Less Than Human

Why We Demean, Enslave, and Exterminate Others

Author: David Livingstone Smith

Publisher: St. Martin's Press

ISBN: 9781429968560

Category: Science

Page: 336

View: 9566

Winner of the 2012 Anisfield-Wolf Book Award for Nonfiction A revelatory look at why we dehumanize each other, with stunning examples from world history as well as today's headlines "Brute." "Cockroach." "Lice." "Vermin." "Dog." "Beast." These and other monikers are constantly in use to refer to other humans—for political, religious, ethnic, or sexist reasons. Human beings have a tendency to regard members of their own kind as less than human. This tendency has made atrocities like the Holocaust, the genocide in Rwanda, and the slave trade possible, and yet we still find it in phenomena such as xenophobia, homophobia, military propaganda, and racism. Less Than Human draws on a rich mix of history, psychology, biology, anthropology and philosophy to document the pervasiveness of dehumanization, describe its forms, and explain why we so often resort to it. David Livingstone Smith posits that this behavior is rooted in human nature, but gives us hope in also stating that biological traits are malleable, showing us that change is possible. Less Than Human is a chilling indictment of our nature, and is as timely as it is relevant.
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Human Rights in the Constitutional Law of the United States

Author: Michael J. Perry

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107038367

Category: Law

Page: 185

View: 3627

"In the period since the end of the Second World War, there has emerged what has never before existed: a truly global morality--specifically, a global political morality. That morality, which I call "the morality of human rights", consists both of a fundamental imperative, which serves as the normative ground of human rights, and of various human rights--of various rights, that is, recognized by the great majority of the countries of the world as human rights"--
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The Objectification Spectrum

Understanding and Transcending Our Diminishment and Dehumanization of Others

Author: John M. Rector

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199355436

Category: Psychology

Page: 288

View: 2025

What lies at the heart of humanity's capacity for evil? Any tenable answer to this age-old question must include an explanation of our penchant for objectifying and dehumanizing our fellow human beings. The Objectification Spectrum: Understanding and Transcending Our Diminishment and Dehumanization of Others draws upon timeless wisdom to propose a new model of objectification. Rather than offering a narrow definition of the term, the author explores objectification as a spectrum of misapprehension running from its mildest form, casual indifference, to its most extreme manifestation, dehumanization. Using vivid examples to clearly demarcate three primary levels of objectification, the author engages in a thoughtful exploration of various dispositional and situational factors contributing to this uniquely human phenomenon. These include narcissism, the ego, death denial, toxic situations, and our perceived boundaries of self, among others. Rector then gives us reason to hope by orienting his model of objectification into a broader continuum of human capability--one that includes a countervailing enlightenment spectrum. Gleaning insights from classic philosophy, the world's five most prominent religious traditions, and current social science research, he examines the best antidotes humankind has devised thus far to move us from casual concern for our fellow human beings toward interconnectedness and, ultimately, unity consciousness. Broad in scope and deeply penetrating, The Objectification Spectrum advances the conversation about the nature of human evil into personally relevant, potentially transformative territory.
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Embodied Difference

Divergent Bodies in Public Discourse

Author: Jamie A. Thomas,Christina Jackson

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 1498563872

Category: Social Science

Page: 268

View: 3612

Focusing on the body as a visual and discursive platform across public space, this book explores marginalization as a sociocultural practice and hegemonic schema. The chapters center upon physical contexts, discursive spaces, and philosophical arenas to deconstruct seemingly intrinsic connections between body and behavior, whiteness, and normativity.
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More Dr. Seuss and Philosophy

Additional Hunches in Bunches

Author: Jacob M. Held

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 1538101343

Category: Social Science

Page: 288

View: 7732

Dr. Seuss and Philosophy delighted thousands of readers by demonstrating the insights of these children’s classics through a playful engagement with the philosophical tradition. In More Dr. Seuss and Philosophy readers will be offered a vision of the good life through the world of Dr. Seuss. Whether it’s stoicism and care of the self in Did I ever Tell you How Lucky you Are?, facing our own mortality in You’re Only Old Once, or the value of compassion, building communities, and resolving conflicts in the parables of Horton the elephant, King Derwin of Didd, or the Butter Battle Book, the essays in this book focus on living well through the wisdom of Dr. Seuss and other philosophers. Contributions by Elizabeth Butterfield, Cam Cobb, Timothy M. Dale, Joseph J. Foy, Kevin Guilfoy, Jacob M. Held, Glenn Jellenik, Sharon Kaye, Dennis Knepp, Rob Main, Bertha Alvarez Manninen, Jennifer L. McMahon, Matthew F. Pierlott, Janelle Pötzsch, Benjamin Rider, and Aeon J. Skoble
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The Long Decade

How 9/11 Changed the Law

Author: David Jenkins,Amanda Jacobsen,Anders Henriksen

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199368341

Category: Law

Page: 368

View: 4327

The terrorist attacks of 9/11 precipitated significant legal changes over the ensuing ten years, a "long decade" that saw both domestic and international legal systems evolve in reaction to the seemingly permanent threat of international terrorism. At the same time, globalization produced worldwide insecurity that weakened the nation-state's ability to monopolize violence and assure safety for its people. The Long Decade: How 9/11 Changed the Law contains contributions by international legal scholars who critically reflect on how the terrorist attacks of 9/11 precipitated these legal changes. This book examines how the uncertainties of the "long decade" made fear a political and legal force, challenged national constitutional orders, altered fundamental assumptions about the rule of law, and ultimately raised questions about how democracy and human rights can cope with competing security pressures, while considering the complex process of crafting anti-terrorism measures.
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American Intolerance

Our Dark History of Demonizing Immigrants

Author: Robert E. Bartholomew,Anja Reumschuessel

Publisher: Prometheus Books

ISBN: 163388449X

Category: Social Science

Page: 270

View: 5688

This historical review of the US treatment of immigrants and minority groups documents the suspicion and persecution that often met newcomers and those perceived to be different. Contrary to popular belief, the poor and huddled masses were never welcome in America. Though the engraving on the base of the Statue of Liberty makes that claim, history reveals a far less-welcoming message. This comprehensive survey of cultural and racial exclusion in the United States examines the legacy of hostility toward immigrants over two centuries. The authors document abuses against Catholics in the early 19th century in response to the influx of German and Irish immigrants; hostility against Mexicans throughout the Southwest, where signs in bars and restaurants read, "No Dogs, No Negros, No Mexicans"; "yellow peril" fears leading to a ban on Chinese immigration for ten years; punitive measures against Native Americans traditions, which became punishable by fines and hard labor; the persecution of German Americans during World War I and Japanese Americans during World War II; the refusal to admit Jewish refugees of the Holocaust; and the ongoing legacy of mistreating African Americans from slavery to the injustices of the present day. Though the authors note that the United States has accepted tens of millions of immigrants during its relatively short existence, its troubling history of persecution is often overlooked. President Donald Trump's targeting of Muslim and Mexican immigrants is just the most recent chapter in a long, sad history of social panics about "evil" foreigners who are made scapegoats due to their ethnicity or religious beliefs.
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Liars and Outliers

Enabling the Trust that Society Needs to Thrive

Author: Bruce Schneier

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118239016

Category: Social Science

Page: 384

View: 1778

In today's hyper-connected society, understanding the mechanisms of trust is crucial. Issues of trust are critical to solving problems as diverse as corporate responsibility, global warming, and the political system. In this insightful and entertaining book, Schneier weaves together ideas from across the social and biological sciences to explain how society induces trust. He shows the unique role of trust in facilitating and stabilizing human society. He discusses why and how trust has evolved, why it works the way it does, and the ways the information society is changing everything.
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Beautiful Eyes: A Father Transformed

Author: Paul Austin

Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company

ISBN: 0393245837

Category: Family & Relationships

Page: 320

View: 3080

Through parenting a child with a disability, a father discovers patience, acceptance, and unconditional love. In 1987, Paul Austin and his wife Sally were newlyweds, excited about their future together and happily anticipating the birth of their first child. He was a medical student and she was a nurse. Everything changed the moment the doctor rushed their infant daughter from the room just after her birth, knowing instantly that something was wrong. Sarah had almond-shaped eyes, a single crease across her palm instead of three, and low-set ears—all of which suggested that the baby had Down syndrome. Beginning on the day Sarah is born and ending when she is a young adult living in a group home, Beautiful Eyes is the story of a father's journey toward acceptance of a child who is different. In a voice that is unflinchingly honest and unerringly compassionate, Austin chronicles his life with his daughter: watching her learn to walk and talk and form her own opinions, making decisions about her future, and navigating cultural assumptions and prejudices—all the while confronting, with poignancy and moving candor, his own limitations as her father. It is Sarah herself, who, in her own coming of age and her own reconciling with her difference, teaches her father to understand her. Time and again, she surprises him: performing Lady Gaga’s "Poker Face" at a talent show; explaining how the word "retarded" is hurtful; reacting to the events of her life with a mixture of love, pain, and humor; and insisting on her own humanity in a world that questions it. As Sarah begins to blossom into herself, her father learns to look past his daughter’s disability and see her as the spirited, warmhearted, and uniquely wise person she is.
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Making and Unmaking Nations

The Origins and Dynamics of Genocide in Contemporary Africa

Author: Scott Straus

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 0801455677

Category: Political Science

Page: 408

View: 316

In Making and Unmaking Nations, Scott Straus seeks to explain why and how genocide takes place—and, perhaps more important, how it has been avoided in places where it may have seemed likely or even inevitable. To solve that puzzle, he examines postcolonial Africa, analyzing countries in which genocide occurred and where it could have but did not. Why have there not been other Rwandas? Straus finds that deep-rooted ideologies—how leaders make their nations—shape strategies of violence and are central to what leads to or away from genocide. Other critical factors include the dynamics of war, the role of restraint, and the interaction between national and local actors in the staging of campaigns of large-scale violence. Grounded in Straus's extensive fieldwork in contemporary Africa, the study of major twentieth-century cases of genocide, and the literature on genocide and political violence, Making and Unmaking Nations centers on cogent analyses of three nongenocide cases (Côte d’Ivoire, Mali, and Senegal) and two in which genocide took place (Rwanda and Sudan). Straus’s empirical analysis is based in part on an original database of presidential speeches from 1960 to 2005. The book also includes a broad-gauge analysis of all major cases of large-scale violence in Africa since decolonization. Straus’s insights into the causes of genocide will inform the study of political violence as well as giving policymakers and nongovernmental organizations valuable tools for the future.
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