, Dreyer focuses on the issues that dominate China and Japan's fraught current relationship: economic rivalry, memories of World War II, resurgent nationalism, military tensions, Taiwan, the Diaoyu/Senkaku Islands, and globalization. Dreyer argues that recent disputes should be seen as manifestations of embedded rivalries rather than as issues whose resolution would provide a lasting solution to deep-standing disputes. For anyone interested in the political dynamics of East Asia, this integrative history of the relationship between the region's two giants is essential reading.
Most of the papers in this volume were first presented in two panels devoted to Li at the 1987 annual meeting of the Pacific Coast Branch of the American Historical Association.
Author: Samuel C. Chu
Publisher: M.E. Sharpe
Li Hung-chang (1823-1901) was a Chinese statesman particularly notable for his promotion of industrialization and advocacy of bureaucratic reform. Most of the papers in this volume were first presented in two panels devoted to Li at the 1987 annual meeting of the Pacific Coast Branch of the American Historical Association. The volume is divided into six parts: introduction ("The Beginnings of China's Modernization"), the rise of Li Hung-chang, Li in the role of a national official, Li as diplomat, Li as modernizer, and conclusion (including a bibliographical essay). Paper edition (unseen), $22.50. Annotation copyright by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR
“Li Hung-chang and the Liu-ch'iu (RyÄkyÄ) Controversy, 1871–1881.” In Li Hung-chang and China's Early Modernization, ed. Samuel Chu and Kwang-Ching Liu.
Author: William T. Rowe
Publisher: Harvard University Press
In a brisk revisionist history, William Rowe challenges the standard narrative of Qing China as a decadent, inward-looking state that failed to keep pace with the modern West. This original, thought-provoking history of China's last empire is a must-read for understanding the challenges facing China today.
China's Long March to the Twenty-first Century Orville Schell, ... Li's efforts are described in Chu and Liu, Li Hung-chang and China's Early Modernization, ...
Author: Orville Schell
Publisher: Hachette UK
By now everyone knows the basic facts of China's rise to pre-eminence over the past three decades. But how did this erstwhile sleeping giant finally manage to arrive at its current phase of dynamic growth? How did a century-long succession of failures to change somehow culminate in the extraordinary dynamism of China today? By examining the lives of eleven influential officials, writers, activists and leaders whose contributions helped create modern China, Wealth and Power addresses these questions. This fascinating survey moves from the lead-up to the first Opium War through to contemporary opposition to single-party rule. Along the way, we meet titans of Chinese history, intellectuals and political figures. By unwrapping the intellectual antecedents of today's resurgent China, Orville Schell and John Delury supply much-needed insight into the country's tortured progression from nineteenth-century decline to twenty-first-century boom. By looking backward into the past to understand forces at work for hundreds of years, they help us understand China today and the future that this singular country is helping shape for all of us.
“Li Hung-chang: An Assessment.” In Chu and Liu, eds., Li Hungchang and China's Early Modernization, 67-89. Chu, Samuel, and K.C. Liu, eds. Li Hung-chang and ...
Author: John King Fairbank
Publisher: University Press of Kentucky
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Hosea Ballou Morse (1855-1934) sailed to China in 1874, and for the next thirty-five years he labored loyally in the Imperial Chinese Maritime Customs Service, becoming one of its most able commissioners and acquiring a deep knowledge of China's economy and foreign relations. After his retirement in 1909, Morse devoted himself to scholarship. He pioneered in the Western study of China's foreign relations, weaving from the tangled threads of the Ch'ing dynasty's foreign affairs several seminal interpretive histories, most notably his three-volume magnum opus, The International Relations of the Chinese Empire (1910-18). At the time of his death, Morse was considered the major historian of modern China in the English-speaking world, and his works played a profound role in shaping the contours of Western scholarship on China. Begun as a labor of love by his protégé, John King Fairbank, this lively biography based primarily on Morse's vast collection of personal papers sheds light on many crucial events in modern Chinese history, as well as on the multifaceted Western role in late imperial China, and provides new insights into the beginnings of modern China studies in this country. Half-finished when Fairbank died, the project was completed by his colleagues, Martha Henderson Coolidge and Richard J. Smith.
“ Li Hung - chang : An Assessment . " In Li Hung - chang and China's Early Modernization , ed . Chu and Kwang - ching Liu , 265-88 . and Kwang - ching Liu .
Author: S. C. M. Paine
Publisher: M.E. Sharpe
Category: Political Science
Based on archival research, this is a history of the Russo-Chinese border which examines Russia's expansion into the Asian heartland during the decades of Chinese decline and the 20th-century paradox of Russia's inability to sustain political and economic sway over its domains.
Compare Κ. H. Kim, Japanese Perspectives on China's Early Modernization: ... and Kwang-Ching Liu (eds), Li Hung-chang and China's Early Modernization ...
Author: Kenneth Swope
Warfare has shaped the modern history of China more than any other single factor. This book brings together the best recent English language scholarship on warfare in China over the last four centuries and situates warfare within the broader sweep of China's modern historical development.
“Li Hung-Chang's Suzerain Policy Toward Korea, 1882–1894.” In Li Hung-Chang and China's Early Modernization, ed. Samuel C. Chu and Kwang-Ching Liu ...
Author: Kirk W. Larsen
"Relations between the Chosŏn and Qing states are often cited as the prime example of the operation of the “traditional” Chinese ”tribute system.” In contrast, this work contends that the motivations, tactics, and successes (and failures) of the late Qing Empire in Chosŏn Korea mirrored those of other nineteenth-century imperialists. Between 1850 and 1910, the Qing attempted to defend its informal empire in Korea by intervening directly, not only to preserve its geopolitical position but also to promote its commercial interests. And it utilized the technology of empire—treaties, international law, the telegraph, steamships, and gunboats. Although the transformation of Qing–Chosŏn diplomacy was based on modern imperialism, this work argues that it is more accurate to describe the dramatic shift in relations in terms of flexible adaptation by one of the world’s major empires in response to new challenges. Moreover, the new modes of Qing imperialism were a hybrid of East Asian and Western mechanisms and institutions. Through these means, the Qing Empire played a fundamental role in Korea’s integration into regional and global political and economic systems."
Author: Isidore Cyril CannonPublish On: 2009-03-01
The Life and Times of Charles Henry Brewitt-Taylor (1857-1938), China Customs ... Chu and Liu, Li Hung-chang and China's Early Modernization, p. 7.
Author: Isidore Cyril Cannon
Publisher: Hong Kong University Press
Category: Biography & Autobiography
The story of an Englishman who lived through the last years of the Qing dynasty, was trapped in the British Legation during the Boxer uprising and went on to occupy a number of senior positions in the Imperial Customs as Commissioner of Customs in various ports, Shanghai Postmaster and first Director of the important Customs College.
... "Li Hung-chang and the Kiangnan Arsenal, 1860-1895," in Samuel C. Chu and Kwang-Ching Liu, Li Hung-chang and China's Early Modernization (Armonk, ...
Author: Bruce A. Elleman
Why did the Chinese empire collapse and why did it take so long for a new government to reunite China? Modern Chinese Warfare, 1795-1989 seeks to answer these questions by exploring the most important domestic and international conflicts over the past two hundred years, from the last half of the Qing empire through to modern day China. It reveals how most of China's wars during this period were fought to preserve unity in China, and examines their distinctly cyclical pattern of imperial decline, domestic chaos and finally the creation of a new unifying dynasty. By 1989 this cycle appeared complete, but the author asks how long this government will be able to hold power. Exposing China as an imperialist country, and one which has often manipulated western powers in its favour, Bruce Elleman seeks to redress the views of China as a victimised nation.