Chapter 1 Introduction : Laser Dynamics From the first demonstration of the ruby
laser in 1960 ' , lasers have displayed a variety of unexpected dynamical
complexities . The output of the ruby laser consists of a random train of spikes
Homayoon Ansari. ture containing only one pair of prisms . 1.2 Semiconductor Laser Dynamics I. Semiconductor lasers are one of the essential components of
optical communication systems . Therefore , it is important to study their dynamics
Author: Stanford University. Microwave LaboratoryPublish On: 1971
e CU With the dye Rhodamine 6G , 10 - 4 M in ethanol , we tuned the dye laser
from 5445 Å to 6225 Å by varying the acoustic frequency from : 58 . 2 MHz to 45 .
0 MHz . This tuning range of 780 & included adjust - . ment of the acoustic power
Author: Stanford University. Microwave LaboratoryPublish On: 1970
Microwave Laboratory. SUML - 1875 INVESTIGATION OF LASER DYNAMICS ,
MODULATION AND CONTROL BY MEANS OF INTRA - CAVITY TIME VARYING
PERTURBATION under the direction of S . E . Harris REPORTS COLLECTION ...
Author: Stanford University. Microwave LaboratoryPublish On: 1973
Building a mode - locked dye laser pumped with the 5320 Å radiation would also
be rather inefficient ; this kind of dye laser does not work that well , the number of
usable dyes is limited ( tuning range : ) , etc . Our technique works as follows ...
All of these issues are covered in Chapter 7. The book is intended for researchers, engineers, graduate and post-graduate students majoring in quantum electronics.
Author: Y.I. Khanin
Category: Technology & Engineering
This monograph summarizes major achievements in laser dynamics over the past three decades. The book begins with two introductory Chapters. Chapter 1 offers general considerations on quantum oscillators, formulates the requirements for the laser key elements and shows how these requirements are met in different laser systems. The second Chapter proposes the mathematical models used in semiclassical laser theory, discusses the approximations and simplifications in particular cases, and specifies the range of applicability of these models. In Chapters 3-5 attention is given primarily to the steady states and their stability, the laser behavior in the instability domain, the characteristics of regular and chaotic pulsations and the nature of their mechanisms. Chapter 6 deals with the processes in a laser, accompanying the time variance of laser parameters. Considerable attention is given to a laser response to weak, low-frequency modulation of the parameters. The problems addressed therein are resonant modulation enhancement, transition to the nonlinear regime, chaotic response to periodic impact, spike-like generation due to variation of the cavity geometry and a laser rod temperature drift. Laser behavior is subject to qualitative changes if its optical elements exhibit nonlinear properties. The action of a saturable absorber, which leads to a loss of laser stability and provides passive Q-modulation, is investigated. To a much lesser degree the researchers' attention has been attracted by other nonlinear effects such as self-focusing, e.g., which may have a strong influence on laser dynamics. All of these issues are covered in Chapter 7. The book is intended for researchers, engineers, graduate and post-graduate students majoring in quantum electronics.
254 6.2.3 Excited State Dynamics and Charge Photogeneration........ 255 6.3
Polymer Laser Dynamics..................................................................... 260 6.3.1
Modeling. ... 260 6.3.2 Laser Dynamics, Temporal and Spectral Characterization
Author: Zeev Valy Vardeny
Publisher: CRC Press
Spurred on by extensive research in recent years, organic semiconductors are now used in an array of areas, such as organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), photovoltaics, and other optoelectronics. In all of these novel applications, the photoexcitations in organic semiconductors play a vital role. Exploring the early stages of photoexcitations that follow photon absorption, Ultrafast Dynamics and Laser Action of Organic Semiconductors presents the latest research investigations on photoexcitation ultrafast dynamics and laser action in pi-conjugated polymer films, solutions, and microcavities. In the first few chapters, the book examines the interplay of charge (polarons) and neutral (excitons) photoexcitations in pi-conjugated polymers, oligomers, and molecular crystals in the time domain of 100 fs–2 ns. Summarizing the state of the art in lasing, the final chapters introduce the phenomenon of laser action in organics and cover the latest optoelectronic applications that use lasing based on a variety of cavities, such as distributed feedback-type cavity. With contributions from a host of renowned international experts, this book explores the underlying processes in both existing and potential organic optoelectronic applications. It provides a broad overview of the scientific debate in the field of photophysics in organic semiconductors.
This model is used to identify the key aspects of charge-carrier dynamics that
determine the unique features of quantum-dot laser dynamics. Analytical
expressions for the relaxation oscillation damping and frequency in the limits of
slow and ...
Author: Benjamin Lingnau
Category: Technology & Engineering
This thesis sheds light on the unique dynamics of optoelectronic devices based on semiconductor quantum-dots. The complex scattering processes involved in filling the optically active quantum-dot states and the presence of charge-carrier nonequilibrium conditions are identified as sources for the distinct dynamical behavior of quantum-dot based devices. Comprehensive theoretical models, which allow for an accurate description of such devices, are presented and applied to recent experimental observations. The low sensitivity of quantum-dot lasers to optical perturbations is directly attributed to their unique charge-carrier dynamics and amplitude-phase-coupling, which is found not to be accurately described by conventional approaches. The potential of quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers for novel applications such as simultaneous multi-state amplification, ultra-wide wavelength conversion, and coherent pulse shaping is investigated. The scattering mechanisms and the unique electronic structure of semiconductor quantum-dots are found to make such devices prime candidates for the implementation of next-generation optoelectronic applications, which could significantly simplify optical telecommunication networks and open up novel high-speed data transmission schemes.
B 78(3), 035316 (2008). doi:10.1103/physrevb.78.035316 K. Lüdge, E. Schöll,
Nonlinear dynamics of doped semiconductor quantum dot lasers. Eur. Phys. J. D
58(1), 167–174 (2010) K. Lüdge, Chapter 1: Nonlinear laser dynamics: From ...
Author: Christian Otto
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This thesis deals with the dynamics of state-of-the-art nanophotonic semiconductor structures, providing essential information on fundamental aspects of nonlinear dynamical systems on the one hand, and technological applications in modern telecommunication on the other. Three different complex laser structures are considered in detail: (i) a quantum-dot-based semiconductor laser under optical injection from a master laser, (ii) a quantum-dot laser with optical feedback from an external resonator, and (iii) a passively mode-locked quantum-well semiconductor laser with saturable absorber under optical feedback from an external resonator. Using a broad spectrum of methods, both numerical and analytical, this work achieves new fundamental insights into the interplay of microscopically based nonlinear laser dynamics and optical perturbations by delayed feedback and injection.
2002). 5. F.Y. Lin and J.M. Liu, “Chaotic radar using nonlinear laser dynamics,”
IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 815–820 (2004). 6. F.Y. Lin and J.M. Liu, “Chaotic
lidar using laser chaos,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 991–997 (2004)
Author: Visarath In
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Category: Technology & Engineering
The ?eld of applied nonlinear dynamics has attracted scientists and engineers across many different disciplines to develop innovative ideas and methods to study c- plex behavior exhibited by relatively simple systems. Examples include: population dynamics, ?uidization processes, applied optics, stochastic resonance, ?ocking and ?ightformations,lasers,andmechanicalandelectricaloscillators. Acommontheme among these and many other examples is the underlying universal laws of nonl- ear science that govern the behavior, in space and time, of a given system. These laws are universal in the sense that they transcend the model-speci?c features of a system and so they can be readily applied to explain and predict the behavior of a wide ranging phenomena, natural and arti?cial ones. Thus the emphasis in the past decades has been in explaining nonlinear phenomena with signi?cantly less att- tion paid to exploiting the rich behavior of nonlinear systems to design and fabricate new devices that can operate more ef?ciently. Recently, there has been a series of meetings on topics such as Experimental Chaos, Neural Coding, and Stochastic Resonance, which have brought together many researchers in the ?eld of nonlinear dynamics to discuss, mainly, theoretical ideas that may have the potential for further implementation. In contrast, the goal of the 2007 ICAND (International Conference on Applied Nonlinear Dynamics) was focused more sharply on the implementation of theoretical ideas into actual - vices and systems.
Bridging the gap between laser physics and applied mathematics, this book offers a new perspective on laser dynamics.
Author: Thomas Erneux
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Bridging the gap between laser physics and applied mathematics, this book offers a new perspective on laser dynamics. Combining fresh treatments of classic problems with up-to-date research, asymptotic techniques appropriate for nonlinear dynamical systems are shown to offer a powerful alternative to numerical simulations. The combined analytical and experimental description of dynamical instabilities provides a clear derivation of physical formulae and an evaluation of their significance. Starting with the observation of different time scales of an operating laser, the book develops approximation techniques to systematically explore their effects. Laser dynamical regimes are introduced at different levels of complexity, from standard turn-on experiments to stiff, chaotic, spontaneous or driven pulsations. Particular attention is given to quantitative comparisons between experiments and theory. The book broadens the range of analytical tools available to laser physicists and provides applied mathematicians with problems of practical interest, making it invaluable for graduate students and researchers.
This book brings a distinctive overview of these topics and addresses both experiment and theory. The book combines recent results on the modelling of nanostructured devices, e.g.
Author: Kathy L?dge
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
A distinctive discussion of the nonlinear dynamical phenomena of semiconductor lasers. The book combines recent results of quantum dot laser modeling with mathematical details and an analytic understanding of nonlinear phenomena in semiconductor lasers and points out possible applications of lasers in cryptography and chaos control. This interdisciplinary approach makes it a unique and powerful source of knowledge for anyone intending to contribute to this field of research. By presenting both experimental and theoretical results, the distinguished authors consider solitary lasers with nano-structured material, as well as integrated devices with complex feedback sections. In so doing, they address such topics as the bifurcation theory of systems with time delay, analysis of chaotic dynamics, and the modeling of quantum transport. They also address chaos-based cryptography as an example of the technical application of highly nonlinear laser systems.
In the temporal domain , this behaviour may be chaotic , e . g . dynamics of a
single - mode laser which obeys the Lorenz model . In spatially - extended (
multimode ) systems the spatial behaviour is as important as the temporal
Special emphasis is placed on the problems of the low-frequency dynamics of multimode lasers. This book is aimed at experts in the fields of quantum electronics and laser physics.
Author: I͡Akov Izrailevich Khanin
Publisher: Cambridge Int Science Publishing
The book explores the current state of laser dynamics and provides reference data and basic experimental facts for old- and new-generation lasers. The most frequently used mathematical models are presented. The author discusses the reasons for the spontaneous occurrence of pulsation of the intensity of radiation of solid-state lasers and the influence of the non-stationary nature of laser elements on lasing characteristics. Special emphasis is placed on the problems of the low-frequency dynamics of multimode lasers. This book is aimed at experts in the fields of quantum electronics and laser physics.
Author: Alexander N. PisarchikPublish On: 2008-01-01
Special attention in the book is given to experimental applications of different control methods and synchronization phenomena in different laser systems. Editing this book has been a rewarding experience for me.
Author: Alexander N. Pisarchik
Category: Chaotic behavior in systems
After the first time chaos could be controlled, for the last quarter of century, a diversity of publications have been devoted to the development of new control schemes and their applications to different laser systems. This book assembles several review papers which analyze and describe the most important achievements in controlling laser dynamics and synchronization of laser systems. The papers report a variety of interesting dynamical phenomena encountered in different types of lasers and related to control techniques. For the last 20 years laser physics and nonlinear dynamics have undergone a crucial progress. Understanding lasers as dynamical systems involves concepts associated mostly with the nonlinear nature of these systems. Since the appearance of the pioneering work of E. Ott, C. Grebogi and J. A. Yorke in 1990, who proposed a method for controlling chaos, active attempts for applying this method and other control methods to laser systems have been conducted. Many research works were directed not only to the observation and identification of dynamical regimes in lasers, but also to control laser dynamics and chaos. Considerable progress has been made in research and development of semiconductor and fiber lasers. The special interest these lasers stir up is explained by their easy operation, small size, low price, and, of course, their successful application in communications. However, in spite of the huge progress in laser physics and nonlinear dynamics, only few reviews have been devoted to this topic. The book has an interdisciplinary character because the topic of this book is a great mixture of four big areas of science: laser physics, nonlinear dynamics, control theory, and synchronization. Each area was developed independently till the first nonlinear control of laser dynamics has been realized. The aim of this book is to address a broad readership: students, researchers, engineers, technicians, who work with lasers, as well as scientists conducting interdisciplinary research; it is intended for both theoreticians and experimentalists. The intention of this book is to give the reader a good understanding of nonlinear laser dynamics, not only in one specific type of laser but rather in many different types of lasers, as each control method or coupling is introduced. Four chapters of the book are devoted to laser dynamics control and describe the most important achievements of the last two decades in this topic. These chapters review already classical and relatively new results on stabilizing unstable periodic orbits in chaotic lasers and other control methods providing the reader with an extensive bibliography. The book also contains four chapters devoted to synchronization of coupled lasers. Special attention in the book is given to experimental applications of different control methods and synchronization phenomena in different laser systems. Editing this book has been a rewarding experience for me. Since 1979, I have been associated with lasers, beginning as a postgraduate student at the Institute of Physics of the Belarus Academy of Sciences in Minsk when I helped build a CO2 laser for a research project under Professor Vladimir V. Churakov direction. He was the first person to instil in me an enthusiasm for optics and light. I then was very fortunate to do my thesis work under supervision of Academician of the Byelorussian Academy of Sciences Boris Ivanovich Stepanov, who encouraged me to reduce ideas to simple concepts. Being very diligent, he nonetheless, also was a cheery person. He used to say that a real scientist has to work more than 24 hours per day, write monographs and must never stay too much time in one research area, but should change direction from time to time. I also thank Dr. Boris F. Kuntsevich for helping me to understand the fundamental theory of laser oscillations. At that time, in the late 70s - early 80s, since there were no personal computers we had to search for analytical solutions of laser equations. This was a good exercise to learn the foundation of laser physics. I am grateful to my colleagues Drs. Vladimir O. Petukhov and Ivan M. Bertel, who played a key role in my experimental practice helping me to install and equip my first experimental setup. Being a part of a stimulating group of young researchers at the Laboratory of General Spectroscopy during the growth of the field of laser spectroscopy was an unparalleled opportunity. We built CO2 lasers and tried to stabilize them for spectroscopy applications. For a long period of time Dr. Viacheslav N. Chizhevsky and I worked together, he got me involved in the world of chaos and helped me take my first steps into numerical simulations with MATLAB; together we carried out many experiments with CO2 lasers. He shared his ideas with me and I deeply appreciate all our fruitful discussions. Back then, we thought (about) laser was a stable device and treated any instabilities and chaos as a consequence of mechanical vibrations or bad alignment. It was only in 1964 that the Russian physicists A. Z. Grazyuk and A. N. Oraevskii found in numerical studies of the equations describing a simplest (homogeneously broadened, single-mode, traveling wave, resonantly tuned) laser, a time-dependent solution that consisted of pulses, varying irregularly with time. They even used at that time the term chaotic to describe this irregular pulsing behavior. Laser dynamics stagnated in a rudimentary state for more than one decade until in 1975, when the German theoretical physicist G. Haken concluded, from the isomorphy of a laser with Lorenz equations, that lasers could exhibit a non-periodic, pulsing emission, that is a chaotic emission. Even though, in the early 80s we did not believe that the Lorenz-Haken instability was inherent to real laser systems; thinking it was only an academic curiosity invented by theoreticians far removed from the daily reality of experimental laser physics, nonlinear laser dynamics was born and in 1982 after the first clear experimental evidence of laser chaos, was baptized by F. T. Arecchi These results, sharpening the perception of lasers as unstable systems, were then followed by a large number of experimental and theoretical investigations. Many researchers tried to exploit the new acquired knowledge of laser dynamics in some applications. Even though, the principal aim was still focused on avoiding instabilities to obtain a stable laser emission. Curiously, we had observed chaos in a bidirectional ring CO2 laser long before it was discovered by Prof. Arecchi's group. However, we did not pay serious attention to these findings, thinking it was the same chaotic behavior that had been previously observed in solid-state lasers. Moreover, we could not even publish our results in public scientific journals because in the Soviet Union of the 80's, during the period of Cold War, laser subjects were classified as top secret and not even the word laser was allowed to be used in open scientific literature. To evade this ban and get permission to publish our results, we had to replace the word laser by synonym words optical quantum generator . Many scientists who dealt with lasers were not allowed to go abroad and participate in international conferences. I was mainly a laser experimentalist until 1997, when I went to Canada with my own means to participate in the Summer School on Nonlinear Dynamics in Biology and Medicine organized by Leon Glass and Michael C. Mackey at McGill University in Montreal, where we took very useful lectures and practical exercises on theoretical modeling of physiological systems. Thanks to these lectures I came to realize that the world obeys universal dynamical laws, and also discovered for myself that many phenomena observed in lasers are present in a wide class of dynamical systems. This instilled in me the idea that a laser can serve as a very useful instrument to elaborate new methods for controlling nonlinear dynamics and chaos, which can be applied then to other systems, including biological and medical ones. Professor Arecchi and coworkers developed the same idea in their recent works; they do mention such similarity in the first chapter of this book. During the economically difficult period of the perestroika many scientists from the former Soviet Union had to abandon science and either go work for the industry or establish their own business. Some of the science-loving researchers who yet insisted on working at universities and research institutes had to paint roofs and towers or buy and resell things in order to survive. Many of us were looking for a job abroad. I was very fortunate to be invited first in 1992 by Professor Michel Herman from Physical Chemistry Laboratory at the University of Brussels where I spent three months working with dye lasers and fast Fourier spectroscopy. Then, thanks to Professor Ramón Corbalán who invited me to create the Laboratory of Infrared and Far Infrared Lasers at Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona, I spent almost seven years in Spain, where we carried out a series of interesting experiments on laser dynamics control. During that period I was happy to visit other universities and laser laboratories, such as the laboratory of Professor Pierre Glorieux at Université de Lille (France) and Professor Fortunato Tito Arecchi at Institute de Ottica Applicata in Florence (Italy), where we carried out several collaborative experiments with CO2 lasers. I also thank Professor Ari Olafson for the kind hospitality he extended to me in Reykjavik where I spent four unforgivable months in 1996 working at the University of Iceland. Finally, to round out my scientific carrier I was invited to Mexico in 1999 where I presently work as a Research Professor at Centro de Investigaciones en Optica in Leon, Guanajuato. I wish to thank Dr. Vicente Aboites, physicist and philosopher, for his kind invitation. Although the laser technology in Mexico is not yet advanced, the government is making a great effort to help develop national laser science and technology. I thank CONACYT (National Council for Science and Technology) for partial support of the publication of this book through project No. 46973-E, in particular, and research on lasers and applications, in general. Working in the field of lasers and nonlinear dynamics at several different institutions has provided me with a broad perspective that I hope has successfully contributed to the manner in which many of the concepts are presented in this book. I thank all of the authors who contributed to this book and to the reviewers who worked under great time pressure to complete the reviewing process in a relatively short time. I sincerely hope this book will stimulate new discussions and fundamental issues to a deeper level of understanding of laser dynamics and to develop new approaches to control and synchronization of laser systems. The results of this exercise could be also useful on the definition of scientific and technological programs related to this topic.
The laser dynamics will also be covered from the perspective of the theoretical
aspects of quasi - four level lasers , energy transfer and modeling . With regards
to laser performance , emphasis will be placed on diode pumped Tm : Ho co ...
4 Laser Dynamics - Experiments As the conditions for chaotic dynamics seemed
to be out of reach for lasers on the one hand , fluid turbulence on the other hand
being notoriously difficult to treat theoretically due to boundary layer dynamics ...
I. KHANIN Institute of Applied Physics , Academy of Sciences of the USSR , 46
Ulyanov Street , 603 600 Gorky , USSR ( Received January 8 , 1990 ) Essential
achievements in the laser dynamics in the last decade are based on the general
General physics, solid state physics, applied physics.