[3] M. Cardona: in M. Cardona, G. G ̈untherodt (Eds.): Light Scattering in Solids,
vol. 2 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1982) p. 19 18, 33, 35, 47, 53, 63, 64, 83, 97 [
4] B. Jusserand, M. Cardona: in M. Cardona, G. G ̈untherodt (Eds.): Light ...

Author: Manuel Cardona

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540344360

Category: Science

Page: 432

View: 395

This volume treats new materials (nanotubes and quantum dots) and new techniques (synchrotron radiation scattering and cavity confined scattering). In the past five years, Raman and Brillouin scattering have taken a place among the most important research and characterization methods for carbon nanotubes. Among the novel techniques discussed in this volume are those employing synchrotron radiation as a light source.

Author: Alexander A. KokhanovskyPublish On: 2009-07-25

Single Light Scattering and Radiative Transfer Alexander A. Kokhanovsky. This
paper will provide an overview about the ERT in steady-state, time, and
frequency domain for modeling fluorescence and bioluminescence light
propagation.

Author: Alexander A. Kokhanovsky

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540742760

Category: Science

Page: 516

View: 207

This fourth volume of Light Scattering Reviews is composed of three parts. The ?rstpartisconcernedwiththeoreticalandexperimentalstudiesofsinglelightsc- tering by small nonspherical particles. Light scattering by small particles such as, for instance, droplets in the terrestrial clouds is a well understood area of physical optics. On the other hand, exact theoretical calculations of light scattering p- terns for most of nonspherical and irregularly shaped particles can be performed only for the restricted values of the size parameter, which is proportional to the ratio of the characteristic size of the particle to the wavelength?. For the large nonspherical particles, approximations are used (e. g. , ray optics). The exact th- retical techniques such as the T-matrix method cannot be used for extremely large particles, such as those in ice clouds, because then the size parameter in the v- iblex=2?a/???,wherea is the characteristic size (radius for spheres), and the associated numerical codes become unstable and produce wrong answers. Yet another problem is due to the fact that particles in many turbid media (e. g. , dust clouds) cannot be characterized by a single shape. Often, refractive indices also vary. Because of problems with theoretical calculations, experimental (i. e. , la- ratory) investigations are important for the characterization and understanding of the optical properties of such types of particles. The ?rst paper in this volume, written by B. Gustafson, is aimed at the descr- tionofscaledanalogueexperimentsinelectromagneticscattering.

This disadvantage may, in some cases, be circumvented by selecting the
frequency of exciting light to be near that of an absorption band of the molecule of
interest. In this region the polarizability of the molecules and, hence, the scattered
...

Author: R. Pecora

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0306417901

Category: Science

Page: 420

View: 568

In the twenty years since their inception, modern dynamic light-scattering techniques have become increasingly sophisticated, and their applications have grown exceedingly diverse. Applications of the techniques to problems in physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, and fluid mechanics have prolifer ated. It is probably no longer possible for one or two authors to write a monograph to cover in depth the advances in scattering techniques and the main areas in which they have made a major impact. This volume, which we expect to be the first of aseries, presents reviews of selected specialized areas by renowned experts. It makes no attempt to be comprehensive; it emphasizes a body of related applications to polymeric, biological, and colloidal systems, and to critical phenomena. The well-known monographs on dynamic light scattering by Berne and Pecora and by Chu were published almost ten years ago. They provided comprehensive treatments of the general principles of dynamic light scat tering and gave introductions to a wide variety of applications, but natu rally they could not treat the new applications and advances in older ones that have arisen in the last decade. The new applications include studies of interacting particles in solution (Chapter 4); scaling approaches to the dynamics of polymers, including polymers in semidilute solution (Chapter 5); the use of both Fabry-Perot interferometry and photon correlation spectroscopy to study bulk polymers (Chapter 6); studies of micelIes and microemulsions (Chapter 8); studies of polymer gels (Chapter 9).

162 , 95 – 107 ( 2000 ) 95 Light Scattering Data Evaluation using Legendre
Polynomials Diethelm Fröse Carl Gustav Carus - Institut , Am Eichhof , D - 75223
Niefern - Öschelbronn , Germany Summary Calculation of the masses and the
radii ...

Author: Martin Helmstedt

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527301410

Category: Science

Page: 322

View: 658

This book is based on lectures and posters presented at the workshop "Data Evaluation in Light Scattering of Polymers"held in Bad Schandau, Germany. The articles cover a broad range of applications including basic research studies on complex polymeric systems as well as routine measurements and provide a survey of novel data evaluation schemes mostly developed during the last decade. Additionally, this issue contains contributions dealing with novel and / or highly specialized light scattering experiments and with the combination of light scattering instruments with other experimental techniques.

D) Multiangle dynamic light scattering particle sizer from the company Beckmann
Coulter (see http://www.beckmancoulter.com/products for more detailed
information) The N5 Submicron Particle Size Analyzer, a commercial dynamic
light ...

Author: Wolfgang Schärtl

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540719519

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 191

View: 176

Light scattering is a very powerful method for characterizing the structure of polymers and nanoparticles in solution. As part of the Springer Laboratory series, this book provides a simple-to-read and illustrative textbook probing the seemingly very complicated topic of light scattering from polymers and nanoparticles in dilute solution, and goes further to cover some of the latest technical developments in experimental light scattering.

CHAPTER 1 Introduction The light scattering and absorption properties of
particles help determine the colors of sunsets , paints , and rainbows , the
distance a laser beam can propagate through the atmosphere , the light -
induced motion of ...

Author: Peter W. Barber

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 997150832X

Category: Science

Page: 261

View: 540

This book presents the separation-of-variables and T-matrix methods of calculating the scattering of electromagnetic waves by particles. Analytical details and computer programs are provided for determining the scattering and absorption characteristics of the finite-thickness slab, infinite circular cylinder (normal incidence), general axisymmetric particle, and sphere.The computer programs are designed to generate data that is easy to graph and visualize, and test cases in the book illustrate the capabilities of the programs. The connection between the theory and the computer programs is reinforced by references in the computer programs to equations in the text. This cross-referencing will help the reader understand the computer programs, and, if necessary, modify them for other purposes.

Author: Alexander A. KokhanovskyPublish On: 2008-08-22

Light scattering by small particles is one of the most powerful techniques for
probing the properties of particulate systems and has numerous applications in
particle characterization and remote sensing of, for example, clouds and aerosols
, ...

Author: Alexander A. Kokhanovsky

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540485469

Category: Science

Page: 408

View: 771

This is the 3rd volume of a "Light Scattering Reviews" series devoted to current knowledge of light scattering problems and both experimental and theoretical research techniques related to their solution. This volume covers applications in remote sensing, inverse problems and geophysics, with a particular focus on terrestrial clouds. The influence of clouds on climate is poorly understood. The theoretical aspects of this problem constitute the main emphasis of this work.

(2003) for a set of 60 scattering functions measured in the coastal Northwestern
Atlantic. 4.4.2.5. Wavelength dependence of light scattering Early observations of light scattering, summarized by Morel (1973), indicated that the volume ...

Author: Miroslaw Jonasz

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080548679

Category: Science

Page: 714

View: 286

Light scattering-based methods are used to characterize small particles suspended in water in a wide range of disciplines ranging from oceanography, through medicine, to industry. The scope and accuracy of these methods steadily increases with the progress in light scattering research. This book focuses on the theoretical and experimental foundations of the study and modeling of light scattering by particles in water and critically evaluates the key constraints of light scattering models. It begins with a brief review of the relevant theoretical fundamentals of the interaction of light with condensed matter, followed by an extended discussion of the basic optical properties of pure water and seawater and the physical principles that explain them. The book continues with a discussion of key optical features of the pure water/seawater and the most common components of natural waters. In order to clarify and put in focus some of the basic physical principles and most important features of the experimental data on light scattering by particles in water, the authors employ simple models. The book concludes with extensive critical reviews of the experimental constraints of light scattering models: results of measurements of light scattering and of the key properties of the particles: size distribution, refractive index (composition), structure, and shape. These reviews guide the reader through literature scattered among more than 210 scientific journals and periodicals which represent a wide range of disciplines. A special emphasis is put on the methods of measuring both light scattering and the relevant properties of the particles, because principles of these methods may affect interpretation and applicability of the results. The book includes extensive guides to literature on light scattering data and instrumentation design, as well as on the data for size distributions, refractive indices, and shapes typical of particles in natural waters. It also features a comprehensive index, numerous cross-references, and a reference list with over 1370 entries. An errata sheet for this work can be found at: http://www.tpdsci.com/Ref/Jonasz_M_2007_LightScatE.php *Extensive reference section provides handy compilations of knowledge on the designs of light scattering meters, sources of experimental data, and more *Worked exercises and examples throughout

INTRODUCTION The theory of light scattering can be developed on the basis of
quantum field theory. The major results of this theory differ little (and in most
cases not at all) from a classical theory of light scattering. Since the major
emphasis ...

Author: Bruce J. Berne

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 9780486320243

Category: Science

Page: 384

View: 846

This comprehensive introduction to principles underlying laser light scattering focuses on time dependence of fluctuations in fluid systems; also serves as introduction to theory of time correlation functions. 1976 edition.

4.1.1 General Remarks Inelastic light scattering – or Raman scattering – is the
scattering of light by a medium, where in the scattering process excitations are
created (Stokes process) or annihilated (Antistokes process) within the medium.

Author: Christian Schüller

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540365259

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 180

View: 647

The field of semiconductor nanostructures is of enormous and still-growing research interest. On one hand, they are already realized in mass products such as high-electron-mobility field-effect transistors and quantum-well lasers. On the other hand, they allow, in specially tailored systems, the investigation of fundamental properties such as many-particle interactions of electrons in reduced dimensions. This book bridges the gap between general semiconductor textbooks and research articles.

Scattering, Absorption, Extinction This book is a treatise on the scattering of light.
Hardly ever is light observed directly from its source. Most of the light we see
reaches our eyes in an indirect way. Looking at a tree, or a house, we see
diffusely ...

Author: H. C. van de Hulst

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 9780486139753

Category: Science

Page: 496

View: 412

Comprehensive treatment of light-scattering properties of small, independent particles, including a full range of useful approximation methods for researchers in chemistry, meteorology, and astronomy. 46 tables. 59 graphs. 44 illustrations.

For small angles, the particle scattering function can be approximated as: 2.9
where λ = λo/no is the wavelength of the incident light in a given solvent, R2 is
the mean square radius, and μ is the scattering vector: 2.10 As forx → 0lim[1/(1 −
x)] ...

Author: Stepan Podzimek

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781118102725

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 372

View: 236

A comprehensive, practical approach to three powerful methods of polymer analysis and characterization This book serves as a complete compendium of three important methods widely used for the characterization of synthetic and natural polymers—light scattering, size exclusion chromatography (SEC), and asymmetric flow field flow fractionation (A4F). Featuring numerous up-to-date examples of experimental results obtained by light scattering, SEC, and A4F measurements, Light Scattering, Size Exclusion Chromatography and Asymmetric Flow Field Flow Fractionation takes an all-in-one approach to deliver a complete and thorough explanation of the principles, theories, and instrumentation needed to characterize polymers from the viewpoint of their molar mass distribution, size, branching, and aggregation. This comprehensive resource: Is the only book gathering light scattering, size exclusion chromatography, and asymmetric flow field flow fractionation into a single text Systematically compares results of size exclusion chromatography with results of asymmetric flow field flow fractionation, and how these two methods complement each other Provides in-depth guidelines for reproducible and correct determination of molar mass and molecular size of polymers using SEC or A4F coupled with a multi-angle light scattering detector Offers a detailed overview of the methodology, detection, and characterization of polymer branching Light Scattering, Size Exclusion Chromatography and Asymmetric Flow Field Flow Fractionation should be of great interest to all those engaged in the polymer analysis and characterization in industrial and university research, as well as in manufacturing quality control laboratories. Both beginners and experienced can confidently rely on this volume to confirm their own understanding or to help interpret their results.

Thirdly, the light scattered from different particles will interfere in the detection
plane. This is the region of high concentration. In this situation, multiple scattering
, mutual polarization, and strong interference between particles exist, all of which
...

Author: Renliang Xu

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402003579

Category: Science

Page: 399

View: 188

Particle characterization is an important component in product research and development, manufacture, and quality control of particulate materials and an important tool in the frontier of sciences, such as in biotechnology and nanotechnology. This book systematically describes one major branch of modern particle characterization technology - the light scattering methods. This is the first monograph in particle science and technology covering the principles, instrumentation, data interpretation, applications, and latest experimental development in laser diffraction, optical particle counting, photon correlation spectroscopy, and electrophoretic light scattering. In addition, a summary of all major particle sizing and other characterization methods, basic statistics and sample preparation techniques used in particle characterization, as well as almost 500 latest references are provided. The book is a must for industrial users of light scattering techniques characterizing a variety of particulate systems and for undergraduate or graduate students who want to learn how to use light scattering to study particular materials, in chemical engineering, material sciences, physical chemistry and other related fields.

Author: Alexander A. KokhanovskyPublish On: 2010-08-05

Single Light Scattering and Radiative Transfer Alexander A. Kokhanovsky ... All
the numerical methods of the radiative transfer equation (RTE) solution are
based on the replacement of scattering integral by the finite sum. The main
problem of ...

Author: Alexander A. Kokhanovsky

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642103367

Category: Science

Page: 549

View: 979

Light scattering by densely packed inhomogeneous media is a particularly ch- lenging optics problem. In most cases, only approximate methods are used for the calculations. However, in the case where only a small number of macroscopic sc- tering particles are in contact (clusters or aggregates) it is possible to obtain exact results solving Maxwell’s equations. Simulations are possible, however, only for a relativelysmallnumberofparticles,especiallyiftheirsizesarelargerthanthewa- length of incident light. The ?rst review chapter in PartI of this volume, prepared by Yasuhiko Okada, presents modern numerical techniques used for the simulation of optical characteristics of densely packed groups of spherical particles. In this case, Mie theory cannot provide accurate results because particles are located in the near ?eld of each other and strongly interact. As a matter of fact, Maxwell’s equations must be solved not for each particle separately but for the ensemble as a whole in this case. The author describes techniques for the generation of shapes of aggregates. The orientation averaging is performed by a numerical integration with respect to Euler angles. The numerical aspects of various techniques such as the T-matrix method, discrete dipole approximation, the ?nite di?erence time domain method, e?ective medium theory, and generalized multi-particle Mie so- tion are presented. Recent advances in numerical techniques such as the grouping and adding method and also numerical orientation averaging using a Monte Carlo method are discussed in great depth.

4.1 SINGLE LIGHT SCATTERING BY DENSELY PACKED PARTICLES It is
evident that local optical characteristics of media with touching or nearly touching
particles will be different from those obtained at low concentrations (Mishchenko
et ...

Author: Alex A. Kokhanovsky

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540211845

Category: Science

Page: 299

View: 994

The theory of the scattering of light by small particles is very important in a wide range of applications in atmospheric physics and atmospheric optics, ocean optics, remote sensing, astronomy and astrophysics and biological optics. This book summarises current knowledge of the optical properties of single small particles and natural light scattering media such as snow, clouds, foam aerosols etc. The book considers both single and multiple light scattering regimes, together with light scattering and radiative transfer in close-packed media. The third edition incorporates new findings in the area of light scattering media optics in an updated version of the text.

Author: Alexander A. KokhanovskyPublish On: 2007-04-29

(2001) for the linearization with respect to surface properties, and by, for example
, Ustinov (1992) and Sendra and Box (2000) for the linearization with respect to
atmospheric scattering properties. Another approach for the linearization of ...

Author: Alexander A. Kokhanovsky

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540684350

Category: Science

Page: 352

View: 411

This book is to continue the Light Scattering Reviews series devoted to modern knowledge and milestones in both experimental and theoretical techniques related to light scattering and radiative transport problems. It gives a valuable picture of recent developments in the area of remote sensing and radiative transfer. The work has capabilities to further facilitate studes in light scattering media optics and be of importance for researchers across various scientific fields including astronomy, meterology and geophysics.

THOMAS A. GERMER Optical Technology Division, National Institute of
Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 10.1. Introduction Optical scattering measurements are extremely sensitive for locating and characterizing
defects, ...

Author: Alexei A. Maradudin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387356594

Category: Science

Page: 496

View: 529

This book covers both experimental and theoretical aspects of nanoscale light scattering and surface roughness. Topics include: spherical particles located on a substrate; surface and buried interface roughness; surface roughness of polymer thin films; magnetic and thermal fluctuations at planar surfaces; speckle patterns; scattering of electromagnetic waves from a metal; multiple wavelength light scattering; nanoroughness standards.

4 Light Scattering Theory Scattering experiments continue to be used as a very
powerful tool both in ( soft ) condensed matter research as well as in sample
characterization . The basic principle of a scattering experiment ( 11 , 12 , 13 ] is
an ...

When a beam of light is incident on this layer a portion of light is backscattered by
nuclei in the cells. The remaining light is transmitted in the tissue where it
undergoes multiple scattering before coming to the surface eventually, where it
once ...

Author: Subodh K. Sharma

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540376644

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 195

View: 363

This book deals with a particular class of approximation methods in the context of light scattering by small particles. Soft particles occur in ocean optics, biomedical optics, atmospheric optics and in many industrial applications. This class of approximations has been termed as eikonal or soft particle approximations. The study of these approximations is very important because soft particles occur abundantly in nature.