Landscape Ecology in Theory and Practice

Pattern and Process

Author: Monica G. Turner,Robert H. Gardner,Robert V. O'Neill

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387216944

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 406

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An ideal text for students taking a course in landscape ecology. The book has been written by very well-known practitioners and pioneers in the new field of ecological analysis. Landscape ecology has emerged during the past two decades as a new and exciting level of ecological study. Environmental problems such as global climate change, land use change, habitat fragmentation and loss of biodiversity have required ecologists to expand their traditional spatial and temporal scales and the widespread availability of remote imagery, geographic information systems, and desk top computing has permitted the development of spatially explicit analyses. In this new text book this new field of landscape ecology is given the first fully integrated treatment suitable for the student. Throughout, the theoretical developments, modeling approaches and results, and empirical data are merged together, so as not to introduce barriers to the synthesis of the various approaches that constitute an effective ecological synthesis. The book also emphasizes selected topic areas in which landscape ecology has made the most contributions to our understanding of ecological processes, as well as identifying areas where its contributions have been limited. Each chapter features questions for discussion as well as recommended reading.
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Principles of Terrestrial Ecosystem Ecology

Author: F. Stuart Chapin, III,Pamela A. Matson,Harold A. Mooney

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387954431

Category: Nature

Page: 436

View: 4029

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Features review questions at the end of each chapter; Includes suggestions for recommended reading; Provides a glossary of ecological terms; Has a wide audience as a textbook for advanced undergraduate students, graduate students and as a reference for practicing scientists from a wide array of disciplines
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Designing Greenways

Sustainable Landscapes for Nature and People, Second Edition

Author: Paul Cawood Hellmund,Daniel Smith

Publisher: Island Press

ISBN: 9781597265959

Category: Architecture

Page: 288

View: 2564

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How are greenways designed? What situations lead to their genesis, and what examples best illustrate their potential for enhancing communities and the environment? Designing greenways is a key to protecting landscapes, allowing wildlife to move freely, and finding appropriate ways to bring people into nature. This book brings together examples from ecology, conservation biology, aquatic ecology, and recreation design to illustrate how greenways function and add value to ecosystems and human communities alike. Encompassing everything from urban trail corridors to river floodplains to wilderness-like linkages, greenways preserve or improve the integrity of the landscape, not only by stemming the loss of natural features, but also by engendering new natural and social functions. From 19th-century parks and parkways to projects still on the drawing boards, Designing Greenways is a fascinating introduction to the possibilities-and pitfalls-involved in these ambitious projects. As towns and cities look to greenways as a new way of reconciling man and nature, designers and planners will look to Designing Greenways as an invaluable compendium of best practices.
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Ecology, Cognition and Landscape

Linking Natural and Social Systems

Author: Almo Farina

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9048131375

Category: Science

Page: 161

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It is more and more evident that our living system is completely disturbed by human intrusion. Such intrusion affects the functioning of entire systems in ways we do not yet fully understand. We use paradigms such as the disturbance to cover large and deep gaps in our scienti?c knowledge. Human ecology is an uncertain terrain for anthropologists, geographers, and ecologists and rarely is expanded to include the social and economic realms. The integration of different disciplines and the application of their many paradigms to problems of environmental complexity remains a distant goal despite the many efforts that have been made to achieve it. Philosophical and semantic barriers are erected when such integration is pursued by pioneering scientists. Recently, evolutionary ecology has shown great interest in the spatial processes well described by the emerging discipline of landscape ecology. But this interest takes the form of pure curiosity or at worst, of skepticism toward the real capacity of landscape ecology to contribute to the advancement of ecological science. The past two centuries have been characterized by huge changes occurring in the entire ecosphere. Global changes are the effects of human intervention at a planetary scale, with consequent degradation of the environment creating an e- logical debt for future generations. On the other side of the issue, new technologies have improved the welfare of billions of people and have given hope to many other billions that they may also see such improvement in the near future.
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Discontinuities in Ecosystems and Other Complex Systems

Author: Craig R. Allen,C. S. Holling

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231516827

Category: Science

Page: 288

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Following the publication of C. S. Holling's seminal work on the relationship between animal body mass patterns and scale-specific landscape structure, ecologists began to explore the theoretical and applied consequences of discontinuities in ecosystems and other complex systems. Are ecosystems and their components continuously distributed and do they adhere to scaling laws, or are they discontinuous and more complex than early models would have us believe? The resulting propositions over the structure of complex systems sparked an ongoing debate regarding the mechanisms generating discontinuities and the statistical methods used for their detection. This volume takes the view that ecosystems and other complex systems are inherently discontinuous and that such fields as ecology, economics, and urban studies greatly benefit from this paradigm shift. Contributors present evidence of the ubiquity of discontinuous distributions in ecological and social systems and how their analysis provides insight into complex phenomena. The book is divided into three sections. The first focuses on background material and contrasting views concerning the discontinuous organization of complex systems. The second discusses discontinuous patterns detected in a number of different systems and methods for detecting them, and the third touches on the potential significance of discontinuities in complex systems. Science is still dominated by a focus on power laws, but the contributors to this volume are convinced power laws often mask the interesting dynamics of systems and that those dynamics are best revealed by investigating deviations from assumed power law distributions. In 2008, a grand conference on resilience was held in Stockholm, hosting 600 participants from around the world. There are now three big centers established with resilience, the most recent one being the Stockholm Resilience Center, with others in Australia (an international coral reef center), Arizona State University's new sustainability center focusing on anthropology, and Canada's emerging social sciences and resilience center. Activity continues to flourish in Alaska, South Africa, and the Untied Kingdom, and a new center is forming in Uruguay.
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Learning Landscape Ecology

A Practical Guide to Concepts and Techniques

Author: Sarah E. Gergel,Monica Goigel Turner

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387952543

Category: Nature

Page: 316

View: 9732

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Landscape ecology continues to grow as an exciting, dynamic ecological d- cipline. With its broadscale emphasis and multidisciplinary approach, la- scape ecology lends itself both to basic research and to applications in land management, land-use planning, wildlife management, ecosystem mana- ment, and conservation biology. Landscape ecology makes a unique cont- bution to the scientific community in its attention to ecological dynamics across a broad range of spatial and temporal scales, and as a result it has - come increasingly important for students in the natural sciences to gain a - sic understanding of the subject. Colleges and universities across the United States are incorporating courses in landscape ecology into their curricula. However, nearly every book on landscape ecology is a book to be read, la- ing a hands-on approach. This text is intended to fill that void by providing a comprehensive collection of landscape ecology laboratory exercises. These teaching exercises stress the fundamental concepts of landscape ec- ogy, rather than highly specialized, technical methods. While students will gain experience using a variety of tools commonly used in landscape ecology, we stress the conceptual understanding necessary to use these techniques app- priately. This book attempts to convey the myriad approaches used by la- scape ecologists (as well as a multitude of approaches to teaching) and include group discussion, thought problems, fieldwork, data analysis, spatial data c- lection, exposure to Geographic Information Systems (GIS), simulation m- eling, analysis of landscape metrics, spatial statistics, and written exercises.
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Ecological Risk Assessment

Author: Glenn W. Suter II

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780873718752

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 560

View: 3320

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Recently, environmental scientists have been required to perform a new type of assessment-ecological risk assessment. This is the first book that explains how to perform ecological risk assessments and gives assessors access to the full range of useful data, models, and conceptual approaches they need to perform an accurate assessment. It explains how ecological risk assessment relates to more familiar types of assessments. It also shows how to organize and conduct an ecological risk assessment, including defining the source, selecting endpoints, describing the relevant features of the receiving environment, estimating exposure, estimating effects, characterizing the risks, and interacting with the risk manager. Specific technical topics include finding and selecting toxicity data; statistical and mathematical models of effects on organisms, populations, and ecosystems; estimation of chemical fate parameters; modeling of chemical transport and fate; estimation of chemical uptake by organisms; and estimation, propagation, and presentation of uncertainty. Ecological Risk Assessment also covers conventional risk assessments, risk assessments for existing contamination, large scale problems, exotic organisms, and risk assessments based on environmental monitoring. Environmental assessors at regulatory agencies, consulting firms, industry, and government labs need this book for its approaches and methods for ecological risk assessment. Professors in ecology and other environmental sciences will find the book's practical preparation useful for classroom instruction. Environmental toxicologists and chemists will appreciate the discussion of the utility for risk assessment of particular toxicity tests and chemical determinations.
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Biodiversity and Insect Pests

Key Issues for Sustainable Management

Author: Geoff M. Gurr,Stephen D. Wratten,William E. Snyder

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118231856

Category: Science

Page: 368

View: 2366

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Biodiversity offers great potential for managing insect pests. Itprovides resistance genes and anti-insect compounds; a huge rangeof predatory and parasitic natural enemies of pests; and communityecology-level effects operating at the local and landscape scalesto check pest build-up. This book brings together world leaders intheoretical, methodological and applied aspects to provide acomprehensive treatment of this fast-moving field. Chapter authors from Europe, Asia, Africa, Australasia and theAmericas ensure a truly international scope. Topics range fromscientific principles, innovative research methods, ecologicaleconomics and effective communication to farmers, as well as casestudies of successful use of biodiversity-based pest managementsome of which extend over millions of hectares or are enshrined asgovernment policy. Written to be accessible to advanced undergraduates whilst alsostimulating the seasoned researcher, this work will help unlock thepower of biodiversity to deliver sustainable insect pestmanagement. Visit spanstyle="font-family: "Calibri","sans-serif"; font-size: 11pt; mso-fareast-font-family: SimSun; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-fareast; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-CN; mso-bidi-language: TH;"www.wiley.com/go/gurr/biodiversity toaccess the artwork from the book./span
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Holism and Evolution

Author: J. C. Smuts

Publisher: Kessinger Publishing

ISBN: 9781428623286

Category: Philosophy

Page: 372

View: 5515

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This scarce antiquarian book is a facsimile reprint of the original. Due to its age, it may contain imperfections such as marks, notations, marginalia and flawed pages. Because we believe this work is culturally important, we have made it available as part of our commitment for protecting, preserving, and promoting the world's literature in affordable, high quality, modern editions that are true to the original work.
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