Ontology after Carnap

Ontology after Carnap

Consider, as Carnap does, two empirically equivalent frameworks with radically different ontological commitments: one committed to the existence of physical objects of everyday experience (the “thing language”), the other committed only ...

Author: Stephan Blatti

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780191638046

Category: Philosophy

Page: 256

View: 876

Analytic philosophy is once again in a methodological frame of mind. Nowhere is this more evident than in metaphysics, whose practitioners and historians are actively reflecting on the nature of ontological questions, the status of their answers, and the relevance of contributions both from other areas within philosophy (e.g., philosophical logic, semantics) and beyond (notably, the natural sciences). Such reflections are hardly new: the debate between Willard van Orman Quine and Rudolf Carnap about how to understand and resolve ontological questions is widely seen as a turning point in twentieth-century analytic philosophy. And indeed, this volume is occasioned by the fact that the deflationary approach to metaphysics advocated by Carnap in that debate is once again attracting considerable interest and support. Containing eleven original essays by many of today's leading voices in metametaphysics, Ontology After Carnap aims both to deepen our understanding of Carnap's contributions to metaontology and to explore how this legacy might be mined for insights into the contemporary debate. This collection will be of interest to scholars and students working in metaphysics, semantics, philosophical logic, metaphilosophy, and the history of analytic philosophy.
Categories: Philosophy

The Language of Ontology

The Language of Ontology

... of ontological questions is that a proposal is made as to how to bring the serious ontologist and the Carnapian theorist closer to each other , as engaged in the same task of introducing and developing linguistic frameworks .

Author: J. T. M. Miller

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780192648532

Category: Philosophy

Page: 240

View: 424

Metaphysical and ontological debates, concerning what exists and the nature of reality, are perennial features of the philosophical landscape. However, some have argued that ontological debates are non-substantive, pointless, trivial, incoherent, or impossible. Debates about whether tables exist, for example, or about the nature of reality, are taken to be in some way deficient. This has led to a burgeoning literature studying the nature of metaphysical and ontological disputes themselves. One major debate within this context concerns the language of ontology. The central question is whether the nature of language influences or limits our ability to engage productively in ontological disputes. While we typically think that our language describes the world, or at least can accurately describe the world, there have been many who have argued that the nature of language inherently influences and limits our attempts to understand the nature of reality-that our claims about what exists are, in fact, merely a reflection of how we happen to speak or think. The Language of Ontology collects chapters from established participants in the debate alongside new voices, to explore the range of issues relating to our ability or inability to get beyond the limits of our language.
Categories: Philosophy

Contributions to Social Ontology

Contributions to Social Ontology

could be translated as 'Should we adopt a linguistic framework which employs “– is a property” as one of its fundamental general terms?'. Questions of ontology ultimately turned on which linguistic frameworks a given community settled ...

Author: Clive Lawson

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781136016066

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 320

View: 557

Recent years have seen a dramatic re-emergence of interest in ontology. From philosophy and social sciences to artificial intelligence and computer science, ontology is gaining interdisciplinary influence as a popular tool for applied research. Contributions to Social Ontology focuses specifically on these developments within the social sciences. The contributions reveal that this revived interest in social ontology involves far more than an unquestioning acceptance or application of the concepts and methods of academic philosophers. Instead as ontology permeates so many new areas, social ontology itself is evolving in new and fascinating ways. This book engages with these new developments, pushing it forward with cutting-edge new material from leading authors in this area, from Roy Bhaskar to Margaret Archer. It also explicitly analyzes the relationship between the new ontological projects and the more traditional approaches. This book will be of great interest to students and researchers alike across the social sciences and particularly in philosophy, economics and sociology.
Categories: Business & Economics

Social Ontology and Modern Economics

Social Ontology and Modern Economics

could be translated as 'Should we adopt a linguistic framework which employs “ – is a property” as one of its fundamental general terms?'. Questions of ontology ultimately turned on which linguistic frameworks a given community settled ...

Author: Stephen Pratten

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781317703907

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 588

View: 730

Economists increasingly recognise that engagement with social ontology – the study of the basic subject matter and constitution of social reality - can facilitate more relevant analysis. This growing recognition amongst economists of the importance of social ontology is due very considerably to the work of members of the Cambridge Social Ontology Group. This volume brings together important papers by members of this group, some previously unpublished, in a collection that reveals the breadth and vitality of this Cambridge project. It provides a brilliant introduction to the central themes explored, perspectives sustained, insights achieved and how the project is moving forward. An initial set of papers examine how ontology is understood and justified within this Cambridge project and consider how it compares with prominent historical and contemporary alternatives. The majority of the included papers involve social ontological analysis being put to work directly in underlabouring for specific types of development in economics. The papers are grouped according to their contribution to clarifying and developing (i) various competing traditions and projects of modern economics, (ii) history of thought contributions, (iii) methodological concerns, (iv) ethics and (v) conceptions of particular aspects of social reality, including money, gender, technology and institutions. Background to and a brief history of the Cambridge group is provided in the Introduction. Social Ontology and Modern Economics will be of interest not only to economists but also philosophers of social science, social theorists and those eager to explore the nature of gender, social institutions and technology.
Categories: Business & Economics

The Ontology of Cyberspace

The Ontology of Cyberspace

... goes too far by speaking of ontological commitments implicit in linguistic frameworks . Ayer believes that Rudolf Carnap does not go far enough in that Carnap holds that all that can be done is an analysis of linguistic frameworks .

Author: David R. Koepsell

Publisher: Open Court Publishing

ISBN: 0812695372

Category: Philosophy

Page: 160

View: 322

This work is an examination of how intellectual property laws should be applied to cyberspace, software and other computer-mediated creations.
Categories: Philosophy

Quine Structure and Ontology

Quine  Structure  and Ontology

Here we see Carnap using a relativized analytic / synthetic distinction to delineate various candidate linguistic frameworks . This framework notion is then used to reconceive the import of ontological questions and claims .

Author: Frederique Janssen-Lauret

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780198864288

Category: Philosophy

Page: 320

View: 716

W.V. Quine, a champion of philosophical naturalism and pioneer of mathematical logic, was one of the most important philosophers of the 20th century. This volume provides a full picture of the development of Quine's views on structure and how it permeates and shapes his attitude to a range of philosophical questions.
Categories: Philosophy

Quine New Foundations and the Philosophy of Set Theory

Quine  New Foundations  and the Philosophy of Set Theory

Ontology.”74 It is here that Carnap elaborates his principle and its consequences in terms of the distinction between ... 76 It is to demonstrate this point that he introduces his talk of linguistic frameworks and the distinction ...

Author: Sean Morris

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781108604536

Category: Philosophy

Page:

View: 829

Quine's set theory, New Foundations, has often been treated as an anomaly in the history and philosophy of set theory. In this book, Sean Morris shows that it is in fact well-motivated, emerging in a natural way from the early development of set theory. Morris introduces and explores the notion of set theory as explication: the view that there is no single correct axiomatization of set theory, but rather that the various axiomatizations all serve to explicate the notion of set and are judged largely according to pragmatic criteria. Morris also brings out the important interplay between New Foundations, Quine's philosophy of set theory, and his philosophy more generally. We see that his early technical work in logic foreshadows his later famed naturalism, with his philosophy of set theory playing a crucial role in his primary philosophical project of clarifying our conceptual scheme and specifically its logical and mathematical components.
Categories: Philosophy

Metadata and Semantics Research

Metadata and Semantics Research

9th Research Conference, MTSR 2015, Manchester, UK, September 9-11, 2015, Proceedings Emmanouel Garoufallou, Richard J. Hartley, Panorea Gaitanou. An Orchestration Framework for Linguistic Task Ontologies Catherine Chavula and C. Maria ...

Author: Emmanouel Garoufallou

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319241296

Category: Computers

Page: 462

View: 389

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 9th Metadata and Semantics Research Conference, MTSR 2015, held in Manchester, UK, in September 2015.The 35 full papers and 3 short papers presented together with 2 poster papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 76 submissions. The papers are organized in several sessions and tracks: general track on ontology evolution, engineering, and frameworks, semantic Web and metadata extraction, modelling, interoperability and exploratory search, data analysis, reuse and visualization; track on digital libraries, information retrieval, linked and social data; track on metadata and semantics for open repositories, research information systems and data infrastructure; track on metadata and semantics for agriculture, food and environment; track on metadata and semantics for cultural collections and applications; track on European and national projects.
Categories: Computers

Conventionalism in logic

Conventionalism in logic

The latter concern questions of existence within a linguistic framework and are meaningful, whereas the former concern the validity of the entire linguistic framework; these are meaningless ontological questions.

Author: Carlo Borromeo Giannoni

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 9783111349497

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 157

View: 164

Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Essays on Explanation and Understanding

Essays on Explanation and Understanding

Here he brings his old topic of an ontological commitment inherent in all forms of language under a strict principle of relativity. He takes up Carnap's notion of a linguistic framework for ontological questions.

Author: Juha Manninen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401018234

Category: Philosophy

Page: 460

View: 626

Categories: Philosophy

Ontology Made Easy

Ontology Made Easy

One: for Quine, we have no separate pragmatic choice of a linguistic framework; rather, our language comes along part and parcel with theory choice, which is empirically loaded (though it is also not merely empirical, ...

Author: Amie L. Thomasson

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780199385119

Category: Philosophy

Page: 345

View: 553

In the decades following Quine, debates about existence have taken center stage in the metaphysics. But neo-Quinean ontology has reached a crisis point, given the endless proliferation of positions and lack of any clear idea of how to resolve debates. The most prominent challenge to mainstream ontological debates has come from the idea that disputants can be seen as using the quantifier with different meanings, leaving the dispute merely verbal. Nearly all of the work in defense of hard ontology has gone into arguing against quantifier variance. This volume argues that hard ontology faces an entirely different challenge, which remains even if the threat of quantifier variance can be avoided. The challenge comes from the 'easy approach to ontology': a view that is arguably the heir to Carnap's own position. The idea of the easy approach is that many ontological questions can be answered by undertaking trivial inferences from uncontroversial premises, making prolonged disputes about the questions out of place. This book aims to develop the easy approach to ontology, showing how it leads to both a first-order simple realism about the disputed entities and a form of meta-ontological deflationism that takes ontological disputes themselves to be misguided, since existence questions may be answered by straightforward conceptual and/or empirical work. It also aims to defend the easy approach against a range of arguments wielded against it and to show it to be a viable and attractive alternative to the quagmire of hard ontology.
Categories: Philosophy

Ontology and Metaontology

Ontology and Metaontology

Something like this goes for numbers: when asking what the number of planets in our solar system is, we are taking for granted the number framework. Carnap characterizes frameworks in linguistic terms: If someone wishes to speak in her ...

Author: Francesco Berto

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 9781472573308

Category: Philosophy

Page: 208

View: 788

Ontology and Metaontology: A Contemporary Guide is a clear and accessible survey of ontology, focusing on the most recent trends in the discipline. Divided into parts, the first half characterizes metaontology: the discourse on the methodology of ontological inquiry, covering the main concepts, tools, and methods of the discipline, exploring the notions of being and existence, ontological commitment, paraphrase strategies, fictionalist strategies, and other metaontological questions. The second half considers a series of case studies, introducing and familiarizing the reader with concrete examples of the latest research in the field. The basic sub-fields of ontology are covered here via an accessible and captivating exposition: events, properties, universals, abstract objects, possible worlds, material beings, mereology, fictional objects. The guide's modular structure allows for a flexible approach to the subject, making it suitable for both undergraduates and postgraduates looking to better understand and apply the exciting developments and debates taking place in ontology today.
Categories: Philosophy

The Nature of Scientific Theory

The Nature of Scientific Theory

Although wide latitude in choosing and constructing frameworks is permissible, any satisfactory framework will embody, ... For a more detailed discussion of linguistic frameworks as well as their relevance for ontological problems, ...

Author: Lawrence Sklar

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781135646660

Category: Philosophy

Page: 388

View: 758

First Published in 2000. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
Categories: Philosophy