Lightning: Principles, Instruments and Applications

Review of Modern Lightning Research

Author: Hans Dieter Betz,Ulrich Schumann,Pierre Laroche

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 140209079X

Category: Science

Page: 641

View: 8911

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Lightning represents a natural phenomenon of substantial interest. Due to its complex nature, research continues in many countries and reveals amazing results. Lightning is actively observed because of its relevance to Earth climate and air composition in addition to the classical aspects of related human fatalities and damage to forests, buildings, power lines, aircraft, structures and electronic devices. In this volume, the most important contemporary questions on lightning are addressed and analyzed under many experimental and theoretical aspects. Lightning detection techniques using ground-based and space-borne methods are described, along with network engineering and statistical analysis. Contributions detail research on atmospheric electricity, cloud physics, lightning physics, modeling of electrical storms and middle atmospheric events. Special phenomena such as triggered lightning and sprite observations are examined. Lightning-induced nitrogen oxides and their effects on atmospheric chemistry and climate are discussed. Each topic is presented by international experts in the field. Topics include: * air chemistry * convective storms * infrasound from lightning * lightning and climate change * lightning and precipitation * lightning and radiation * lightning and supercells * lightning and thunderstorms * lightning detection * lightning from space * lighting protection * lightning return strokes * observations and interpretations * spatial distribution and frequency * triggered lightning * weather extremes
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Volcanic Ash

Hazard Observation

Author: Shona Mackie,Katharine Cashman,Hugo Ricketts,Alison Rust,Matt Watson

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0081004249

Category: Science

Page: 300

View: 9084

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Volcanic Ash: Hazard Observation presents an introduction followed by four sections, each on a separate topic and each containing chapters from an internationally renowned pool of authors. The introduction provides a volcanological context for ash generation that sets the stage for the development and interpretation of techniques presented in subsequent sections. The book begins with an examination of the methods to characterize ash deposits on the ground, as ash deposits on the ground have generally experienced some atmospheric transport. This section will also cover basic information on ash morphology, density, and refractive index, all parameters required to understand and analyze assumptions made for both in situ measurements and remote sensing ash inversion techniques. Sections two, three, and four focus on methods for observing volcanic ash in the atmosphere using ground-based, airborne, and spaceborne instruments respectively. Throughout the book, the editors showcase not only the interdisciplinary nature of the volcanic ash problem, but also the challenges and rewards of interdisciplinary endeavors. Additionally, by bringing together a broad perspective on volcanic ash studies, the book not only ties together ground-, air-, academic, and applied approaches to the volcanic ash problem, but also engages with other scientific communities interested in particulate transport. Includes recent case studies highlighting the impact of volcanic ash, making methods used for observation more accessible to the reader Contains advances in volcanic ash observation that can be used in other remote sensing applications Presents a cross-disciplinary approach that includes not only methods of tracking and measuring ash in the atmosphere, but also of the fundamental science that supports methodological application and interpretation Edited by an internationally recognized team with a range of expertise within the field of volcanic ash
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Fundamentals and Processes

Author: Detlev Möller

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 3110561263

Category: Science

Page: 648

View: 9653

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Climate change is a major challenge facing modern society. The chemistry of air and its influence on the climate system forms the main focus of this book. Vol. 1 of Chemistry of the Climate System provides the reader with a physicochemical understanding of atmospheric processes. The chemical substances and reactions found in the Earth's atmosphere are presented along with their influence on the global climate system.
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Flammable Australia

Fire Regimes, Biodiversity and Ecosystems in a Changing World

Author: Richard J Williams,A Malcolm Gill,Ross A Bradstock

Publisher: CSIRO PUBLISHING

ISBN: 0643104844

Category: Science

Page: 344

View: 4262

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In Flammable Australia: Fire Regimes, Biodiversity and Ecosystems in a Changing World, leading researchers in fire ecology and management discuss how fire regimes have shaped and will continue to shape the distribution and abundance of Australia’s highly diverse plants and animals. Central to this is the exploration of the concept of the fire regime – the cumulative pattern of fires and their individual characteristics (fire type, frequency, intensity, season) and how variation in regime components affects landscapes and their constituent biota. Contributions by 44 authors explore a wide range of topics including classical themes such as pre-history and evolution, fire behaviour, fire regimes in key biomes, plant and animal life cycles, remote sensing and modelling of fire regimes, and emerging issues such as climate change and fire regimes, carbon dynamics and opportunities for managing fire regimes for multiple benefits. In the face of significant global change, the conservation of our native species and ecosystems requires an understanding of the processes at play when fires and landscapes interact. This book provides a comprehensive treatment of this complex science, in the context of one of the world’s most flammable continents.
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Atmospheric Physics

Background – Methods – Trends

Author: Ulrich Schumann

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642301835

Category: Science

Page: 877

View: 9233

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On the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Institute of Atmospheric Physics of the German Aerospace Center (DLR), this book presents more than 50 chapters highlighting results of the institute’s research. The book provides an up-to-date, in-depth survey across the entire field of atmospheric science, including atmospheric dynamics, radiation, cloud physics, chemistry, climate, numerical simulation, remote sensing, instruments and measurements, as well as atmospheric acoustics. The authors have provided a readily comprehensible and self-contained presentation of the complex field of atmospheric science. The topics are of direct relevance for aerospace science and technology. Future research challenges are identified.
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