Libraries Before Alexandria

Libraries Before Alexandria

Libraries before Alexandria Kim Ryholt and Gojko Barjamovic 1.1. THE LIBRARY IN ALEXAND RIA The creation of the Library of Alexandria is widely regarded as one of the great achievements in the history of humankind—a giant endeavour to ...

Author: Kim Ryholt

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780199655359

Category: History

Page: 512

View: 227

The creation of the Library of Alexandria is widely regarded as one of the great achievements in the history of humankind - a giant endeavour to amass all known literature and scholarly texts in one central location, so as to preserve it and make it available for the public. In turn, this event has been viewed as a historical turning point that separates the ancient world from classical antiquity. Standard works on the library continue to present the idea behind the institution as novel and, at least implicitly, as a product of Greek thought. Yet, although the scale of the collection in Alexandria seems to have been unprecedented, the notion of creating central repositories of knowledge, while perhaps new to Greek tradition, was age-old in the Near East where the building was erected. Here the existence of libraries can be traced back another two millennia, from the twenty-seventh century BCE to the third century CE, and so the creation of the Library in Alexandria was not so much the beginning of an intellectual adventure as the impressive culmination of a very long tradition. This volume presents the first comprehensive study of these ancient libraries across the 'Cradle of Civilization' and traces their institutional and scholarly roots back to the early cities and states and the advent of writing itself. Leading specialists in the intellectual history of each individual period and region covered in the volume present and discuss the enormous textual and archaeological material available on the early collections, offering a uniquely readable account intended for a broad audience of the libraries in Egypt and Western Asia as centres of knowledge prior to the famous Library of Alexandria.
Categories: History

The Library of Alexandria

The Library of Alexandria

In fact, the Library of Alexandria proved to be one of the greatest institutions created in the ancient world because it influenced the minds of countless people in profound ways for centuries.

Author: Charles River Charles River Editors

Publisher:

ISBN: 1542764513

Category:

Page: 44

View: 861

*Includes pictures depicting important people, places, and events. *Includes ancient accounts about the Library of Alexandria and its destruction. *Includes a bibliography for further reading. "When I wrote 'The Alexandria Link,' I discovered that we are only aware of about 10 percent of the knowledge of the ancient world. In the ancient world, most of the knowledge was destroyed." - Steve Berry In the modern world, libraries are taken for granted by most people, perhaps because their presence is ubiquitous. Every school has a library, large libraries can be found in every major city, and even most small towns have public libraries. However, the omnipresent nature of libraries is a fairly recent historical phenomenon, because libraries were still few and far between before the 19th century. For centuries in the Western world, during what is known as the Middle Ages, written knowledge was guarded closely and hidden away in private repositories, usually by the religious classes, and hidden away in private repositories. The lack of libraries in the West has helped contribute to the popular imagination of the ancient Library at Alexandria, and all the myths and legends that have come to be associated with it, but the Library of Alexandria deserves its reputation. Before the Middle Ages, Greek scholars carefully collected and inventoried books and other written materials in the Library of Alexandria, which truly made it a sort of precursor to all modern libraries. In fact, the Library of Alexandria proved to be one of the greatest institutions created in the ancient world because it influenced the minds of countless people in profound ways for centuries. The Library not only inspired the imaginations of artists but gave birth to new research methods, which proved to provide the basis for many considered common-place today. The Library of Alexandria was one of the few libraries in the ancient Greek world, which helped ensure that mathematicians, scientists and other scholars from across the Mediterranean traveled to Egypt to study there, and it was so impressive in its size and influence that it left an indelible mark on the world that still reverberates today. While the exact nature of the Library remains murky, it functioned for at least several centuries and is believed to have housed hundreds of thousands of books, most written as scrolls on papyrus, and it essentially became the culmination of two ancient literary and cultural traditions converging: the Greek and Egyptian. Of course, the most controversial aspect of the Library of Alexandria is its destruction, which is still a topic of debate today. Several ancient historians attributed its destruction to the Roman conquest of Egypt during the 1st century B.C., with some like Plutarch specifically citing Julius Caesar's soldiers as the ultimate cause of its destruction. The Roman writer Seneca wrote that 40,000 books were lost in the fire. However, other ancient historians claimed to have gone to the Library of Alexandria after Caesar stayed in the city, and all of these claims might be muddled by the fact that there was more than one library in the area. It's possible that the Library of Alexandria or some version of it survived until the 7th century A.D., but either way, the destruction of the library is often viewed as one of the reasons the Middle Ages were "Dark". Nobody knows for sure how much knowledge was lost in the Library, nor how it affected what Western societies knew and didn't during medieval times. The Library of Alexandria: The History and Legacy of the Ancient World's Most Famous Library looks at the history of the library in an attempt to separate fact and fiction. Along with pictures of important people, places, and events, you will learn about the Library of Alexandria like never before.
Categories:

The Library of Alexandria

The Library of Alexandria

" "This is a wide-ranging and fascinating study for both scholars and general readers."--Jacket.

Author: Roy M. MacLeod

Publisher: I.B. Tauris

ISBN: STANFORD:36105110306581

Category: History

Page: 218

View: 476

"The Library of Alexandria explores one of the greatest cultural adornments of the late ancient world. The origins of the 'vanished library' of Alexandria lie in the distant echoes of the great library of Pisistratus in Athens, an institution which set the tone for establishing a dominant culture and inspired Alexander the Great to build a library of his own in his empire's most important city." "Roy MacLeod has here assembled an array of distinguished scholars to bring this great - tragically destroyed - institution back to life. They demonstrate how the contemporary reputation of its library helped Alexandria to become a point of convergence for Greek, Roman, Jewish and Syrian culture that drew scholars and statesmen from throughout the ancient world." "This is a wide-ranging and fascinating study for both scholars and general readers."--Jacket.
Categories: History

Libraries Translations and Canonic Texts

Libraries  Translations  and  Canonic  Texts

theory that the only extant library is that of Athens, because the fire in the library of Alexandria destroyed 700,000 ... of Athens is purely a desideratum and the redaction of the poems before that of Aristarchus is purely fictional.

Author: Giuseppe Veltri

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9789047409014

Category: Religion

Page: 290

View: 444

The book deals with the process of canonization of the Greek Torah; the use and abuse of the translation(s) of Aquila in Patristic and Rabbinic literature and the substitution of Aquila by Onkelos in Babylonian academies.
Categories: Religion

The Moral and Intellectual Influence of Libraries Upon Social Progress

The Moral and Intellectual Influence of Libraries Upon Social Progress

An Address Delivered Before the New York Historical Society ... November 21, 1865 Frederic De Peyster ... It is fcarcely poffible to exaggerate the indebtedness of the world to this library of Alexandria . It was the great ftorehouse of ...

Author: Frederic De Peyster

Publisher:

ISBN: UOMDLP:aes9160:0001.001

Category: Digital images

Page: 100

View: 748

Categories: Digital images

Library Journal

Library Journal

At the recent Patriarch of Alexandria , describes , in his “ HisCentennial at Columbus , Ohio , the librarian sent ... The Kiehl in a paper read in 1878 before the Congress historical value of Abd - al - Latif's gossip is neither of ...

Author: Melvil Dewey

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:39015036908419

Category: Libraries

Page: 516

View: 935

Includes, beginning Sept. 15, 1954 (and on the 15th of each month, Sept.-May) a special section: School library journal, ISSN 0000-0035, (called Junior libraries, 1954-May 1961). Also issued separately.
Categories: Libraries

Lost Libraries

Lost Libraries

The first mention of a library in Alexandria is found in The Letter of Aristeas (c. ... captured and looted by Diocletian at the start of the fourth century – all before the great earthquakes and inundations that obscured this history.

Author: J. Raven

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9780230524255

Category: History

Page: 294

View: 874

This pioneering volume of essays explores the destruction of great libraries since ancient times and examines the intellectual, political and cultural consequences of loss. Fourteen original contributions, introduced by a major re-evaluative history of lost libraries, offer the first ever comparative discussion of the greatest catastrophes in book history from Mesopotamia and Alexandria to the dispersal of monastic and monarchical book collections, the Nazi destruction of Jewish libraries, and the recent horrifying pillage and burning of books in Tibet, Bosnia and Iraq.
Categories: History

Library of the Soul

Library of the Soul

Anyone under 18 is still struggling with that first sentence – “...isn't a library what they had in the old days before the Internet?” Classical scholars are dreamily imagining the Library of Alexandria, before the fire.

Author: Simon Buck

Publisher: Alnpete Press

ISBN: 9780955220661

Category: Fiction

Page:

View: 619

In Rome, Peter White is recruited by a friend into the oldest secret society in the world. Using the world's largest supercomputer, deep in the Secret Archives beneath the Vatican Library, they lay an electronic trap for an assassin they believe will kill the Pope using a CIA poison. This is the first in a series of mystery novels.
Categories: Fiction

The Library of Alexandria and the Lighthouse of Alexandria

The Library of Alexandria and the Lighthouse of Alexandria

While there is still some question as to who actually authored the text attributed to Philo and when it was authored, their lists ended up comprising the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, igniting interest in the ones they chose and ...

Author: Charles River Charles River Editors

Publisher: CreateSpace

ISBN: 1499374526

Category: History

Page: 66

View: 551

*Includes pictures depicting important people, places, and events. *Includes ancient accounts about the two sites and their destruction. *Includes a bibliography for further reading. In the modern world, libraries are taken for granted by most people, perhaps because their presence is ubiquitous. Every school has a library, large libraries can be found in every major city, and even most small towns have public libraries. However, the omnipresent nature of libraries is a fairly recent historical phenomenon, because libraries were still few and far between before the 19th century. For centuries in the Western world, during what is known as the Middle Ages, written knowledge was guarded closely and hidden away in private repositories, usually by the religious classes, and hidden away in private repositories. The lack of libraries in the West helped contribute to the popular imagination of the ancient Library at Alexandria, and all the myths and legends that have come to be associated with it, but the Library of Alexandria deserves its reputation. While the exact nature of the Library remains murky, it functioned for at least several centuries and is believed to have housed hundreds of thousands of books, most written as scrolls on papyrus, and it essentially became the culmination of two ancient literary and cultural traditions converging: the Greek and Egyptian. Of course, the most controversial aspect of the Library of Alexandria is its destruction, which is still a topic of debate today. Over 2,000 years ago, two ancient writers named Antipater of Sidon and Philo of Byzantium authored antiquity's most well known tour guides. After the two Greeks had traveled around the Mediterranean, they wrote of what they considered to be the classical world's greatest construction projects. While there is still some question as to who actually authored the text attributed to Philo and when it was authored, their lists ended up comprising the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, igniting interest in the ones they chose and inspiring subsequent generations to identify their own era's Seven Wonders. The youngest of the Wonders also turned out to be the most practical and one of the longest-lived, surviving into the late Middle Ages. It was a lighthouse built on the northern coast of Egypt in Africa, at the Greek city founded in Alexander's name. It was the Pharos, the Great Lighthouse of Alexandria. Among antiquity's wonders, the Lighthouse of Alexandria was fairly unique both in terms of its purpose and its secular nature. While pyramids and statues served religious purposes in Egypt and Greece, and others were impressive works of art, the origins of the Lighthouse were not even as a lighthouse at all. Instead, the large formation on the island of Pharos in the harbor of Alexandria was originally meant to help sailors identify the location of the city during the day, and some speculate it was not until later that Alexandrians decided to make it a true lighthouse that would serve sailors at night. While there is still debate over its height, the Lighthouse of Alexandria was unquestionably one of the tallest man-made structures in the world at the time, if not the tallest. While ancient accounts often exaggerated its height, medieval Arab sources often claimed it was somewhere around 300-350 feet tall, with an incredibly wide base, and those sources wrote at a time where it had already required repairs due to earthquake damage. Efforts to repair it kept going until the 14th century, when the damage was so extensive that it was mostly left in ruins, the last of which were taken for other building projects and/or slipped underneath the Mediterranean. Fortunately, due to descriptions of the lighthouse and archaeological remains, modern scholars are able to understand this wonder better than most, and there may even be future attempts to build a replica and bring it back to life.
Categories: History

Web Dragons

Web Dragons

Even before Alexandria, libraries were arranged by subject, and catalogs gave the title of each work, the number of ... In 240 B.C., an index was produced to provide access to the books in the Alexandrian Library that was a classified ...

Author: Ian H. Witten

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080469096

Category: Computers

Page: 288

View: 670

Web Dragons offers a perspective on the world of Web search and the effects of search engines and information availability on the present and future world. In the blink of an eye since the turn of the millennium, the lives of people who work with information have been utterly transformed. Everything we need to know is on the web. It's where we learn and play, shop and do business, keep up with old friends and meet new ones. Search engines make it possible for us to find the stuff we need to know. Search engines — web dragons — are the portals through which we access society's treasure trove of information. How do they stack up against librarians, the gatekeepers over centuries past? What role will libraries play in a world whose information is ruled by the web? How is the web organized? Who controls its contents, and how do they do it? How do search engines work? How can web visibility be exploited by those who want to sell us their wares? What's coming tomorrow, and can we influence it? As we witness the dawn of a new era, this book shows readers what it will look like and how it will change their world. Whoever you are: if you care about information, this book will open your eyes and make you blink. Presents a critical view of the idea of funneling information access through a small handful of gateways and the notion of a centralized index--and the problems that may cause Provides promising approaches for addressing the problems, such as the personalization of web services Presented by authorities in the field of digital libraries, web history, machine learning, and web and data mining Find more information at the author's site: webdragons.net
Categories: Computers